Contributing to the Smart City Through Linked Library Data


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Two research projects of preparing and consuming Linked Open Data (LOD)

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  • 发现、确认、选择、获得
  • image credit: Data SourcesBy Jesus Torres | January 8th, 2010,
  • image credit: Data SourcesBy Jesus Torres | January 8th, 2010,
  • (arrow in orange)3. What metadata standards should be used for preparing LOD-ready metadata? LODE-BD has selected a number of well-accepted and widely-used metadata vocabularies and used their metadata terms in the recommendations. Like dc, dcterms, bibo, agmes…. New metadata standards can be added on the list in the future depending on the needs on the Linked Open Data Community.(arrow in green)4. What metadata terms are appropriate in any given property for publishing LOD-ready metadata based on a local database?  Metadata terms from the DCMES (dc:) and DCMI Metadata Terms (dcterms:) namespaces are the fundamentals in the LODE-BD Recommendations, while metadata terms from other namespaces are supplemented when additional needs are to be satisfied. LODE-BD has prepared a crosswalk table where all metadata terms used in the Recommendations are included. 
  • image credit: Data SourcesBy Jesus Torres | January 8th, 2010,
  • Image credit: #1, painting. Change Meditation. credit #2, Communication.
  • DESCRIPTION: Three hares are chasing one another in an everlasting circle. They share between them only three ears which form a triangle in the center of the design, yet each animal has two ears.
  • Contributing to the Smart City Through Linked Library Data

    1. 1. Contributing to the Smart City through Linked Library Data 关联的图书馆数据 为智慧城市做贡献 Marcia Lei Zeng 曾蕾 Kent State University 肯特州立大学 USA 美国 Shanghai International Library Forum (SILF 2012), July 17-19, Shanghai 第六届上海国际图书馆论坛
    2. 2. Why Linked Library Data 为什么are related to “智慧城和图书馆服务”"smart city & library services"? 与图书馆关联数据相关? Major cities (e.g., Shanghai, Wuhan, Lanzhou, Chongqing) have not only city libraries but also sci/tech information centers, either as independent services or affiliated with research institutions. 各大城市(上海、武汉、兰州、重庆等)除了有市图书馆外, 还有大型情报所或研究所里的情报所。 Major cities have many small museums, cultural heritage collections, and archives. 很多城市都有很多小型博物馆、文化 遗产特藏、档案资料等。Bibliographic data in the scattered digitalrepositories or local databases can beaggregated and integrated with library data.分散独立的数字仓储或数据库中的文献数据能够与图书馆数据集成、整合到一起。
    3. 3. Library data have been limited to serve the find, identify, select, and obtain functions. 图书馆数据一直局限于发现、确认、选择、 获得的功能。 There are many hidden access points that can bring in much richer information and knowledge through library data. 在图书馆数据中存在很多隐藏的获取点, 通过它们应该能带进更加丰富的信息和知 识。Library data can be enriched through consuming thedata available in the LOD universe, providing muchmore information and knowledge to library users.图书馆数据可以通过对已有关联开放数据的消费得到丰富、为图书馆用户提供更多有用的信息和知识。
    4. 4. Outline 发言大纲Two research projects of preparing andconsuming Linked Open Data (LOD):两个有关关联数据的项目: 1. Unifying metadata from diverse non-library repositories and preparing Linked Open Data (LOD)- enabled bibliographic data (LODE-BD) 将源于非图书馆的数字仓储的元数据资源转变为兼容的整合的 可关联文献数据 2. Connecting library data to the unfamiliar data and metadata resources in the LOD Universe 连接图书馆数据与外界的开放关联数据(LOD)资源
    5. 5. 1. LODE-BD Recommendations -- Report on how to select appropriate encoding strategies for producingLinked Open Data (LOD)–Enabled Bibliographic Data可关联文献数据 (LODE-BD) 编码策略选择建议Prepared by Imma Subirats Marcia Zeng
    6. 6. Situation: There are many non-library repositories. 很多非图书馆仓储作为数据提供者或者服务提供者
    7. 7. Questions from the data providers:To make local data into a Linked Data dataset --- What metadata standard(s) to follow? What is the minimal set of properties to include to insure meaningful data sharing? Is there any metadata model or application profile for my data? What data values to provide – plain text string or Unified Resource Identifier (URI)? How to encode our data in order to move from a local database to a Linked Data dataset?为了将内部数据做成关联数据集,数据提供者面临众多问题:元数据标准、最起码特征描述词汇、概念模型、 应用纲要、数据值类型、编码等等
    8. 8. Analyzing various Data Dictionaries 各数据定义格式& Sample Records &数据记录分析 Example: <Responsible Body>- related data fields
    9. 9. Sorting out entities and relationships -- The conceptual model 实体对象和相关关系-概念模型 About… Resource Agent
    10. 10. Clustering Properties into 9 chunks 将所有属性归纳到九个组 OnceOnce or many 0 or once 0 or many
    11. 11. LODE-BD GroupsLODE-BD九大组属性和关系1. Title Information2. Responsible Body3. Physical Characteristics4. Location5. Subject6. Description of content7. Intellectual property8. Usage9. Relation betweendocuments / agents推荐一套最起码的、有描述和交流意义的文献元数据的属性和编码词汇
    12. 12. Walking through the LODE-BD decision trees, one by one. 18个决策流程图, 针对每个属性 (property)
    13. 13. 每个决策流程图提供具体步骤和实例
    14. 14. Implementation Options LODE-BD approach in m 可选择的实施方案 Alternative #1, "Design-time" strategy: go back and change your current ad-hoc model to use the LODE “good practices” model. = > This means some changes to your database and the services that access it. 方法#1,从根本上改变内部数据结构 -“设计时”策略 Alternative #2, "Run-time" strategy: you convert on the fly to a “good-practices” model upon request and leave your ad-hoc model unchanged. => This means adding a conversion service. 方法#2,只在需要输出时才转换成推荐格式 -“需要时”策略
    15. 15. Data Output Options 数据输出选择方式:元数据记录/RDF描述 Records 记录 search & browseMy data Metadata Repository RDF graphs RDF 描述 RDF graphs RDF描述 LOD
    16. 16. 2. Connecting library data to the unfamiliardata and metadata resources in the LODUniverse-- The Metadata Vocabulary Junction Project 2。连接图书馆数据与外界开放关联数据资源 -元数据词汇枢纽站项目 National Leadership Grants support projects that address challenges faced by the museum, library, and/or archive fields and that have the potential to advance practice in those fields.
    17. 17. 3865 datasets (as of July 3,2012)Project purpose: LOD is one of To connect library, archive, and museum the groups in (LAM) data to the unfamiliar datasets CKAN available in the Linked Data (LD) community’s CKAN Data Hub.项目目的:连接图书馆、档案馆、博物馆(LAM)数据与CKAN数据中心的开放关联数据资源
    18. 18. 例:音乐相关的 Example: Music-focused study数据 (1) -- Data collection and analysis (1)LOD数据集: LOD Datasets: Identify music-related datasets Analyze the source of the data structures Ontologies used (e.g., Music Ontology, Similarity Ontology, Event Ontology, Programmes Ontology, etc.) Metadata schemas and application profiles (e.g., BBC Music Schema and derivatives) Structured data in XML/RDF samples Documentation Crosswalk their properties, indicating the matching level (e.g., broadMatch, equivelent, narrowMatch, etc.) Identify major classes and properties useful to library data有哪些数据集?它们采用了什 (e.g., mo:MusicArtist, rev:Review, mo:Performance,么样的本体、元数据表、数据 mo:performer, cc:license , dc:title, foaf:primaryTopic, etc.)结构?产生匹配表。分析对图书馆数据有用的实体类和属性。
    19. 19. Example: Music-focused study 例:音乐相关的-- Data collection and analysis (2) 数据 (2) 图书馆数据:LAM data from:1. Library MARC sample records 图书馆马克记录 Classical/Instrumental Jazz Musical and Opera Pop/Rock Soundtrack2. Their markup in Break down the records and find: the WorldCat WorldCat记录的schema置标 • Common elements 常见元素3. Digital collections metadata • Possibility of linking to LOD structure properties 数字图书馆和数字特藏的元数 哪些相关节点可能与LOD属性词汇 据 联接 20 digital collections from national libraries, academic libraries, achieves • Major access points More types (e.g., sheet music) 主要获取途径 • Hidden access points 隐藏着的可获取途径
    20. 20. Aligning Library data and LOD data constructs 将图书馆数据与LOD数据结果相比较、匹配LAM data:图情档博数据: LOD Datasets: LOD数据集 Library bibliographic records 图书馆文献数据 Ontologies 本体 MARC records 马克记录 Metadata Application markup -schema置标 Digital collection metadata Profiles 元数据应用纲要 数字特藏/数字图书馆元数据 Structured data in XML/RDF Dublin Core-based 基于DC的 samples 样本数据格式 Other locally defined 其它本地格式 Archival descriptions 档案描述 Documentations 相关文献 EAD, MARC, other Museum and Visual Resources object descriptions 博物馆实物描述 VRA Core, other
    21. 21.
    22. 22. Conclusions 结语The technological groundwork has already been laid forlibraries and their users to benefit from Linked Data.当前技术已经为图书馆及用户受益于关联数据奠定了基础 What we need now: 目前需要的是: the intellectual preparation to support the discovery and reuse of LOD datasets appropriately and effectively 精神上的准备:怎样合理有效发现和再利用 the practical tools to facilitate such activities. 实际可用的工具 What we can do: 我们可以做的事: Use existing library data as a bridge to enhance information and knowledge services within the libraries and beyond, thus to contribute to the building of a smart city. 以现有图书馆数据为桥梁来增强图书馆信息机构的信息与知识服务 机制,以此为共建智慧城市而做出贡献。
    23. 23. The Three Hares 三兔图589-618 AD (Sui dynasty) 隋代 (公园589-618)Cave 407, Mogao Caves, China 敦煌莫高窟第407窟藻井UNESCO World Heritage Site UNESCO世界遗产名录INSPIRING CONCEPTS: sharing; interoperability; linking
    24. 24. Acknowledgement LODE-DBCo-author: Imma Subirats, FAO ofthe United Nation IMLS Leadership GrantFunding: Partially through Team:European Commission ICT PSP Co-P.I. Karen Gracy, Ph.D.Grant #250525 for VOA3R (VirtualOpen Access Agriculture & Research AssistantsAquaculture Repository: Sharing Laurence Skirvin, M.L.S.Scientific and Scholarly Research Sammy Davidson, M.L.S.related to Agriculture, Food, and Shadi ShakeriEnvironment). Riley Stoermer, M.L.S.FAO AIMS team and expert