Hard water

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Hard water

  1. 1. The "War over Water" also the Battle over Water refers to a series of confrontations between Israel and its Arab neighbors from November 1964 to May 1967 over control of available water sources in the Jordan River drainage basin. The 1949 Armistice Agreements which followed the 1948 Arab– Israeli War, created three Demilitarized zones on the Israel-Syria border. The southernmost, and also the largest of stretched from the south-eastern part of the Sea of Galilee eastwards to the Yarmuk River where the borders of Israel, Jordan and Syria converged, The issue of sharing the waters of the Jordan–Yarmuk system between Israel, Syria and Jordan turned out to be a major problem. In July 1953, Israel began construction of the intake of its National Water Carrier at the Daughters of Jacob Jordan Bridge north of the Sea of Galilee and in the demilitarized zone.
  2. 2. ACWA released a major policy document on groundwater management in April 2011. The document, “Sustainability from the Ground Up: A Framework for Groundwater Management in California,” provides an indepth look at current efforts to manage groundwater basins in California and recommends proactive steps to advance sustainable management. Following the release of the Framework, an implementation subcommittee started working on an action plan for 2012‐'13. The final plan, completed in January 2012, includes two elements: (1) a matrix of each recommendation in the Framework with status and timeline for action, and (2) a narrative document, which expands upon several areas that will be the focus for 2012‐2013.
  3. 3. Groundwater sustainability relates to the development and use of groundwater to meet current and future purposes without causing unacceptable consequences. Find out about the factors that contribute to local, regional, or state-wide groundwater, shortages, the strategies that can be implemented to promote a sustainable groundwater supply, and what resources or tools are needed to implement these strategies successfully.
  4. 4. Water supply managers in 36 states expected state-wide, regional, or local freshwater shortages between 2003 and 2013 even under normal conditions. Given the importance of groundwater to the nation and the anticipated water shortages, the Association of American State Geologists, Ground Water Protection Council, Interstate Council on Water Policy, and NGWA undertook, in 2007, he National Ground Water Association has been working with the Association of American State Geologists, the Ground Water Protection Council, and the Interstate Council on Ground Water Policy to gather information to build a national picture of groundwater monitoring. We have concluded the compilation of responses to the Joint State Ground Water Quality and Level Monitoring surveys relating to state and regional ambient groundwater.
  5. 5. The Narmada Dam Project, is a project involving the construction of a series of large hydroelectric dams on the Narmada River in India. Sardar Sarovar Project (SSP) is the largest multipurpose project in it. The project was first conceived of in the 1940s by the country's first prime minister, Jawaharlal Nehru. The project only took form in 1979 as part of a development scheme to increase irrigation and produce hydroelectricity. Of the 30 large dams planned on river Narmada, Sardar Sarovar is the largest. With a proposed height of 136.5 m, it's also high on discord between the planners and the Narmada Bachao Andolan.
  6. 6. The Andolan Narmada Bachao Andolan is the voice of hundreds of thousands of indigenous people and peasants who are losing their land and livelihoods to large dams on the Narmada River. The nonviolent satyagraha (insistence on truth) of the displaced people for their rehabilitation has spanned two decades, challenging the centralized development programs and envisioning alternatives. The movement has won policy changes in World Bank and other multilateral funding agencies
  7. 7. With hard water, soap solutions form a white precipitate (soap scum) instead of producing lather, because the 2+ ions destroy the surfactant properties of the soap by forming a solid precipitate (the soap scum). A major component of such scum is calcium stearate, which arises from sodium stearate, the main component of soap: 2 C17H35COO- + Ca2+ → (C17H35COO)2Ca Hard water also forms deposits that clog plumbing. These deposits, called "scale", are composed mainly of calcium carbonate(CaCO3), magnesium hydroxide(Mg(OH)2), and calcium sulfate(CaSO4). Calcium and magnesium carbonates tend to be deposited as off-white solids on the inside surfaces of pipes and heat exchangers
  8. 8. The water that lathers readily with soaps are called soft water. It describes type of water that contain few or no minerals like calcium(Ca) or magnesium(Mg) ions. The term is usually relative to hard water, which does contain significant amounts of such ions. Soft Water mostly comes from peat or igneous rock sources, such as granite but may also come from sandstone sources, since such sedimentary rocks are usually low in calcium and magnesium. However, soft water does have negative side effects and can be bad for the heart. Thus it should be drunk in moderation if at all.

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