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The Evolution of E-Learning Jennifer Lim @mystudiouslife firstname.lastname@example.org
E-Learning• Terms widely used without a standardized meaning• Guri-Rosenblit & Gros (2011) – use of various web applications of technologies esp. in learning environments• Mayes & de Freitas (2004) – use of technology to improve learning experience• Similar terms used: Internet mediated learning, web- based learning, virtual learning, distance learning, online education
Learning Management System (LMS)• E-learning is associated with Learning Management System (LMS) (Raja Maznah, 2004)• LMS widely used in higher education as Course Management System (CMS)• Educators manage coursework content and learners• Learners get course information, lecture notes and submit assignments• LMS is designed to be in educators’ control rather than learners’ control
Different Forms of E-Learning (Adapted from Bates, 2011 with modification)
E-Learning 2.0 & Web 2.0• E-learning evolves with Web 2.0 and has become E- learning 2.0 that utilizes the advantage of Web 2.0 applications in education (Downes, 2005).• Web 2.0 o the platform for the web, where people’s participation and collaboration harness collective intelligence o signifies the end of software cycle as software is delivered as service rather than product o promotes the wisdom of crowds through rich user experience where dynamic websites replace static ones and syndication technology keeps people together
Web 2.0 Applications Category Description Types of Application: ExamplesCollaboration Applications that allow collaborative Wikis: Wikipedia authoring content by multiple partiesCommunication Applications that allow synchronous or Email: Gmail asynchronous interaction between Instant Messaging: MSN Live, Yahoo multiple parties Messenger Peer-to-peer: SkypeRelationship Applications that allow identity and Social network: Facebook, LinkedInmanagement relationship management via social Social citation: Mendeley networkInformation Applications that allow collection or Blog: Blogger, Wordpress publishing or sharing of information and Microblog: Twitter, Plurk facilitating feedback input Media Sharing: Flickr, YouTube Social Bookmarking: Diigo (Amberg et. al., 2009)
Learning Process Categories of Learning Formal Learning Informal Learning ProcessBrowse Lecture notes, presentation slides Blog, wiki, search enginesNetwork Peers and experts (i.e. educators) in Peers and experts (i.e. community of class/institution practice) around the worldCollect Notes, reference books, journal Social bookmarking, RSS, articles, etc. annotations, social citation, etc.Create Written assignments, presentation Blog post, video, presentation slides, slides, artifacts (i.e. program, design, etc. etc.)Communicate Email, bulletin board, face-to-face Microblogging (i.e. Twitter), Skype, discussion etc.Share Presentation among peers in class Media sharing, presentation sharing, or institution social bookmarking, social citation (Amberg et. al., 2009)
Learner Autonomy• Autonomy – taking control of one’s own learning and it’s a combination of direct and indirect observable behaviors during the learning process (Benson, 2007)• Personal autonomy is practiced within the learning process, where learners are actively participating in their daily learning activities• Ability to become self regulated and be responsible for own learning – the more responsible, the higher the motivation in learning (Lin & Overbaugh, 2011)
Pedagogy to Heutagogy (Recreated based on Blaschke, 2012 & Canning, 2010)
References• Amberg, M., Reinhardt, M., Haushahn, M., & Hofmann, P. (2009). Designing an Integrated Web- based Personal Learning Environment based on the Crucial Success Factors of Social Networks. Research, Reflections and Innovations in Integrating ICT in Education, 1, 1075–1080.• Bates, T. (2011). Understanding Web 2.0 and its Implications for E-Learning. Web 2.0-Based E- Learning: Applying Social Informatics for Tertiary Teaching, 21-42.• Benson, P. (2007). Autonomy and its role in learning. International Handbook of English Language Teaching (pp. 733–745). Springer.• Blaschke, L. (2012). Heutagogy and lifelong learning: A review of heutagogical practice and self-determined learning. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 13(1), 56-71.• Canning, N. (2010). Playing with heutagogy: exploring strategies to empower mature learners in higher education. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 34(1), 59-71. doi:10.1080/03098770903477102• Downes, S. (2005). E-Learning 2.0. eLearn Magazine. Retrieved from http://www.elearnmag.org/subpage.cfm?section=articles&article=29-1• Guri-Rosenblit, Sarah, & Gros, B. (2011). E-Learning: Confusing Terminology, Research Gaps and Inherent Challenges. The Journal Of Distance Education / Revue De L’ÉDucation à Distance, 25(1).• Lin, S., & Overbaugh, R. C. (2011). Autonomy of participation and ICT literacy in a self-directed learning environment (SDLE). Quality & Quantity, 1-13. Springer Netherlands. doi:10.1007/s11135- 011-9505-2• Mayes, T., & de Freitas, S. (2004). JISC e-learning models desk study. Retrieved June 27, 2011, from http://www.jisc.org.uk/uploaded_documents/Stage 2 Learning Models (Version 1).pdf• Raja Maznah, R. H. (2004). eLearning in Higher Education Institutions in Malaysia. E- mentor, 5(7), 72-75.
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