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Submitted To : Submitted By:Dr. Sanjay Bhargav Shweta Rathi Roll No. 35
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What is nanocomputing Architectures Moore’s law How nanocomputer works Application of nanocomputing Quantum Mechanics Quantum vs Classical Computing Prospects Of quantum computing Risks in nanocomputing Conclusion
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Nanocomputingdescribes thosecomponants that usesextremely small ornanoscale devices.
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Two forces driving the need for newcircuits design and architectures. Invention of devices and technologies that have completly different physical principles from FET. New processing technologies combining CMOS functions with other functions. 3D IntegrationQuantam Cell AutomataQuantum Computing
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Array of quantum dots. An extension of the CNN concept is that ofquantum-dot cellular automata (QCA). Thisarchitecture uses arrangements of singleelectrons that communicate with each other byCoulomb repulsion over large arrays. The arrangement of electrons at the edgesprovides the computational output. The electronarrangements of QCA are controlled by anexternal clock and operate according to the rulesof Boolean logic.
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Another potential architecture is that of"crossbar switching" in which moleculesare placed at the intersections ofnanometer-scale wires. These moleculesprovide coupling between the wires andprovide computing functionality.
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Physical integrate emerging devices that havedifferent technology. Microprocessors with ASCIs etc. Molecular with plastic,or quantam conductors . CMOS with dissimilar material systemsReduce global inteconnect Enables mixed technology solution.. It is associated with the need to integratedissimilar technologies on a common platform todeliver an optimum info processing solution.
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According to moore’s law,the no of transistors that will fit on a silicon chip doubles every 18 months. Presently microprocessors have more than 40 million transistors; by 2012 they could have up to 5 billions. By the year 2020 the trend line of moore’s law states that there should be a 1 nanometer feature size…..
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Nanocomputer would work by storing data in the form of atomic quantum states or spin..(SEM and quantum dots) There are several methods of nanoelectronic data storage currently being researched.Among the most promising are set electron transistors and quantum dots. All of these devices function based upon the principles of quantum mechanics…
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Quantum devices store info. By using the phase of a quantum wave function c/d a qubit. Qubit are sensitive to external environment Qubits are very small properties being made of atoms,ions,photons or electrons. Can control this entanglement using physical gates. To perform a useful function,we can manipulate wave functions and then read the result. In general quantum 2 state system ,c/d a quantum bit or qubit.
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Quantum computer would be exponentialy faster than modern computer. (e.g. A supercomputer trying to find one phone number in a database of all the worlds phone books would take a month, Chuang says. A quantum computer could do it in 27 minutes.) It would break the most sophisticated code. Its fast enough to do computer simulations for nuclear explosions.
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Quantum computers might prove especially useful in the following applications : Breaking ciphers Statistical analysis Factoring large numbers Solving problems in theoretical physics Solving optimization problems in many variables.
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It requires that the state of qubits be mainted for a long time for a computation to complete. Only few problems have been exhibited for which quntum mechanics offers an advantage.
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Electrons scientists need to develop new circuits to cope with nano circuits working with carbon nanotubes. The transistors will be 100 times smaller than the thickness of human hair. The ultracapacitors produces high heat till today there is no remedy given to cool it.
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Nanobased quantum computers wouldrevolutionize computing and increse theircomputing power tremendously. It covers the underlying physics,reliability and nanoscale quantum,opticaland molecular computing.