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  • 1. TSUNAMI IN INDIA AND TSUNAMI WALLS Dr. A. K. AVASARALA MBBS, M.D. PROFESSOR & HEAD DEPT OF COMMUNITY MEDICINE & EPIDEMIOLOGY PRATHIMA INSTITUTE OF MEDICAL SCIENCES, KARIMNAGAR, A.P.. INDIA : +91 505417 [email_address]
  • 2. LEARNING OBJECTIVES
    • 1) TO KNOW THE DEVASTATING
    • EFFECTS OF TSUNAMI IN INDIA
    • AND DISASTER MANAGEMENT
    • 2) WILL THE CONSTRUCTION OF TSUNAMI WALLS COST- EFFECTIVE FOR SMALL ISLAND COUNTRIES?
  • 3. PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES
    • DISASTER PREPAREDNESS
    • a) SECURING PRE-DISASTER BASE LINE DATA AS QUICKLY AS POSSIBLE
    • b) STUDYING THE EPIDEMIOLOGY OF SIMILAR DISASTERS
    • c) ESTABLISHING SURVEILLANCE CENTRES ENSUING THE COOPERATION OF LOCALS
    • d) MAKING THE LOCALS AWARE OF THE IMPENDING DISASTERS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT
  • 4. HISTORY OF INDIAN TSUNAMIS
    • THE OLDEST RECORD OF TSUNAMI IS AVAILABLE FROM NOVEMBER 326 BC EARTHQUAKE NEAR THE INDUS DELTA/KUTCH REGION.
    • THE EARLIEST RECORD OF TSUNAMI IS REPORTED TO BE ABOUT 1.5 METERS AT CHENNAI (FORMERLY MADRAS) WHICH WAS CREATED DUE TO THE AUGUST 8, 1883 KRAKATOA VOLCANIC EXPLOSION IN INDONESIA.
  • 5. HISTORY OF INDIAN TSUNAMIS
    • AN EARTHQUAKE OF MAGNITUDE 8.25 OCCURRED ABOUT 70 KILOMETERS SOUTH OF KARACHI (PAKISTAN) AT 24.5 N AND 63.0 E ON NOVEMBER 27, 1945.
    • THIS CREATED A LARGE TSUNAMI OF ABOUT 11.0 TO 11.5 METERS HIGH ON THE COASTS OF INDIA IN THE KUTCHCH REGION, AS REPORTED BY PENDSE (1945).
    T. S. Murty, Baird and Associates Coastal Engineers Ottawa, Canada A. Bapat Sadashiv Peth, Puna, India
  • 6. TSUNAMIGENIC COASTAL LINES
    • THE APPROXIMATE LENGTH OF THE INDIAN COAST IS ABOUT 6000 KILOMETERS. THE COASTS RUN FROM NORTH TO SOUTH AND HAVE TWO ARMS IN THE EAST AND WEST WITH A TAPERING END AT KANYAKUMARI.
    • THE TSUNAMIGENIC EARTHQUAKES OCCUR MOSTLY AT THE FOLLOWING THREE LOCATIONS;
    • (1) THE ANDAMAN SEA,
    • (2) AREA ABOUT 400-500 KILOMETERS OF SRI LANKA (CEYLON),
    • (3) THE ARABIAN SEA ABOUT 70-100 KILOMETERS SOUTH OF PAKISTAN COAST -- OFF KARACHI AND BALUCHISTAN.
  • 7. IMPACT OF TSUNAMI IN INDIA
    • Total death toll 9,675
    • Missing persons 6107
    • Tamilnadu 7941
    • Andaman & Nicobar islands 1196
    • Pondichery 583
    • Kerala 170
    • Andhra Pradesh 105
    • (source-Home Ministry-
    • Govt of India as on 08-01-2005)
  • 8. QUESTIONS THAT TSUNAMI ALONE CAN ANSWER WHERE IS MY MUMMY? I AM PARENTLESS!-- A CRYING CHILD WHERE IS MY EARNING SON? -- DEPENDENT OLD PEOPLE! WHERE IS MY EARNING HUSBAND?-- A DESTITUTE! WHERE IS MY HOUSE? -- SHELTERLESS! WHERE IS MY FISHING BOAT? -- FISHERMAN WHO LOST HIS EARNING! WHERE ARE MY AIRFORCE ACADEMY OFFICIALS AT NICOBAR ISLANDS? -- NATION AND THEIR KITH & KIN
  • 9. COASTAL PEOPLE
    • TSUNAMI AFFECTED THE PEOPLE IN INDIAN COAST.
    • FISHERMEN AND OTHER PEOPLE LIVING ON MARINE INDUSTRIES ARE MAXIMUM AFFECTED.
    • MOST OF THEM ARE SIMPLY WASHED AWAY.
    • THEY ARE PANIC STRICKEN NOW TO CONTINUE LIVING ON THE COAST.
  • 10. REHABILITATION OF COASTAL FISHERMEN
    • FISHERMEN ARE APTLY CALLED AS GANGA PUTRAS i.e. SONS OF THE WATER AS THEY EARN THEIR LIVELIHOOD FROM THE SEA.
    • THEY WORSHIP THE SEA AS THEIR MOTHER. THEY DON’T WANT TO LEAVE THE COAST - COME WHAT MAY
    • IT IS VERY DIFFICULT TO EVACUATE THEM.
    • REHABILITATION IS DIFFICULT PROBLEM.
  • 11. WORST AFFECTED TOWNS IN TAMILNADU Nagapattanam & karaikal
    • KARAIKAL TOWN SUFFERS RS 256-CR DAMAGE
    • NAGAPATNAM – 800 PERSONS WERE WASHED AWAY AT THE BEACH.
  • 12. HUMAN LOSS IN NICOBAR ISLANDS
    • 4,657 missing from Katchal island Sridhar K. Chari writes from Port Blair THE latest figures provided by the Integrated Relief Command (IRC) here today reveal that roughly 77 per cent of the 6010 officially declared “missing”, a figure of 4657, are from the island of Katchal in the southern Nicobar group.
  • 13. BRAVE SCENE
    • 10-year old school girl saved many from tsunami
    • Caught in swirling waters, mother makes toughest choice of her life
    CHILDREN WERE MADE HOMELESS SINGLE PARENTED SURVIVING PARENT IS USUALLY A HELPLESS UNEARNIG MOTHER YOUNGEST ORPHAN IS FIVE YEAR OLD ORPHANGES ILL WORKING CHILD TRADE OF TSUNAMI ORPHANS TO CITIES AS CHILD LABOUR AND PROSTITUTION HOUSES Thieves, rapists, kidnappers and hoaxers prey on tsunami victims UGLY SCENE
  • 14. TSUNAMI FEAR
    • UNPRECEDENTED TSUNAMI DISTURBED MOST OF US.
    • HITHERTO WE BELIEVED BEACH RESORTS ARE WORTH HAVING.
    • BUT KNOW PEOPLE ARE AFRAID TO LIVE NEAR THE SEA COAST.
  • 15. WHERE THEY WILL GO? HENCE FEARLESS
    • Remote viewing Andaman - Nicobar tribals refuse to come out from jungles –as per their predictions fresh earthquakes strike the islands Staff reporter January 04, 2005
  • 16. DART - DEEP OCEAN ASSESSMENT AND REPORT SYSTEM
    • KAPIL SIBAL, MINISTER FOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY AND OCEAN DEVELOPMENT HAS SAID THAT -
    • A TSUNAMI WARNING SYSTEM AT A COST OF RS 1250 MILLIONS AND IT WILL BE FULLY FUNCTIONAL IN TWO-AND-HALF YEARS.
  • 17. Tsunami politics in India
    • The minister said: "When the quake hit Indonesia, we had information about it. What we did not have information about was the Tsunami. When there is any information, there is a procedure to be followed. Till the time we have complete confirmation we can't jump the gun. It was the Tsunami which did all the damage and it was not known before hand. So far as this 2002 thing is concerned, there is no information and record in my ministry to this."
  • 18. POOR DFISASTER MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
    • TO A QUESTION, WHY INDIAN SCIENTISTS, DESPITE VARIOUS SCIENTIFIC ACHIEVEMENTS TO THEIR CREDIT, FAILED TO EFFECTIVELY DEAL WITH NATURAL DISASTERS, SIBAL SAID "THERE HAVE BEEN SOME NATURAL PHENOMENON, FOR WHICH SCIENCE HAS NOT BEEN ABLE TO FIND AN ANSWER TILL NOW." P essimism or escapism?
    • SAME LAXITY HAPPENED WITH SUPER CYCLONE IN AT ORISSA, BHOPAL GAS TRAGEDY IN MADHYA PRADESH, DIVI CYCLONE IN ANDHRA PRADESH AND VERY FREQUENT TRAIN DISASTERS.
  • 19. WE HAVE NOT LEANED THE LESSONS
    • TAKE IT FOR GRANTED THAT TSUNAMI CANNOT BE EITHER PREDICTED NOR PREVENTED. IS IT AN EXCUSE? WHETHER IT IS A TSUNAMI OR TIDAL WAVE OR WHATEVER YOU CALL IT , IT IS A HUGE SEA WATER COMING TO SHORE AND CUSING DAMAGE.
    • DON’T WE HAVE SUCH EXPERIENCES IN THE PAST? WHAT ABOUT DIVI CYCLONE IN ANDHRA PRADESH IN 1977 AND SUPERCYCLONE IN ORISSA?
    • STILL WE ARE NOT READY
  • 20. SLOW AND HESITANT ACTION
    • GOVERNMENT NOT SURE OF ANYTHING
    • The Central Indian Government failed to act on time and then panicked all with false warning
    • Balaji Reddy, Special Correspondent December 31, 2004
  • 21. TSUNAMI BUDGET
    • PRESENTLY BUDGET IS 0.9 PER CENT OF THE GDP. IT WOULD BE BROUGHT UP TO TWO PER CENT OF THE GDP. IT IS GOING TO BE DONE SOON.
    • POLITICAL COMMITMENT
    • PRESENT GOVERNMENT WILL SPEND THE
    • REQUIRED MONEY FOR SCIENCE AND FOR
    • PEOPLE'S SECURITY. IT IS OUR PRIORITY
    • “ RELIEF CAMPS 630
    • SHIFTED TO SAFER PLACES 6,42,297
  • 22. GESTURES OF HUMANITY
    • Tendulkar to leave for Australia to play CRICKET in tsunami relief fund match
    • Rs 14.55-cr handed over to Jayalalithaa, CHIEF MINISTER, TAMILMADU
    • Stalin hands over relief materials
    • Centre to consider special package of relief
    • Centre to assess damage in tsunami-hit Kerala Govt orders free ration to tsunami-hit
    • Gowda seeks panel to monitor relief works
  • 23. FRENCH WALL Historic Town in India Saved by Sea Wall By CHRIS TOMLINSON The Associated Press
  • 24. FRENCH WALL
    • STONE SEA WALL THAT KEPT PONDICHERRY'S HISTORIC CENTER DRY EVEN THOUGH TSUNAMI WAVES DROVE WATER 24 FEET ABOVE THE NORMAL HIGH-TIDE MARK.
    • THE PONDICHERRY DISTRICT RECORDED SOME 600 DEATHS FROM THE HUGE WAVES THAT STRUCK INDIA'S SOUTHEASTERN COAST AFTER A MAMMOTH EARTHQUAKE OFF INDONESIA, BUT MOST OF THOSE KILLED WERE FISHERMEN WHO LIVED IN VILLAGES BEYOND THE MAN-MADE BARRIER
  • 25. FRENCH WALL
    • AT ITS HEIGHT, THE BARRIER RUNNING ALONG THE WATER'S EDGE REACHES ABOUT 27 FEET ABOVE SEA LEVEL. THE BOULDERS, SOME WEIGHING UP TO A TON, ARE WEATHERED BLACK AND BROWN.
    • ON DEC. 26, WHEN TOWERING WAVES CRASHED AGAINST INDIA'S SOUTHERN COAST, THE WALL HELD. PONDICHERRY WAS VERY SAFE BECAUSE OF THE ROCK BARRIER," SAID S. SUBRAMANIAN, MANAGER OF THE TOURIST INFORMATION BUREAU, WHICH HAS ITS OFFICE ON THE ROAD OVERLOOKING THE OCEAN. HE SAID ONLY THE FISHING VILLAGES AND BEACH RESORTS ON EITHER SIDE OF THE BARRIER WERE DAMAGED.
  • 26. WALL SAVED MAALECITY (MALDIVES)
    • MALE, THE CAPITAL CITY OF MALDIVES IS ALSO SAVED BY A WALL WHEN TSUNAMI HIT THAT ISLAND COUNTRY
  • 27. BANGLADESH BARRIER
    • IN NEIGHBORING BANGLADESH, WHICH HAD ONLY TWO DEATHS FROM THE TSUNAMI, THERE IS A SIMILAR NATURAL BARRIER.
    • BILLIONS OF TONS OF SEDIMENT CARRIED INTO THE SEA BY THE COUNTRY'S NUMEROUS RIVERS SLOWED THE SEA SURGES BEFORE THEY HIT THE COAST.
  • 28. ARE THE WALLS BETTER FOR SMALL ISLAND COUNTRIES?
    • IT SEEMS SO
    • EVENTHOUGH WARNING WAS RECEIVED WHERE WILL THEY LEAVE?
    • WHERE THEY WILL GO UNLESS THEY HAVE SOME MAIN LAND NEARBY WHICH WILL PERMIT THEM?
    • THEY HAVE TO LEAVE ALL THEIR PROPERTY AND COUNTRY?
    • IN SMALL ISLANDS LIKE ANDAMANS,NICOBAR, LAKSHDIVES, MALDIVES WALLS ARE BETTER AS THEY ARE SIMPLE TO CONSTRUCT INDIGENEOUSLY AND CHEAPER THAN POSSESSING WARNING SYSTEMS WHICH THEY CANNOT AFFORD.
  • 29. PACIFIC WARNING SYSTEMS AND THEIR NARROW MINDEDNESS ?
    • The angry questions that hundreds of thousands of family members of victims are asking, especially in Sri Lanka and India, are "what happened?"--and "why did no one warn us before the tsunami hit?" The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center had issued a tsunami bulletin and had concluded that there was no danger for the Pacific nations in its jurisdiction.
    • Why didn't it extend its warning to South and Southeast Asia? It is perhaps clear with hindsight that an Indian Ocean tsunami warning center should have been in place, or that the Indian Ocean nations should have requested coverage from the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center.
  • 30. INDIFFERENCE
    • NASA FAILED TO HELP BY PRIOR
    • INFORMATION
    • SOULD HAVE SAVED MILLIONS OF PEOPLE
    • WHY? TSUNAMI POLITICS?
  • 31. JOINT ACTION
    • Indian ocean scientists, disaster managers, policy makers, and local communities need to work together toward the common goal of creating tsunami-resistant communities with access to accurate, timely tsunami warnings.
    • A tsunami warning center needs to be established as soon as practical in the region, and the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center should act as an interim warning center.