TS Training - Module 2 Health & Safety--- Introduction1) Clothing & Personal Protective Equipment• Shipyard Hazards• Safe Working at Heights• Inspection of Ships in Service• Product Hazards• Tank Coating Hazards
Section 2 – Shipyard HazardsAim is to be able to identify hazards associated with:-• Shipyard Traffic• Electrical & Mechanical Equipment• High Pressure washing & Hydroblasting• Surface Preparation (Manual Mechanical, Blasting)• Paint Application• Ionising radiation in shipyards• Asbestos…….and be able to carry out risk assessments on these.
Section 2 – Shipyard HazardsShipyards are dangerous places and accidents are common.The general lack of a safety culture in many shipyards meansthat serious hazards are always present, and that proceduresfor dealing with them are either lax or non-existent.In these circumstances it is only a matter of time beforeaccidents and injuries occur.
Section 2 – Shipyard HazardsSimple awareness of the hazards will not keep you safe – andover-familiarisation may itself lead to a lack of caution.We must think in terms of “Risk Assessment”.
Risk assessment Procedure Evaluate All Risks Do I have to be here as part of my job? Yes NoAre the Risks acceptable? Stay Clear of the HazardYes NoProceed? Do not ProceedUse Correct PPE
General Hazards• Traffic Hazards• Electrical Hazards• Mechanical Hazards• Water Hazards• Ionising Radiation• Radiation
Traffic Hazards• Shipyards are busy with lots of traffic moving about.• Access for vehicles is often narrow & restricted.• Vehicles and pedestrians must use the same space.• Fluorescent vests/strips increase visibility to drivers, but muststill be both cautious and observant to avoid traffic hazards.• When accidents do happen they often cause serious injury.• Trucks / Fork Lift Trucks / Low Loaders / Mobile Cranes
TrucksRisks• Use of non-segregated ground for traffic and pedestrians.• Reversing trucks.Avoidance• Be cautious.• Stay clear of reversing vehicles.PPE• Fluorescent Vest. Not mandatory, but advisable.
Low Loaders (Newbuilding Yards)Risks• Wide Loads.• Off-loading by cranes & FLTs.Avoidance• Be cautious.• Stay clear when off-loading.PPE• Fluorescent Vest.
Mobile CranesRisks• Driver’s vision obscured.• Stationary cranes moving without seeing you.• Being trapped between a mobile crane & an obstacle.Avoidance• Listen for Warning Sirens & Bells.• Stay clear of stationary cranes which are moving loads.• Stay clear of moving cranes.
Electrical Hazards• All shipyards use electrical equipment of many sorts. Generators 110V Single-Phase to 440V Three-Phase Welding Sets 40V• Equipment is portable so yard criss-crossed with cables – sothese are often damaged – AVOID TOUCHING ALL CABLES.• Shocks & burns are obvious dangers, but they can also causefire & catastrophic explosions.
Electrical HazardsElectrical Cables & Moisture are everywhere
Shocks & BurnsRisks• Live Cables are present everywhere in shipyards.• Damaged cable insulation is common• Contact with a live conductor• Wet conditions.Avoidance• Do not touch or step on cables.• Wear insulating footwear.• Take care especially in damp conditionsPPE• Insulating footwear.
Fires & Explosions• Faulty electrical equipment can short circuit or overload andignite combustible material.• Unfortunately, fires are almost an everyday occurrence in yardsor on board ships under construction and repair.• Many fires are started by welding/burning sparks igniting wastematerials such as cleaning rags – often due to poor housekeeping.• Fires, whatever their cause, may be minor, or they may gut largesections of the ship and cause considerable damage.• In the event of a fire, you must follow the yard evacuationprocedures.
Fires & Explosions• Always be alert to potential fire hazards, particularly in enclosedspaces (eg engine rooms), where fires are more likely to occur.• NEVER enter tanks etc alone. You may quickly be overcome bytoxic smoke and be unable to escape.• Explosions can occur when solvent vapours are ignited, and theignition source may be faulty or damaged electrical equipment).• In solvent saturated areas only intrinsically safe electricalequipment can be used.• There are MANY cases of paint sprayers being killed or badlyburned in such cases.
Fires & Explosions• You should not be asked to work in areas with high solventconcentration but vapours can exist in pockets where ventilationis poor.• Be aware of all electrical sources of ignition in such atmospheresand refuse to work unless equipment is intrinsically safe.• Many shipowners now insist that all equipment used in suchareas is intrinsically safe, and they will prohibit the use of unsafeequipment (eg mobile phones, lamps, cameras, dft gauges).• If you are carrying out inspections on this type of ship in service,you must comply with these requirements.
Fires & Explosions• Mobile phones etc should not be used, left switched on or left onstand-by near open paint containers, paint mixing or spraying.• In open air they should be >2m from any open container and >4mfrom the edge of a spray fan.• In enclosed spaces, they must not be used (etc) in anycircumstances when paint is being mixed or sprayed.• When a confined space/tank has been tested and certified as gas-free by the ship/shipyard site such equipment may be used.• In recently painted (<48H) confined spaces, should only be usedif gas test shows levels below 25% of LEL at lowest point of space.
Fires & ExplosionsRisks• Sparks igniting waste material.• Being alone when overcome by smoke.• High Solvent Vapour concentrations.• Ignition sources in solvent atmosperes.Avoidance• Removal of ignition sources.• Use of intrinsically safe electrical equipment.• Do not work alone n confined spaces.• Good ventilation of solvent atmospheres.
Mechanical Hazards• Open Machinery• Falling Objects
Open MachineryRisks• Getting caught in moving machinery.Avoidance• Stay clear!• Have machinery switched off and locked off.• Do not wear loose clothing.
Falling ObjectsRisks• Small falling objects.• Objects breaking loose from cranes.Avoidance• Wear a safety helmet.• Stay clear of overhead loads.PPE• Safety Helmet & Safety Boots
Water Hazards• Close proximity to unguarded water presents a hazard –especially in shipyards:- - housekeeping standards are often poor - if you fall into water, it is likely that you will be injured (meaning that you can not swim) - you will be wearing boots, overalls etc
Ionising Radiation• Alpha, Beta, Gamma and X-rays all have the ability to ionisematter and cause damage to cells in the body.• Gamma and X-rays are used for radiographic non-destructivetesting of welds using radioactive isotopes or x-ray equipment.• The use of such equipment is subject to strict controls, usuallygoverned by national legislation.• All yards should have procedures to prevent accidentalexposure of personnel (ie “permit to work” systems and zoning).• Zoned areas should be clearly indicated by the use of barriersand warning signs.
Asbestos• >3,500 people die per year, in the UK alone, from mesotheliomaand asbestos related lung cancer due to past exposure.• This figure will continue to rise as illnesses can take up to 60years to develop.• Chrysotile (white asbestos) was used from the 1800’s right up tothe mid 1980’s.• Many deaths and illnesses today are due to heavy exposure toasbestos in the shipbuilding industry, despite the end of its use.
Asbestos• Asbestos was widely used because of it’s excellent insulation,fireproofing and sound absorption properties and, on ships, wascommonly used in engine rooms on boilers, steam and hot waterpipes.• Control measures should be in place in most shipyards whenwork involves exposing or removing asbestos.• This is a legal requirement in many countries, but we must takecare when working on older ships.
Specific Hazards• High Pressure Washing• Hydroblasting• Manual Surface Preparation• Mechanical Surface Preparation• Dry Abrasive Blasting• Airless Spraying
High Pressure Fresh Water Washing• Pressures vary, depending upon the equipment available andthe job requirement, but are often 2500-3000 psi (176-211 kg/cm²).• This can cut through skin and body tissue at close range.• Water vapour and droplets produced may be contaminated bytoxic or biological material.• NEVER attempt to drink or wash yourself with high pressurewater. Workers have been seriously injured trying to do this.• Water energy is dissipated a short distance from the lance.• You must stay clear of parted lines if they are thrashing about.
High Pressure Fresh Water WashingRisks• Contact with high pressure water will cut through skin andtissue.• Inhalation of waterborne contaminants.Avoidance• Stay clear!• Do not drink or wash from a high pressure water source.PPE• Face Mask
Hydroblasting• Similar to HPFWW but higher pressures so more dangerous.• Hydroblasting is used to remove rust, scale and paint fromsteel and other substrates, with water exiting at up to 700ms-1.• This can cut through concrete or wood – and flesh and bone.• Operators must be fully trained, and the equipment must haveall safety features fitted.• Best fluid lines are steel reinforced and can take 90,000 psi butif bursts do occur, they can be very dangerous.
Hydroblasting• Water energy is dissipated within a short distance from thelance and is no longer dangerous.• You must wear safety glasses/goggles near hydroblasting, assolid particles removed by blasting will have considerableenergy, and could cause eye injury.• You are also advised to wear a face mask to avoid inhalation ofcontaminated water vapour and droplets.
HydroblastingRisks• Contact with ultra high pressure water can be lethal.• Line bursts can be very dangerous.• Eye injury can be very dangerous.• Inhalation of waterborne contaminants.Avoidance• Do not operate hydroblasting equipment.• Stay clear of both water jets and fluid lines.PPE• Face Mask• Safety glasses or goggles.
Manual Methods of Surface Preparation• Wire brushing, scraping and chipping, are tedious, but notparticularly hazardous to the operator.• Adequate safety clothing will protect him and others nearby fromharm.• There is, however, a real danger of fire or explosion if this type ofpreparation is carried out in a solvent laden atmosphere.• All manual and mechanical methods of surface preparation willproduce sparks by the action of the tools against steel, and theyshould not be carried out where there is a risk of explosion.
Manual Methods of Surface PreparationRisks• Sparks may cause fire or explosions.Avoidance• Do not carry out this work in solvent atmospheres.PPE• Face Mask• Safety glasses or goggles.
Mechanical Methods of Surface Prep’n• This includes needle guns, angle grinders, in-line rotarygrinders, power sanders and rotary impact tools.• They may be powered by either electricity or compressed air.• There are obviously mechanical and electrical hazards for theoperators using this equipment.• Main problems for people working nearby are noise, dust anddebris, produced by all of these – and the sparks produced byangle grinders.• You are advised to wear a face mask, ear protectors, and safetyglasses or goggles.
Power Tool CleaningPower tooling with discers and needle guns Noisy and slow progress
Mechanical Methods of Surface Prep’nRisks• Sparks may cause fire or explosions.• Mechanical & Electrical Hazards of the tools themselves.• Noise levels.• Inhalation of dust & debris.• Eye injury from sparks and flying debris.Avoidance• Do not operate the equipment yourself.• Stay clear of electric cables & compressed air lines.• Stay clear of the work vicinity.PPE• Face Mask / Safety glasses or goggles / Ear Protectors.
Dry Abrasive Blasting• Compressed Air• Over Pressurisation of Pots• Abrasive Velocity• Dust• Noise• Sparks & Electrostatic Discharge
Compressed Air Blasting Blasting set-up using large silos
Dry Abrasive Blasting Compressed AirRisks• Compressed air penetrating the body can be LETHAL.Avoidance• DO NOT PLAY WITH COMPRESSED AIR.• DO NOT USE IT TO CLEAN OFF OVERALLS!
Dry Abrasive Blasting Over-PressurisationRisks• Damaged or over-pressurised pots can rupture.Avoidance• Stay clear and inform the blasting supervisor.
Dry Abrasive Blasting Abrasive VelocityVelocity is normally 180ms-1 (450mph) – so eye injuries @ 20-30m.Risks• Direct hits with abrasive streams can be lethal.• Rebounded particles can cause eye injury.• Blasting recommencing when you are doing an inspection.Avoidance• Stay clear.• Do not inspect until the blasting hood is off.PPE• Safety glasses or goggles.
Dry Abrasive Blasting DustRisks• Inhalation of dust containing toxic or harmful particles.Avoidance• Stay clear.• Wear a face mask.PPE• Face Mask.• Safety glasses or goggles.
Dry Abrasive Blasting NoiseRisk• Loud noise can damage your hearing.Avoidance• Stay clear.• Wear ear protectors.PPE• Ear Protectors.
Airless Spraying• Compressed Air• Over Pressurisation of Airless Spray Pumps• High Pressure Paint Jets• Electrostatic Discharge
Airless Spraying Compressed AirRisks• Compressed air penetrating the body can be LETHAL.Avoidance• DO NOT PLAY WITH COMPRESSED AIR.• DO NOT USE IT TO CLEAN OFF OVERALLS!
Airless Spraying Over-Pressurisation of Airless Spray Pumps• Pumps used for marine coatings generally have air to hydraulicratios ranging from 20:1 to 63:1.• A pump with a 20:1 ratio will require 100 psi air input pressure tooperate at a normal 2000 psi fluid output pressure, but a 60:1pump could operate at a massive 6000 psi fluid output pressurewith an unregulated 100 psi air input pressure.• Such high fluid output pressures can rupture pumps or causeleaks and bursts to fluid lines and couplings carrying thepressurised paint.• These are very dangerous but occur quite frequently.
Airless Spraying Over-Pressurisation of Airless Spray Pumps• Problems usually occur with old and badly maintainedequipment, and untrained operators.• It is quite normal for all the pressure gauges on a pump to bebroken, and for the operator not to know the pump ratio.• In such cases the operator will adjust the input pressure eitherup or down until the sprayer tells him to stop because he has agood spray fan – and so operate at an unknown pressure.• When lines or couplings burst, they whip around and spray painteverywhere.
Airless Spraying Over-Pressurisation of Airless Spray PumpsRisks• Over-pressurised pumps can rupture.• Fluid lines and couplings can burst.Avoidance• Stay clear.
Airless Spraying High Pressure Paint Jets• Atomised paint leaves an airless spray gun tip at very highpressures, usually 2000-3000 psi (141-211 kg/cm²).• Paint at these pressures can easily penetrate the skin and enterthe blood stream. If this occurs, an immediate surgical operation isrequired to clean out the wound and prevent gangrene.• The affected finger or hand may have to be amputated.• Paint sprayers are the people at risk. They should take propersafety precautions when operating the gun, cleaning it, orreversing the tip to free blockages.
Airless Spraying High Pressure Paint Jets• Accidents do occur, even to experienced people.• There are many sprayers in the shipyards who have missingfingers.• Untrained people should never operate spray guns. If you havenever operated a spray gun, or been trained in its use, do notassume you can pick it up and operate it in a safe manner
Airless Spraying High Pressure Paint JetsRisks• Paint jets can enter the skin.• Affected fingers and hands may have to be amputated.Avoidance• Do not operate spray guns unless you are trained to do so.
Airless Spraying Electrostatic Discharge• Paint flow through fluid lines, and the atomisation process canbuild up an electrostatic charge which is dangerous if discharged.• It can give paint sprayers an electric shock, but it can also ignitesolvent vapours in the atmosphere around the spray gun.• This is potentially catastrophic in enclosed places like tanks.• All airless spray guns should be earthed through the conductivebraiding of the fluid lines, back to the spray pump, which itselfshould be properly earthed.
Airless Spraying Electrostatic DischargeRisks• Electrostatic discharges through badly earthed equipment.• Ignition of Solvent Vapours.Avoidance• Ensure equipment is properly earthed (contractor responsibility).
Click to edit Master subtitle style Health & Safety – Module 2Section 2 – Shipyard Hazards