BSHS 335/Beatriz Zayas
January 9, 2013
Legal aspects of supervision
Multicultural issues in supervision
Spiritual issues in supervision
Multiple roles and relationships in the
Styles of supervision
trainees provide the information to clients
that they need to make informed
Confidentiality and its limits
supervisors have a legal and ethical obligation to
respect the confidentiality of client
legal responsibility for the welfare of those clients
who are counseled by their trainees
Direct liability can be incurred when the actions
of supervisors are the cause for harm. For
example, supervisors may give trainees
inappropriate advice about treatment or give
tasks to trainees that exceed their competence.
Vicarious liability pertains to the responsibilities
supervisors have to oversee the actions of their
supervisees. Supervisors become liable for the
actions of their supervisees due to their
professional relationship with supervisees.
Don’t supervise beyond your competence.
Evaluate and monitor supervisees’ competence.
Be available for supervision consistently.
Formulate a sound supervision contract.
Maintain written policies.
Document all supervisory activities.
Consult with appropriate professionals.
Maintain a working knowledge of ethics codes, legal statutes, and
Use multiple methods of supervision.
Have a feedback and evaluation plan.
Verify that your professional liability insurance covers you for
Evaluate and screen all clients under your supervisee’s care.
Establish a policy for ensuring confidentiality.
Incorporate informed consent in practice.
race can have a profound influence on the supervisory
process, particularly in terms of trainee’s expectations
for supervisor empathy, respect, and congruence.
race can influence a trainee’s perception of supervisor
it is particularly important that supervisors acquire
knowledge and skills in culturally congruent methods
and styles of supervision.
Supervisors must use culturally appropriate modes of
social interaction, and they need to recognize how their
position of authority is likely to play out in the
acknowledge cultural differences in values and learning
styles and being willing to make adjustments by
including these differences in the supervisory process.
Understand cultural populations
• Honor needs of each person
• Address religious diversity
• Teaching and learning how to address
Appropriate relationships towards
students and supervisees
Clarify roles and what is
expected when crossing ethical
Notify supervisees who has
the power of authority
Review educational standards and what is
Autocratic- Supervisor makes all the decisions with little regard for his
subordinates, and as such the business unit will totally reflect the opinions
and personality of the manager.
Consultive- Supervisor tends to be a bit more people oriented, it is still
essentially an autocratic style but with some emphasis being placed on
employee interests as well as those of the business. Communications still
tend to be downward, but feedback upwards to the supervisor is encouraged
mainly in an attempt to build morale.
Persuasive- very aware of his subordinates, but not necessarily more
inclusive and the management style has much in common with the
dictatorial manager, as they still maintain total control over the decision
process, but just spend more time working with people to convince them of
the benefits of the decisions that have been made.
Paternalistic- A management style where the manager is still very autocratic
but does really care about the quality of life and work of his people.
The best managers have the ability to shift between the styles depending on the
particular team and the situation or project being faced, particularly in complex
and fast changing organizations, industries and markets, and that they can do
this without ever compromising their values or their integrity.
State specific objectives of supervision.
Formulate a sound supervisory contract that
clarifies the expectations and parameters of
the supervision agreement.
Negotiate mutual decisions, rather than
making unilateral decisions, about the needs
Perform the role of a
teacher, counselor, consultant as appropriate.
Clarify the supervisory roles.
Supervisors have a lot on their shoulders when
it comes to their employees and clients. They
must have control over their employees but
they also have to be aware of not taking more
than they can handle.
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