OBTAINING A CONNECTION TO DATABASE
• Approach1: Directly using Driver object
OBTAINING A CONNECTION TO DATABASE
STEP 1(approach1) 1.JPG
/*
Jdbc first Example
we want to write a java program to create a new record with the following
values into the database t...
//JdbcExample1.java
• //JdbcExample1.java
import java.sql.*;
import java.util.Properties;
public class JdbcExample1
{
publ...
Work flow of JDBC
How to run this program:
/*
you need to have the following softwares installed in the machine:
(1) JDK
(2) Oracle DB
Now p...
Note
: In this example we are working with Oracle's JDBC Type-4
Driver
Note: (b)
Here our intention is to execute the quer...
Q:What is classpath?
classpath: is a system variable to specify the
location of resources (Ex: .class) to locate by
the ja...
Q:How to set class path? It depends on
Operating System:
In windows:
(1) using system environment variables setting
window...
D:materialjava(E DRIVE)javaAdvJavajdbc>javac JdbcExample1.java
D:materialjava(E DRIVE)javaAdvJavajdbc>set classpath=c:orac...
2. TNS: listener does not currently know of SID:
THIS error is raised when we use wrong service id in
the URL.
How to find...
Q: What are the changes can be done to work with
Oracle's JDBC TYPE-2 Driver?
Q: What are the changes can be done to work
with Oracle's JDBC TYPE-2 Driver?
Ans:
The Oracle's JDBC Driver Type-2 and Typ...
Q: HOW TO RUN THIS PROGRM (USING TYPE-2)?
Ans:
classpath same as described earlier:
In addition we need to set the oracle ...
Q:what is %path%?
•
• Ans: now we are setting the class path that
means already we may set other class path
also, but I do...
Using JDBC in the Project (Project Architecture)
Using JDBC in the Project (Project Architecture)
Using JDBC in the Project (Project Architecture)
Using JDBC in the Project (Project Architecture)
Using JDBC in the Project (Project Architecture)
Using JDBC in the Project (Project Architecture)
Using JDBC in the Project (Project Architecture)
Using JDBC in the Project (Project Architecture)
Using JDBC in the Project (Project Architecture)
Using JDBC in the Project (Project Architecture)
Using JDBC in the Project (Project Architecture)
Using JDBC in the Project (Project Architecture)
with DAO Design Pattern
Using JDBC in the Project (Project Architecture)
with DAO Design Pattern
Using JDBC in the Project (Project Architecture)
with DAO Design Pattern
Using JDBC in the Project (Project Architecture)
with DAO Design Pattern
Using JDBC in the Project (Project Architecture)
with DAO Design Pattern
Using JDBC in the Project (Project Architecture)
with DAO Design Pattern
Using JDBC in the Project (Project Architecture)
with DAO Design Pattern
Using JDBC in the Project (Project Architecture)
with DAO Design Pattern
Using JDBC in the Project (Project Architecture)
with DAO Design Pattern
Using JDBC in the Project (Project Architecture)
with DAO Design Pattern
Using JDBC in the Project (Project Architecture)
with DAO Design Pattern
Using JDBC in the Project (Project Architecture)
with DAO Design Pattern
Using JDBC in the Project (Project Architecture)
with DAO Design Pattern
Using JDBC in the Project (Project Architecture)
with DAO Design Pattern
What is Low Level Persistence Logic?
• Low Level means it is specific to one type of dependent persistence logic
• Persist...
What is Low Level Persistence Logic?
Introducing DAO
• When it comes into the project (enterprise
application) we need to concentrate in
optimizing the code, m...
What is a Pattern?
• Pattern is a three part document that describes
the context (situation), reoccurring problem and
the ...
THE DAO DESIGN PATTERN:
•
• As the title describes this is a design pattern
• Context (situation):
• We want to create ent...
What is DAO ?
• Ans: DAO is a design pattern that describes
separating the low-level persistence logic from
the business l...
• From this discussion and the above
architecture we understand JDBC is used for
implementing the DAO in Java for accessin...
Use Case diagram of our project
Implementing DAO Design Pattern in
our project
Implementing the Data Access Layer for ‘CreateEmployee’ use
case of ‘Employee Management System (EMS).
• For Example:
• Im...
• //how to execute?
• //use JDBC
• //Write this Connection con=null here only to make visible to all the blocks
• Connecti...
• con=d.connect(jdbcUrl,p);
• //step2
• Statement st=con.createStatement();
• //step3
• st.executeUpdate(sql);
•
•
• }//en...
• /* now we are writing Tese case for DAO object [that is save()] for this we have to use JUNIT but
• we are using main() ...
• /*
• D:materialjava(E DRIVE)javaAdvJavajdbcDAO>javac
-d . *.java
• D:materialjava(E
DRIVE)javaAdvJavajdbcDAO>D:materialj...
Q: is our DAO created efficient?
• Ans: No, we need to multiple changes. Let us look into all of them
one after the other
...
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4 jdbc step1

  1. 1. OBTAINING A CONNECTION TO DATABASE • Approach1: Directly using Driver object
  2. 2. OBTAINING A CONNECTION TO DATABASE
  3. 3. STEP 1(approach1) 1.JPG
  4. 4. /* Jdbc first Example we want to write a java program to create a new record with the following values into the database table emp: empno: 101 ename: e101 salary:1000 deptno:10 Considering the following table in oracle database to exist create table emp(empno number, ename varchar2(20), sal number(10,2), deptno number); */
  5. 5. //JdbcExample1.java • //JdbcExample1.java import java.sql.*; import java.util.Properties; public class JdbcExample1 { public static void main(String args[]) throws Exception { //we want to create a new record, to do this we want to execute the following sql to the database String sql="insert into emp values(101,'e101',1000,10)"; String driverClassName="oracle.jdbc.driver.OracleDriver"; Class c=Class.forName(driverClassName); Driver d=(Driver)c.newInstance(); //STEP 1.2: TYPE -2 DRIVER, thin is a name of the driver String JdbcUrl="jdbc:oracle:thin:@localhost:1521:XE"; Properties dbprops=new Properties(); dbprops.put("user","system"); dbprops.put("password","manager"); Connection con=d.connect(JdbcUrl,dbprops); Statement st=con.createStatement(); st.executeUpdate(sql); //step 4: con.close(); System.out.println("record is saved"); } }
  6. 6. Work flow of JDBC
  7. 7. How to run this program: /* you need to have the following softwares installed in the machine: (1) JDK (2) Oracle DB Now perform the following to get this example run: (1) create the table in the DB: We can run the above mentioned create table SQL Statement using the SQL* plus Editor. (2) set ojdbc14.jar (or) ojdbc5.jar (or) ojdbc6.jar into the classpath. we can find this jar file in the oracle install folder.
  8. 8. Note : In this example we are working with Oracle's JDBC Type-4 Driver Note: (b) Here our intention is to execute the query that is step 4 ( executeUpdate(sql)) But it is Method method of statement so I must crate Statement object to execute the Query, here Statement object acts as a vehicle which carries sql query to Database So I’m creating Statement object, for creating statement object I must call createStatement() method, which is a member method of Connection object. So for to do this we are creating Connection object
  9. 9. Q:What is classpath? classpath: is a system variable to specify the location of resources (Ex: .class) to locate by the java compiler & the Application class Loader
  10. 10. Q:How to set class path? It depends on Operating System: In windows: (1) using system environment variables setting window (2) using 'set' internal command
  11. 11. D:materialjava(E DRIVE)javaAdvJavajdbc>javac JdbcExample1.java D:materialjava(E DRIVE)javaAdvJavajdbc>set classpath=c:oraclexeappo..... ;.; Q: why .(dot) directory should be specified in the classpath? Ans: Because classloader tries to search even our current program (Ex: JdbcExample1.class) file in the Oracle install folder which we are specifieing, but this is our program which is available only E: drive..with some other location so we will get error, to avoid this problem we are informing to the class loader that our current program (Ex: JdbcExample1.class) is available in the current directory (ie. Ex: D:materialjava(E DRIVE)javaAdvJavajdbc) Q: What are The possible problems we may get in running this program? Ans: 1. ClassNotFoundException: oracle.jdbc.driver.OracleDriver to solve this problem we just need to set ojdbc.jar file into the classpath.
  12. 12. 2. TNS: listener does not currently know of SID: THIS error is raised when we use wrong service id in the URL. How to find the correct ServiceId? Ans: we have multiple ways, the one simple way is find it from the Windows Services (control->services->OracleServiceXE..) We find a service with the name OracleService<ServiceID> (Ex: ServiceID=XE)
  13. 13. Q: What are the changes can be done to work with Oracle's JDBC TYPE-2 Driver?
  14. 14. Q: What are the changes can be done to work with Oracle's JDBC TYPE-2 Driver? Ans: The Oracle's JDBC Driver Type-2 and Type-4 Drivers are implemented into a single Driver implmentation class so we don't need to change the driver class. Only that we need to change is JDBCURL. In the previous example (i.e: JdbcExample1.java) change the JDBC URL to: String JdbcUrl="jdbc:oracle:oci:@XE";
  15. 15. Q: HOW TO RUN THIS PROGRM (USING TYPE-2)? Ans: classpath same as described earlier: In addition we need to set the oracle bin folder into path: set path=c:oraclexeappproduct10.0.2serverbin; %path% */
  16. 16. Q:what is %path%? • • Ans: now we are setting the class path that means already we may set other class path also, but I don’t want to overwrite previous class path, I want to concatenate the previous class path , that can be done by using this %path%
  17. 17. Using JDBC in the Project (Project Architecture)
  18. 18. Using JDBC in the Project (Project Architecture)
  19. 19. Using JDBC in the Project (Project Architecture)
  20. 20. Using JDBC in the Project (Project Architecture)
  21. 21. Using JDBC in the Project (Project Architecture)
  22. 22. Using JDBC in the Project (Project Architecture)
  23. 23. Using JDBC in the Project (Project Architecture)
  24. 24. Using JDBC in the Project (Project Architecture)
  25. 25. Using JDBC in the Project (Project Architecture)
  26. 26. Using JDBC in the Project (Project Architecture)
  27. 27. Using JDBC in the Project (Project Architecture)
  28. 28. Using JDBC in the Project (Project Architecture) with DAO Design Pattern
  29. 29. Using JDBC in the Project (Project Architecture) with DAO Design Pattern
  30. 30. Using JDBC in the Project (Project Architecture) with DAO Design Pattern
  31. 31. Using JDBC in the Project (Project Architecture) with DAO Design Pattern
  32. 32. Using JDBC in the Project (Project Architecture) with DAO Design Pattern
  33. 33. Using JDBC in the Project (Project Architecture) with DAO Design Pattern
  34. 34. Using JDBC in the Project (Project Architecture) with DAO Design Pattern
  35. 35. Using JDBC in the Project (Project Architecture) with DAO Design Pattern
  36. 36. Using JDBC in the Project (Project Architecture) with DAO Design Pattern
  37. 37. Using JDBC in the Project (Project Architecture) with DAO Design Pattern
  38. 38. Using JDBC in the Project (Project Architecture) with DAO Design Pattern
  39. 39. Using JDBC in the Project (Project Architecture) with DAO Design Pattern
  40. 40. Using JDBC in the Project (Project Architecture) with DAO Design Pattern
  41. 41. Using JDBC in the Project (Project Architecture) with DAO Design Pattern
  42. 42. What is Low Level Persistence Logic? • Low Level means it is specific to one type of dependent persistence logic • Persistence Logic: is responsible for accessing persistence Data • If I’m using low level persistence logic in Business Logic (i.e High Level Logic) so I can not connect to all the Back end servers. • To avoid this problem we have to use another layer , keep the persistence logic in a separate object, that object is nothing but a Data Access Object (DAO). • • SO here DAO is a Design Pattern, Design Pattern which gives a solution for a problem. • (Example: I’m facing a problem, I will try to interact with a friend who is already faced the problem because he will have ready made solution for that problem, no need to waste my time to solve the problem, because already ready made solution (design pattern) is available
  43. 43. What is Low Level Persistence Logic?
  44. 44. Introducing DAO • When it comes into the project (enterprise application) we need to concentrate in optimizing the code, making the more reusable, and also testable. • The DAO is the most common pattern implemented into the enterprise applications.
  45. 45. What is a Pattern? • Pattern is a three part document that describes the context (situation), reoccurring problem and the best solution for the problem in the given context (situation). • The software patterns are categorized into multiple type for convenience in learning and applying. • The design patterns is one of the category. This lists the patterns describing the problems related to design and development of the software applications
  46. 46. THE DAO DESIGN PATTERN: • • As the title describes this is a design pattern • Context (situation): • We want to create enterprise Application with reasonable business logic having a requirement of accessing multiple (variety) of datastore and /or found that may have a requirement of migrating from one type of data store (database) to other. Easy to migrate between the different types of data stores. That is in my application I want to connect to LDAP to take credentials, same application I want to connect to File Systems to accept login details. • Problem: • We want to separate the low-level persistence (data access) logic from Business Logic. But this so this solution leaves a problem that is how do you separate in a best way? Thus this solution we kept in a problem. • Forces: (Why): • We want to have a proper responsibility division that is: • (a) improves the quality of the system. • (b) reduces the cost and time for the development • To enable unit testing, make the system more comfortable for testing. • Easy to migrate between the different types of data stores. • Solution: • Implement the low-level persistence logic into a separate object, exposing the data access operations through high-level API to the service layer.
  47. 47. What is DAO ? • Ans: DAO is a design pattern that describes separating the low-level persistence logic from the business logic, implementing into a separate (independent) object. • • Note: this special object introduced implementing the DAO pattern is also refered as a DAO i.e: Data Access Object
  48. 48. • From this discussion and the above architecture we understand JDBC is used for implementing the DAO in Java for accessing the tabular data store
  49. 49. Use Case diagram of our project
  50. 50. Implementing DAO Design Pattern in our project
  51. 51. Implementing the Data Access Layer for ‘CreateEmployee’ use case of ‘Employee Management System (EMS). • For Example: • Implementing the Data Access Layer for ‘CreateEmployee’ use case of ‘Employee Management System (EMS). • • //EmployeeDAOI.java • package com.st.ems.dao; • public interface EmployeeDAOI • { • void save(int eno,String name, double sal, int dno); • //we will change this struture later • //we will add some more methods as we proceed • } • • • //EmployeeDAO.java • package com.st.ems.dao.jdbc; • import com.st.ems.dao.EmployeeDAOI; • import java.sql.*; • import java.util.*; • public class EmployeeDAO implements EmployeeDAOI • { • public void save(int eno, String name,double sal, int dno) • { • //this method is responsible for saving the given details into emp table • //to do: execute the following SQL • String sql="insert into emp values("+eno+",'"+name+",',"+sal+","+dno+")";
  52. 52. • //how to execute? • //use JDBC • //Write this Connection con=null here only to make visible to all the blocks • Connection con=null;//null is necessary whn u r declaring as a local variable • try • { • //step 1.1 • String driverClassName="oracle.jdbc.driver.OracleDriver";//here we are using oracle driver • Class c=Class.forName(driverClassName); • Driver d=(Driver)c.newInstance(); • //step 1.2 • String jdbcUrl="jdbc:oracle:thin:@localhost:1521:XE"; • Properties p=new Properties(); • p.put("user","system"); • p.put("password","manager"); • //Connection con=null;//i can not use con ref variable in finally block as it is local to this • block • •
  53. 53. • con=d.connect(jdbcUrl,p); • //step2 • Statement st=con.createStatement(); • //step3 • st.executeUpdate(sql); • • • }//end of try block • catch(Exception e) • { • e.printStackTrace(); • //to report the error, we will set run time error • throw new RuntimeException(e); • } • finally • { • try • { • //step 4: • con.close(); • • }//try • catch(Exception e){} • }//finally • • • }//save • }//class
  54. 54. • /* now we are writing Tese case for DAO object [that is save()] for this we have to use JUNIT but • we are using main() for this application • */ • //EmployeeDAOTestCase.java • import com.st.ems.dao.jdbc.EmployeeDAO; • import com.st.ems.dao.EmployeeDAOI; • • • public class EmployeeDAOTestCase • { • private EmployeeDAOI edao; • public void testsave() • { • edao.save(102,"e102",20000,20); • System.out.println("Details saved"); • } • public static void main(String s[]) • { • EmployeeDAOTestCase test=new EmployeeDAOTestCase(); • test.edao=new EmployeeDAO(); • test.testsave();//here Driver object is created • //test.testsave();//here 2nd Driver object is created but one Driver object is enought to handle • //multiple request from diffrent clients, connections as it is a Thread -safe • } • }
  55. 55. • /* • D:materialjava(E DRIVE)javaAdvJavajdbcDAO>javac -d . *.java • D:materialjava(E DRIVE)javaAdvJavajdbcDAO>D:materialjava(E • DRIVE)javaAdvJavajdbcDAO>set classpath=C:oraclexeappor • acleproduct10.2.0serverjdbclibojdbc14.jar;.; • D:materialjava(E DRIVE)javaAdvJavajdbcDAO>java EmployeeDAOTestCase • Details saved • */
  56. 56. Q: is our DAO created efficient? • Ans: No, we need to multiple changes. Let us look into all of them one after the other • In the EmployeeDAO created earlier the save() method is programmed to create a new instance (object) of Driver class on every request, which is not effective. • Considering the following points with respect to the Driver: • The Driver object is Thread-safe means Driver object performs consistently even on concurrent requests from multiple threads • A single instance of Driver can be used to create multiple connections because it is Thread-safe. If we create the multiple instances of Driver class, unnecessarly garbage is stored into the memory, and performance becomes slow. • Considering these points a single instance of Driver is enough for an application per data base.

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