Stress – the wear and tear that life causes on the body (Selye, 1956). It occurs when a person has difficulty dealing with life situation, problems and goals. - negative emotional and physiological process that occurs as individuals try to adjust to or deal with stressors, which are environmental circumstances that disrupts, or threaten to disrupt individual daily functioning and cause people to make adjustment. (Taylor, 2002)
Stress – involves a transaction between people and environment. Stressors – sources of stress , can be positive or negative. It has physical components and psychological components.
Psychological stressors – event that forces people to accommodate change. 1. Catastrophic events – sudden, unexpected potentially life threatening experiences or trauma. 2. Life chances 3. Chronic stressor 4. Daily hassles
Sources of stress 1. Frustration – when we are not able to satisfy our motive. 2. Conflict - 2 or more motives cannot be satisfied they interfere with one another. 3. Pressure – stress that arises from threats and negative events.
4. Life events – changes in our life. 5. Environmental condition – temperature, air, pollution, noise and humidity.
The body’s response to threat: “How do we react?” (Selye ) Identify The General Adaptation Syndrome 3 stages in stress response. Alarm stage – fight and flight response. Resistance stage – adaptation stage body maintains normal biological state. Exhaustion stage – marked by depletion in body resources.
How does stress affects you immune system? Immune system- the body ’againsts first line of defense against invading substance and microorganism. - complex contain many cells, we can find these cell in our organ Thymus, spleen. Other circulates in the blood stream.
Function of Immune system : To kill / inactivate foreign harmful substances in the body ( Virus and bacteria). White Blood cell contains Luekocytes they are located in the bone marrow. They function when foreign substances are detected. B cells – produce anti body fight foreign toxins T cells – kills other cells.
Stress weakens the immune system linked to illness through actions of corticosteroids.
Developing coping strategy: Cognitive coping strategy 1. assessment – identify the sources of stress. 2. Goal setting – between the stressor and stress response to be addressed . Designate which stressors and are not changeable. 3. Planning – list the specific steps to be taken to cope with stress. 4. Action – implement coping plans.
5. Evaluation – determine the changes in stressors and stress response that have occurred as a result of coping methods. 6. Adjustment – alter coping methods to improve result if necessary.