Sensation and Perception
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Sensation and Perception

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For Miss Joy Lim’s General Psychology class

For Miss Joy Lim’s General Psychology class

DGE2
First Term | SY 2010-2011
De La Salle-College of Saint Benilde

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Sensation and Perception Presentation Transcript

  • 1.  
  • 2.  
  • 3.
    • Sensation- awareness or mental process which is aroused due to stimulation of a sense organ.
    • ACQUIRING SENSORY AWARENESS
    • 1 ST CONDITION:
    • Stimulation – anything which rouses a sense organ to activity.
    • 2 types of stimulus
    • 1. physical energy
    • 2. chemical form energy
  • 4.
    • Receptor Organ – highly specialized part of the body and selecting sensitive to a definite stimulus.
    • - doorway of the body responsible for all the sensation we experience.
    • - “sense organ”
  • 5.
    • 2 nd Condition:
    • Presence of Receptor Cell
    • - the sense organ detect stimuli from the environment and transmit information to the appropriate areas of the brain.
    • 3 rd Condition:
    • Sense Receptor is stimulated by certain “stimulus”.
  • 6.
    • Stimulus must be transferred into a code of electrochemical impulses which is travel to the brain.
    • Transduction – process of converting physical energy into activity in the nervous system which takes place in the receptor.
  • 7.
    • QUESTION: When a stimulus is said to be detected?
    • ANSWER: Stimulus to be detected must be strong enough and to produce sensation.
    • 1. Absolute threshold – stimulus is in the inner limit or does not go or reach beyond the threshold.
    • 2. Subliminal threshold – stimuli are way above the threshold.
    • 3. Terminal threshold – stimuli reach an increased intensity it produces pain and individual uncomfortable.
  • 8.
    • Sensory Adaptation :
    • 1. Sense Receptor – ability to make adaptation to changes/ adjust to a particular stimulus.
    • 2. Sense Organ:
    • a. Distal senses – sensitive to stimuli coming from a distance in the outside environment.
    • b. Proximal senses – bring information when we come direct contact with the objects that stimulates them.
  • 9.  
  • 10.
    • A. DISTAL SENSES
    • 1. Vision
    • - utilize the physical characteristic of light.
    • EYE (receptor organ of Vision).
    • Light Waves ( stimuli for seeing)
    • waves of radiant energy coming from the sun.
    • Eye utilizes 2 basic properties of light:
    • 1. brightness – intensity of light (the amount of radiant energy coming from the sun.
    • 2. color – wave length or frequency
  • 11.
    • Parts of the Eye:
    • 1. Sclerotic coat (SCLERA) – hard and outer most covering , it protects the eye.
    • 2. Choroid coat – full of bloody tissues, gives nourishment to the eye.
    • 3. Retina – inner most covering of the eye. Photosensitive plate of the eye. Regarded as the true organ of vision.
    • RODS and CONS (receptors cells) embedded on in the coat.
  • 12. cornea Aqueous humor pupil
  • 13. IRIS lens retina
  • 14.
          • connects light energy to nerve impulse
    Receptor cells Nerve impulse Optic nerve BRAIN
  • 15.
    • Receptor cells of the eye:
    • RODS - slender nerve cells ( 100 million)
    • Function: used for twilight vision or low light intensity, enable one to make colorless discrimination, sensitive to tiny amount of lights ( dim light ), color blind (they see the world in black and white).
    • Cones – thicker / cone shape ; interprets color. ( 6 million)
    • Function: Daytime vision , enable one to discriminate brightness , hue or color.
        • See the color of the spectrum ( 3 types of cones)
        • Sensitive to
        • A. red
        • B. green
        • C. blue
  • 16.  
  • 17.
    • 3 dimension of colors
    • 1. Hue - name of colors
    • red- longest wave length.
    • violet – shortest wave length.
    • blue , green , yellow – intermediate wave length.
    • 2. Brightness – energy of the source of light
    • coloring range from bright to dim.
    • intensity of the stimulus.
    • 3. Saturation – purity or richness of color.
    • highly saturated color – pure hues ( no tint of gray added)
    • low saturation – close to gray
    • note: Saturation of any color is reduced by mixing it with white.
  • 18.
    • Visual defects
    • 1. myopia
    • 2.Hyperopia
    • 3.Presbyopia
    • 4. Astigmatism
    • 5. Diplopia
    • 6. Scotoma
  • 19.
    • Parts of the retina:
    • Fovea – in the central region, the point of clearest and sharpest vision
    • Blind spot – are where all the nerve
    • fibers converge to form optic nerve which carries impulse to the brain.
    • 2 kinds of Blind spot
    • Dichromatic – 2 or 3 primary colors
    • Achromatic – no cones in the retina
  • 20.  
  • 21.
    • 2. AUDITION
            • Sound Waves
            • 1. pitch – highness or lowness of a sound.
            • 2. loudness – intensity sound pursue that activates the eardrum.
            • 3. timbre – quality of musical tone .
  • 22.  
  • 23.
    • Mechanism of the hearing
    • 3 major parts:
    • 1. outer / external serves to collect sound waves.
    • 2. middle ear – transmit the sound waves.
    • 3. inner ear – has sensitive receptors for hearing.
  • 24.
    • How do we hear?
    • Sound waves travel and collected by
    pinna Funneled by the auditory canal Ear drum
  • 25.
    • Changes in air pressure
    Middle ear Tiny bones hammer anvil
  • 26. Stirrup ( to vibrate) 3 tiny bones conduct the sound impulse inward to the inner ear: Hammer – eardrum- stirrup Oval windows
  • 27. cochlea Auditory portion of the inner ear ( pressure Changes , fluid displace Receptor cells
  • 28. Hair cells (receptor cells of organ of corti) Auditory nerve Brain
  • 29.
    • II. Proximal Distance:
    • 1. Olfaction – sense of smell
    • stimulus substance : gaseous substance( must be dissolved in the air “ vaporous form.
  • 30.  
  • 31.
    • Mechanism of Smell:
    • RECEPTOR – Olfactory receptor – long thread like nerve tissue from
    Olfactory bulb Nasal cavity
  • 32.
    • Process:
    • 1. Anything that is sniffed must best dissolved in the air.
    • 2. Receptor cells detect the molecules dissolved in the air that is sucked up in the nasal cavity.
    • 3. Move up to the olfactory bulbs of the brain.
    • 4. Physical Energy is transduced in the olfactory epithelium to be able to reach the brain.
  • 33.
    • 2. Gustation
      • “ Tongue” organ for the sense of taste
      • Stimulus – chemicals – must transform into soluble substance to penetrate into the taste cells.
      • Receptor – taste receptor
      • Papillae – tongue elevation
      • Taste buds – lie between the papillae ( taste receptor)
      • Pore – opening of the taste buds.
  • 34.  
  • 35.
    • Mechanism of taste:
    • The food is transformed into soluble form . Depolarized liquid substance can penetrate into the taste cells:
    depolarized Will incite the nerve fiber
  • 36. Give rise to nerve impulse Gustatory nerve Brain
  • 37.