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Components of Human Development

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For Miss Joy Lim’s General Psychology class …

For Miss Joy Lim’s General Psychology class

DGE2
First Term | SY 2010-2011
De La Salle-College of Saint Benilde

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  • 1. Activity
    • Divide the class into five groups sharing your picture with your classmates. Use the following questions in your sharing:
    • 1. How are you similar/different from your parents?
    • 2. What factors do you think made you similar or different with them?
    • 3. What did you feel upon knowing that you have characteristics that are the same with your parents?
  • 2. Development vs. Maturation
    • DEVELOPMENT
    • Is the qualitative changes within the individual as s/he goes in the different stages of development
    • Acquisition of social and intellectual skills, language and reasoning are considered development
    • MATURATION
    • Innately determined sequence of growth and bodily changes that are relatively independent of environmental events
  • 3. Components of Human Development Characteristics that differentiate one person from another and interactions with others and social relationships grow and changes over time Psychological (Personality and Social Development) Examines intellectual abilities, including learning, memory, problem solving and intelligence Cognitive Development Defining Characteristics Examines how the brain, nervous system, muscles, sensory capabilities, need for food, drink and sleep affect behavior Orientation Physical Development
  • 4.
    • Principles of Development
    • 1. Development is orderly and follows a sequential pattern which is predictable.
    • 2 patterns of development:
    • 1. Cephalo-caudal development – development start from the head region and proceeds downward, ending in the feet.
    • 2. Proximo-distal development – parts of the body nearest to the center are the earliest to develop and the farthest part are the last.
    • 2. Development is the product of interaction thru maturation and learning.
    • maturation – process through which heredity traits “unfold” at an appropriate time.
    • Learning – (training can produce learning but the result will reflect until the individual has reached the right level of maturation necessary for an activity).
  • 5.
    • 3. There are individual differences in development. Children will go through the same stages of development but they are differ from one another.
    • 4. Development proceeds by stages – different stages of development and each stage has its own characteristics and features.
    • Stages in Life Span:
    • 1. Pre – natal – conception to birth
    • 2. Infancy – birth to end of the second week
    • 3. Babyhood/Childhood – end of the second week till end of the second year.
    • 4. Early Childhood – 2 to 6 years old.
    • 5. Late childhood – 6 to 12 years old
    • 6. Puberty / preadolescence – 10 to 13years old
    • 7.Adolescence – 13 to 18 years old
    • 8. Early Adulthood – 18 to 40 years old
    • 9. Middle age – 40 to 60
    • 10. Old age – 60 to death
  • 6.
      • Observation of the world
      • Used observation to craft hypothesis and make prediction.
      • Collect data , interpret the data to test hypothesis.
      • Explain data and relate findings to other theories which lead to new observation.
      • Theory – a set of interrelated statements that provides explanation for a class / event.
      • Serves as guide to our action.
      • Organize our observation and to deal meaningfully with information that would otherwise chaotic or useless.
  • 7. PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORIES OF DEVELOPMENT
    • PSYCHOSEXUAL THEORY OF DEVELOPMENT
    • Developed by Sigmund Freud who associated development with the sexual activities of the child
    • He said that each stages of development, one’s needs must be satisfied moderately otherwise it will cause FIXATION
  • 8. Psychosexual Stages of Development
    • Oral Stage – (0-1 1/2 years)
    • Mouth is the center of development since infant’s pleasure seeking is centered on the mouth
    • Under gratification and over gratification happen when there is excessive anticipation in satisfying needs
  • 9. 2. ANAL STAGE (1-3 years)
    • Is concerned with toilet training of the child
    • Center of development and its function for elimination
    Toilet Training
  • 10. Outcome that may exhibit if the child is not satisfied or excessive anticipation during infancy stage
    • Nail biting
    • Being talkative
    • Smoking
    • obesity
  • 11. 3 . PHALLIC STAGE ( 3 to seventh year)
    • Center of development is the sex organ of the child
    • Freud characterized this stage as the development of unconscious wishes to possess the parent of the opposite sex and get rid of the parent of the same sex which called as OEDIPUS COMPLEX / ELECTRA COMPLEX
    • Most pleasurable moments – Masturbation
    • Sources of Conflict: Boys – boys feel sexual love for the mother, Hostile rivalry toward the father: Fear of castration by the father.
    • For Girls: Electra complex : feeling and concluding that they have been castrated ( because they lack penis) : Girls feeling of inferiority that finds expression in “penis envy”.
    • Common Problems: impotence, frigidity, inability to handle competitive relationships , sexual problems in adulthood.
  • 12. 4.LATENCY STAGE
    • The child becomes more aware of his/her sexuality and represents oedipal complex
    • The child likewise starts to go to school and begin to make friends
    • At this stage, appropriate behaviors of being female and male such as dress to wear are being internalized
  • 13. 5.GENITAL STAGE
    • Marks the beginning of the maturity of adult sexuality
    • Sexual energy are now located in the genitals and eventually directed toward sexual intercourse
  • 14. Psychosocial Development
    • By Erik Erikson illustrated that the individual has to resolve in order to become fully developed person
    • A continuous development process of personality dev. That takes place throughout life span.
    • He holds open the prospect of healthy positive resolution of identity crisis.
    • He is very optimistic.
  • 15. Erikson’s Eight Stages of Development
    • Trust vs. Mistrust
    • Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
    • Initiative vs. Guilt
    • Industry vs. Inferiority
    • Identity vs. Role Confusion
    • Intimacy vs. Isolation
    • Generativity vs. Stagnation
    • Ego Integrity vs. Despair
  • 16. Trust vs. Mistrust (0-1 year)
    • The socialization of infants is solely based on how their needs are addressed by the people around them specially for those who provide them care
    • Trust is developed when the babies are given of adequate warmth, love and physical care
    Infancy
  • 17. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (1-3 years)
    • The child gains control more of his or her behavior the child may seek independence by trying new skills like eating by himself or herself and having tie his or her own shoe laces
    Toddler
  • 18. Initiative vs. Guilt (3-5 years)
    • This stage characterizes the shift from the focus on self control to the discovery of the child’s environment
    • There is a need to feel free of doing tasks without adult supervision – initiative develops
    • Encouraging the child to asks questions, use his or her imagination and allowing choosing own activities will help initiative takes place
    Early Childhood
  • 19. Industry vs. Inferiority (6-12 years)
    • The child becomes more capable of doing something and learning new skills from school such as reading and writing
    • he/she may develop the attitude of mastering these skills so that the child can maximize their potentials into their own advantage thus developing industry or when the child’s effort is regarded as messy, childish or inadequate
    Elementary School-age
  • 20. Identity vs. Role Confusion (adolescence)
    • Adolescence
    • is the period of discovering more about oneself and for search for identity
    • Decision making about career options, self concept and attitudes
    • The question WHO AM I? helps adolescents to reflect about themselves
    Adolescence
  • 21. Intimacy vs. Isolation (early adulthood)
    • Adult develop interests in having heterosexual relationships
    • Begin to seek out relationship within which develop intimacy
    Young adulthood
  • 22. Generativity vs. Stagnation (middle adulthood)
    • Middle years of life
    • Develop a concern for guiding the next generation
    • Childless adults find enrichment throughout interaction with other people
    Aduthood
  • 23. Ego Integrity vs. Despair (old age)
    • Reflections on past years and experiences
    • Inevitably approaching to death
    • Men and women look back their lives with satisfaction
    Old age
  • 24.
    • Psychosocial growth occur in sequential phases and each stage is dependent on completion of his previous stage life style.
    • Focus on social and psychological development in the life stages.
    • In each stage, the person must complete a life task essential to his well being and mental health.
    • These tasks allow the person to achieve life’s virtue: HOPE, PURPOSE, FIDELITY, LOVE, CARING and WISDOM. (infant)
    • Trust vs Mistrust - HOPE – Viewing the world as safe and reliable, relationships as nurturing, stable and dependable. (Infant)
    • Autonomy vs. shame and doubt – Will – Achieving a sense of control and free will. (toddlers)
    • Initiative vs. inferiority – Purpose - Beginning development of a conscience , learning to manage conflict and anxiety. (preschool)
    • Industry vs. Inferiority – Competence – Emerging confidence in own abilities , taking pleasure in accomplishments. ( School age)
    • Industry vs. role confusion – Fidelity – formulating a sense of self and belonging. (adolescence)
    • Intimacy vs. Isolation – Love – Forming adult, loving relationships and meaningful attachments to others. (young adult)
    • Generativity vs. Stagnation - Care – Being creative, productive, establishing the next generation. (middle adult.)
    • Ego integrity vs. Despair – Wisdom – Accepting responsibility for one’s self and life. (maturity)
  • 25. Moral Development
    • Proposed by Lawrence Kohlberg
    • Levels of morality follow a developmental sequence that is distinctively different from each other. Each level contains two stages.
    • Preconventional Morality
    • Conventional Morality
    • Postconventional Morality
  • 26. 1. PRECONVENTIONAL MORALITY
    • Stage 1 Punishment-obedience orientation
    • Behaviors are perceived to be right when children are able to avoid punishment brought about by their own behavior
    • Stage 2 Instrumental relativism orientation
    • The child’s basis of moral reasoning is based on benefit
  • 27. 2.CONVENTIONAL MORALITY
    • Stage 3 Good boy/nice girl Orientation
    • It is other people’s perception that is important in making moral behaviors in this stage
    • The person thinks that moral behaviors are right when he or she knows that other will think positively of him or her in doing th behavior.
  • 28. 2.CONVENTIONAL MORALITY
    • Stage 4 Law and order orientation
    • There is a tendency to base moral reasoning in the existing rules and policies concerning the behavior.
  • 29. 3.POSTCONVENTIONAL MORALITY
    • Stage 5 Social contract orientation
    • The person in this stage believes that rules are made in order to protect people, therefore when one is no longer protected the rules should be broken.
    • Stage 6 Universal ethical principle
    • This stage depicts the internalized morality of the person
    • It is no longer the society’s standards and expectations that are used in making moral judgment but it is the CONSCIENCE that becomes the reference of the action.
  • 30. Stages of Cognitive Development By: Jean Piaget
  • 31.
    • 1. Intelligence and cognitive functioning develop in children.
    • 2. Human Intelligence progresses through a series of
    • stages based on age.
    • 3. In his schema, he believed that biologic changes and maturation were responsible for cognitive development.
    • 4. Individual reach cognitive maturity by middle to late adolescence. .
  • 32.  
  • 33. Stages of Cognitive Development
    • SENSORIMOTOR (0-2 years)
    • Birth to two years
    • Function based on two aspects: sense and motor
    • Infants are preoccupied with discovering the relationships between their actions and the consequences of these actions
  • 34. SENSORIMOTOR
    • Acquisition of OBJECT PERMANENCE
    • OBJECT
    • PERMANENCE
    • It is the awareness that object continues to exist even if it is not present to the senses
    OBJECT PERMANENCE
  • 35. Preoperational Stage (2-7 years)
    • The children interact with their environment through symbols and mental representation
    • Egocentrism is also evident the difficulty to take the view of others
    • EXAMPLE – they may asked the parent to play in the middle of the night without necessary understanding the need of the parent to take a rest.
  • 36. CONCRETE OPERATIONAL
    • Their thinking is considered to be logical but limited to something that is concrete in nature.
    • They have the difficulty of understanding abstract concepts like love and faith
    • The child is able to acquire the concept of conservation that is, the amount of substance remains the same even when its shaped is changed or when parts are divided into parts.
  • 37.  
  • 38. Formal Operational
    • The child at this stage is able to understand concepts that are abstract in nature going beyond from what the child is capable of during the concrete operational stage
    • They are able to make use of their previous experiences to integrate the solving simple and complicated problems
  • 39.
    • Direction: Use the clue below to complete the crossword puzzle.
    • Across:
    • 2. Is the desire for the middle age, to use one’s accumulated wisdom to guide future generations.
    • 3. Deprivation of oneself to have a meaningful relationship to another individual with the opposite sex.
    • 4. The child’s negative feeling and showing low self esteem.
    • 6. Discrimination against the elderly is known____.
    • 7. Child was deprived by the mother to give tender attachment and care will have a tendency to develop_____.
    • 8. Some middle age people experience________ in which development is discontinued or not successful.
    • DOWN:
    • 1. ___describes decreases in mental abilities experienced by some people in old age.
    • 5.The attachment of the child towards the farther and the feeling of rivalry towards the mother.
  • 40.
    • Nervous system-control our body function, emotions, memory, thinking and behavior.
    • 2 kinds of N.S.
    • 1. Central Nervous System – nerves from the back transmit message between the body and the brain.
    • 2.Peripheral Nervous System - smaller nerves branch out from spinal nerves take information from the body organs to the CNS.
    • II. NEURON – nerve of strings long and thin cells. It fires when stimulated.
    • 3 types of neuron:
    • 1. affarent neuron – sensory neurons (relay messages from the sense organ).
    • 2. efferent neuron – motor neuron – send signal from the brain to the glands and muscles.
    • 3. interneurons – transmit message between neuron to another neuron.
  • 41.
    • PARTS of the BRAIN
    • 1. HINDBRAIN rear base of the skull. Involved the main process of life.
    • cerebellum – controls posture and balance.
    • medulla - controls breath and reflexes.
    • Pons – a bridge bet . Spinal and brain produced chemicals needed for sleep.
  • 42.
    • 2. MIDBRAIN – small part of the brain above the pons. Collects information from the senses and sends it upward.
    • Medulla,Pons, Midbrain – Brain stem
    • Reticular activating system – it alert the rest of the brain to messages coming in.