Claims that Web could be an alternative to the ISI (traditional form of citation) for citation impact calculations (Vaughan & Shaw, 2005).
Author’s thought :
There are differences in the extent which disciplines publish on the Web and write journal articles so more information is needed about disciplinary differences in online citation counting to confirm or deny these claims.
3 Research Questions:
Do Google Scholar citations to journal articles correlate with ISI citations in all disciplines?
Do web-based citations (more precisely, Web/URL citations) to journal articles correlate with ISI citations in all disciplines?
Are there clear disciplinary differences between conventional and web-based citation patterns?
What procedures did the experimenter use for the study?
Identify problem area.
Do literature reviews of past researches in this area to understand background of the problem.
There are relatively few comprehensive studies across several subject areas comparing conventional citations with web-based citations
Identify variables concerned : ISI, Google Scholar, and Google Web/URL citation counts.
Set the three Research Questions.
Choose sampling as research methodology - use new data gathering method called “Web/URL citation” – Web/URL and Google Scholar
Web/URL citation is a Web mention of its title, or URL, or both
Why Google Scholar? Easy of use, saving time and access to a wide range of resources (Friend, 2006)
Some publishers heralded Google Scholar because of its broad coverage of academic information
Google Scholar included many web sites from universities, notably OCLC Open WorldCat with millions of bibliographic records (Notess, 2005)
Q1. Significant correlation between ISI citations and Google Scholar and Google Web/URL citations in many science and social sciences disciplines like Chemistry, Biology, Physics, Computer, Economics, Sociology and Education. (but not in Psychology).
Q1. Google scholar citations correlated more highly with ISI citations than Google Web/URL citations.
Q2. Confirmed there is clear disciplinary differences between conventional and web-based citation patterns.
Q3. In Computer Science and Social Sciences, Google Scholar has been used more than ISI.
Q3. Considering the percentage overlap of articles covered in ISI and Google Scholar, there are large disciplinary differences
Significant trends can be detected from this study but there are numerous exceptions too.
Problematic still to replace traditional citations with Google /Web citations for calculating research impact factor.
Limitation of the study : Low rate of OA journals in science and social science disciplines published in 2001
How would you classify the study according to the six types of research categories?
Quantitative (Numeric data)
The relationship between (variable X: ISI citations ) and (variable Y: Google Scholar Citations and Google Web/URL citations ) among (Type of subjects: Academic Journal articles )
Kousha, Kayvan, & Thelwall, Mike. (2007). Google scholar citations and google web/URL citations: A multi-discipline exploratory analysis. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology , 58 (7), 1055-1065.
Vaughan, L., & Shaw, D. (2005). Web citation data for impact assessment: A comparison of four science disciplines. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology , 56 (10), 1075-1087.
Notess, G.R. (2005). Scholarly Web searching: Google Scholar and Scirus. Online , 29 (4).