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Calendar 2011 Burmese 20110101

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  • 1. 2011 Burma Freedom CalendarRelease to Public1 January 2011January 20111 January (BC 153), New Year’s Day, the start of a new year according to the Gregorian calendar.1 January (2000), death in custody at Tharawaddy prison, Ko Nyunt Zaw, All Burma Federation of Students Union (ABFSU / Ba Ka Tha), All Burma Students Democratic Front (ABSDF / Ma Ka Da Ta), Henzada, Irrawaddy.4 January (1948, 4:20 AM sharp), Independence Day, Independence from United Kingdom which had colonized Burma since 1885. The popular sentiment to part with the British was so strong at the time that Burma opted not to join the British Commonwealth, unlike India or Pakistan. Three Flags: 4 January 1948: By U Nu, the first Prime Minister of Burma under the provisions of the 1947 Constitution of the Union of Burma; the independent flag has a red field with a blue rectangle in the left corner with 5 small stars surrounding one large star. 3 February 1974: By Gen Ne win, dictator, the 1974 Constitution of the Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma; the second flag has a red field with a blue rectangle in the left corner bearing a cog wheel and a rice plant encircled by 14 stars. 21 October 2010: By Gen Than Shwe, dictator-king, the military-sponsored 2008 Constitution of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar; the third flag has horizontal stripes of yellow, green and red with a big white star in the middle.5 January, Karen New Year (according to lunar calendar Pyatho Waxing Day 1 of year 2750).6 January (1995), death in custody at Insein prison, U Kin Sein, Peoples’ Progressive Party (PPP), Prome, Pegu.8 January (1991), death in custody at Insein prison, Insein Hospital, U Sein Win (a) Yangyi Aung (1937- 91), University Student Union 1959-60, Thongwa Township, Rangoon.10 January (1928), Date of Birth (DOB), Penang Sayadaw U Pannya Vamsa, Spiritual Director, Chairman and Co-founder of International Burmese Monks Organisation, Penang, Malaysia, native of Sin Koo Ywa, Wakema Township, Irrawaddy, left Burma since 11 December 1957 until the present time.10 January (1948), Kachin National Day. At the end of World War II, Burma sought Independence from Great Britain and Kachin leaders took solemn responsibility in partaking in this historic movement. In 1946 General Aung San came to Kachin homeland to discuss the united effort to achieve Independence from Great Britain. The Kachin leaders were persuaded only on condition that the Kachins would be given the same rights of equality with the Burmans and that the exercise of self- determination be granted to the Kachins in their internal affairs. Kachin, which comprises of six different ethnic groups, including Jinghpaw, Lisu, Rawang, Zaiwa, Laovo and Lashi, gained statehood on 10 January 1948 by commemorated with the famous and traditional Manau celebration at Shatapru ground.10 January (1973), Lahu Revolution Day.11 January (2006), death in custody at Putao prison, U Khin Maung Lwin (a) Nay Min Aung, Green Stars Youth Front, Democracy Party and Patriotic Youth Organisation, Kungyangon, Rangoon. Page 1 of 38
  • 2. 12 January (1963), Palaung Revolution Day.14 January, Naga New Year (according to lunar calendar Pyatho Waxing Day 10). Annually Naga festival is held from Jan. 11 to 17.14 January (1910), DOB, Sayagyi U Thu Kha (a) Thein Maung (Born: 14 January 1910 – Died: 7 December 2005), native of Kyaiklat, six-time Burmese Academy Award winning film director, writer, song writer, script writer and film actor, U Thu Kha Library in Kyaiklat, Irrawaddy. Thu Kha was profoundly respected for his altruistic attitude and works. He was the founder and president of the Rangoon Division Free Funeral Service Society, which volunteers its funeral services to any family regardless of race, religion or social standing.15 January, Karenni State Day.18 January (1991), death in custody at Insein prison, U Tin Maung Win (1941-91), MP 1990, National League for Democracy (NLD) Khayan Township Constituency (2), Rangoon, post-WWII Old Student Leaders Organisation.19 January (1910), DOB, Ludu U Hla (a) Kyipwa Yay U Hla (19 January 1910 – 7 August 1982), native of Pazun Myaung village near Nyaunglebin, Mandalayan by marriage, husband of, veteran journalist, publisher, chronicler, folklorist and social reformer, Kyipwa Yay (Progress) magazine, Thuriya (Sun) newspaper, Ludu (The People) Journal, Ludu Daily newspaper, political prisoner 1953-56 jailed by AFPFL under U Nu, imprisoned for the fifth time in 1978, Dobama Asiayone, Progress for Youth Club, Asha Lu Nge (Asia Youth), one of the founder of AFPFL, Writers Association of Upper Burma, UNESCO award for literature (1958). Wife: Ludhu Daw Ahmar (1915-2008); sons: Soe Win (1941-67, killed during the CPB purges in the jungle of the Pegu Yoma range of mountains), Po Than Joung (b. 1945, spokesperson of Communist Party of Burma), Nyein Chan (b. 1952, writer Nyi Pu Lay of short stories and travelogues); daughters: Than Yin Mar (b. 1943, rtd. professor of medicine, writer Dr Mya Myitzu), Tin Win (b. 1947, in charge of Kyipwa Yay Press). One morning in 1948, soon after Burma gained her independence from the British, the Kyipwa Yay Press in Mandalay was dynamited to rubble by government troops who were angry that the Ludu couple appeared to be sympathetic to the Communists. The entire family, including two pregnant women, was thrown out into the street, lined up and was about to be gunned down when a number of monks and locals successfully intervened to save their lives. He opposed the British colonial rule and successive military dictatorships and paid dearly for his fights for truth and human rights.20 January (1898), DOB, U Abdul Razak (20 January 1898 – 19 July 1947), National Hero, Martyr, teacher, native of Meiktila, Mandalay, MP 1945 AFPFL Mandalay, Minister of Education and National Planning in Aung San’s Cabinet, chairman of the Burma Muslim Congress, headmaster of Mandalay National High School, the Muslim of Burma.20 January (1926), DOB, Gen Saw Bo Mya (20 January 1926 – 24 December 2006), Karen National Liberation Army, Karen National Union, DAB, NDF, NCUB.22 January (1909, Friday), DOB, U Thant (22 January 1909 – 25 November 1974), native of Pantanaw, former UN Secretary General (1961-71), military regime critic “Governments, systems, ideologies come and go, but it is humanity which remains.”22 January (2009), death in custody at Insein prison, Ven. U Arnanda (1948-2009), Thitsa Tharaphu monastery, North Okkalapa, Rangoon.24 January (2000), Ratchaburi Provincial Hospital Siege without harming any patients, Thailand. God’s Army and Vigorous Burmese Student Warriors: Myint Thein, Hla Myint, Naung Khan, Kyaw Kyaw, Maung Htoo, Mohammad, Toe Toe, Myint Oo, Nyunt Shwe, and Saw Nya Twa, were executed after surrendering by the Thai military. They demanded that doctors treat their wounded and Thailand end its backing of the Burmese government attacks.27 January (1947), Aung San-Atlee Agreement, Bo Aung San began negotiating with the British labour Prime Minister Clement Atlee and successfully concluded the Aung San-Atlee Agreement, Page 2 of 38
  • 3. promising full independence for Burma within one year. “I hope for the best but prepared for the worst,” said he.27 January (1961), DOB, Ko Zarganar (meaning “Tweezer”) (a) Ko Thura, Burma’s best-known comedian, movie/video director, dentist graduated 1985 (17 batch), patriot, political prisoner 1988-89, 1990-94 Insein prison and 45+14 minus 24-year imprisonment (2008) Insein / Myitkyina prisons for attempting to deliver aid to victims of Cyclone Nargis, 8-8-88 uprising, Saffron Revolution 2007, 2008 Cyclone Nargis Humanitarian, Lillian Hellman and Dashiel Award 1991, Human Right prize Canadian PEN 2008, Freedom to Create Imprisoned Artist prize (2008, Canada), Reporters Without Borders award (2008 Cyber-dissident category), Human Right prize British PEN / Pinter (2009). Wife: Lwin Mar Oo, USA; son: Myat Kaung, USA; daughter: Nge Oo Mon, USA; father: Nan Nyunt Swe (1923-2010); mother: Kyi Oo (1925-2009); sister-in-law: Ma Nyein. Health condition: hypertension, hepatitis and bad kidneys. He had been barred indefinitely from performing and making a living as a comedian 1994 and an artist 14 May 2006, passport denied June 2006. Cat-and- Mouse Game: There are always under-the-table jokes and behind-the-curtain humor, 2006. We artists get money from the people. The people cry, we cry. The people laugh, we laugh. The people hate, we hate. We must stand in front of the people. We must sacrifice for the people. Theme: All enemies must be my friends, 2007.28 January (2004), death in custody at Toungoo prison, Toungoo Hospital, U Sein Tin (a) Shein Tin, Anti- Fascist People Freedom League (AFPFL), Burma Communist Party (BCP), People’s Progressive Party, Rangoon.29 January (1999), death soon after release from Mandalay Ohbo prison, Ven. U Yewata (a) Yawada, General Secretary of Thangha Thamaggi, Mandalay.31 January (1947), Karen Revolutionary Day, Saw Ba U Gyi laid down four basic principles: (1) Surrender is out of the question, (2) We shall retain our arms, (3) Recognition of Karen State must be complete, and (4) We shall decide our own political destiny.February 20112 February (1913), DOB, U Ohn Maung, (2 February 1913 – 19 July 1947, Martyrs’ Day), native of Minbu, Magwe, National Hero, Martyr, Eastern Mandalay wun dauk 1939, cabinet secretary of Bogyoke Aung San.3 February, Chinese New Year (according to lunar calendar 4709, Year of the Rabbit).3 February, Lahu New Year (according to lunar calendar, usually coincides with the Chinese New Year).5 February (1911), DOB, U Law Yone (a) Edward Michael “Ed” Law-Yone (5 February 1911 ̶ 27 June 1980), native of Myitkyina, Kachin, author, founder and notable publisher of the Rangoon Nation, the leading English Language daily in post-war Burma, Editor of Guardian Newspaper, Chief Editor of The Working People’s Daily, political prisoner 1962-67, revolutionary politician, EC member of Union of Burma Boy Scouts, chairman and executive committee of the Old Peterites Association, Parliamentary Democracy Party, Ramon Magsaysay Award for Journalism, Literature and Creative Communication Arts 1959, die in Maryland, USA. Author Wendy Law-Yone is his daughter in UK and actress Jocelyn Seagrave is his granddaughter. In his Times obituary in 1980, the year of his death: “He was the first independent newspaper editor of free, postwar Burma, and also, to date, the last.”5 February (1947), Founding Day of Karen National Union (KNU).5 February (1952), DOB, Sayar Nyi Pu Lay (a) Nyein Chan (a) Bo Nyo, son of Ludu U Hla and Ludu Daw Ahmar, native of Mandalay, well-known short story writer, artist, photographer, political prisoner 1978, 10-year imprisonment (1990) Insein / Thayet prisons. Page 3 of 38
  • 4. 5 February (1961), Kachin Revolutionary Day. We would like to urge our comrades to: raise your revolutionary spirit, as a new generation revolution progresses; strengthen your political stand, as the revolution advances; solidarity under one political goal of restoring the rights to the Kachin people to determine their own political destiny; cooperate with and extend a helping hand to the Kachin by various means; maintain coordination with fellow ethnic nationalities and political forces; struggle on relentlessly until victory is achieved. The revolution and struggle of the Kachin people shall be definitely triumph. 20067 February (1947), Shan National Day. The date 7th February 1947 is a defining moment for us in the record of our history as a modern nation. On that day, Shan princes and the people’s representatives of the Shan States demonstrated their newfound unity to declare it a “national day” which were followed by the resolutions of “Shan National Anthem”, “Shan National Flag” and the formation of “Shan State Council” on the 11th and 15th of February, 1947 respectively. These had been done without reference to the British colonial overlords, who claimed protector ship over the Federated Shan States since 1886-87 (one year after the fall of the Burman kingdom and the Alaungpaya or Konbaung dynasty). The formation of the Shan State Council by Shan leaders autonomously of the British represents a declaration by the Shan that they are a sovereign, free nation. This bold action constitutes a Shan declaration of independence from foreign rule, and the date, 7th February 1947, marks the entry of the Shan people onto the world’s historical stage as a modern nation. The people of Shan States and leaders decided in this very year later at Panglong, on the 12th of February, to join with U Aung San and the Anti-Fascist People’s Freedom League and leaders of other nationalities, to live together under one flag as co-independent and equal nations. This marks the birth of a nation-state now known as “Union of Burma”.9 February (1953), DOB, Ma Taw (a) Taw Myo Myint (9 February 1953 – 14 March 2005), native of Maymyo, human rights activist, 8-8-88 uprising, Free Burma Movement, engaged in civil disobedience at a UNOCAL facility. During the Los Angeles City Council Human Rights Award (2005) she said, “I am honored and happy to receive this award. This award is given not only for me but also for the people of Burma. They are not free yet. I promise to fight for human rights and democracy in Burma till I die.”, California, USA. She was one of the royal descendents of King Mindon, Burma’s last Yadanabon Dynasty and the patron of Burma Compatriots. Survivors include her husband Khin Maung Shwe and daughter Htet Htet.9 February (1972), Akha Revolution Day.10 February (1909), DOB, Sayagyi Minthuwun (a) U Wun (10 February 1909 – 15 August 2004), native of Kungyangon, Mon, Mon-Burmese scholar, prominent romantic poet, writer, political dissident, MP 1990, NLD, his poems were removed from the basic high schools’ curriculum.10 February (1939), seventeen persons (including seven monks) taking part in peaceful demonstrations in Mandalay were shot and killed by ethnic soldiers under British command. Thirteen were seriously wounded.10 February (1998), death in custody at Tavoy prison, Naw Thin Su, Mergui/Tavoy United Front, Thayetchaung, Tenasserim.11 February (1948), Karen National Day. National Slogans of the Karen People: (1) Give us the Karen State at once, (2) Show “Karen one Kyat, Burmese one Kyat” at once, (3) We don’t want communal clashes, and (4) We don’t want civil war.12 February (1938), DOB, Prof. Dr. Kanbawza Win (a) Ba Thann Win, Doctor of Philosophy (Education) Washington International University 1999, Masters of Arts (International Relations) Rangoon University 1970, Bachelor of Arts in Honours, Political Science, Rangoon University 1967, former Secretary of Foreign Affairs of the Prime Minister of Burma has served as a Distinguished Visiting Professor at the Menno Simons College of University of Winnipeg and later as a Senior Research Fellow at the European Institute of Asian Studies, Brussels is now the incumbent Dean of the Page 4 of 38
  • 5. Students of the AEIOU Programme, Chiangmai University Thailand and an Adjunct Professor of the School of International Studies, Simon Fraser University, of British Columbia, Canada. Currently, December 2009, attending the Climatic Conference in Copenhagen has written many Articles and Books.12 February (1947), Union Day celebrates the signing of the Panglong Agreement and the creation of the Union of Burma. General Aung San was able to convince some of the Shan Saophas, Kachin Duwars and the Chin leaders and finally succeeded in concluding an agreement with ethnic minorities for a unified Burma at the Panglong Conference on February 12, celebrated since as ‘Union Day’. The Karen sent only 4 observers. The Arakanese and the Mons were considered as part of the Burmese tribe having being subdued since the Burmese kings and were not consulted; the Karenni was an independent state and not invited. A new democratic and federal constitution was drafted that safeguarded basic civil liberties and the rights of the citizen. Panglong Spirit: Liberty, Equality, Autonomy, and Federal Union (LEAF). There were 23 signatories in all expressing their willingness to work with the ‘interim Burmese government’ in order to achieve independence speedily, and agreeing in principle the formation of a ‘Union of Burma’. Burman representative: Aung San; Chin representatives: Hlur Hmung, Thawng Za Khup, Kio Mang; Kachin representatives: Sinwa Nawng, Zau Rip, Dinra Tang, Zau La, Zau Lawn, Labang Grong; Shan representatives: Tawnpeng, Yawnghwei, North Hsenwi, Laika, Mong Pawn, Hsamonghkam and representatives of Pawnglawng: Hkun Pung, Tin E, Kya Bu, Sao Yapa Hpa, Htun Myint, Hkun Saw, Hkun Htee. Aung San’s assurance on the day, “If Burman receives one Kyat, you will also get one Kyat”, has often been quoted by ethnic nationalists since. In Aung San’s sincere words, “We will take you along with us in regaining independence.” “The cause of the Union, the cause of the national races, and the cause of democracy and human rights are inseparable,” Aung San Suu Kyi told her supporters. 12 February1998 The United Nationalities Alliance, the umbrella organization of ethnic parties that had won in the 1990 elections, call for the release of all political prisoners including Aung San Suu Kyi and the Shan leader Khun Htun Oo, an end to the offensives in the ethnic areas and the holding of a tripartite dialogue between the junta, the National League for Democracy and the ethnic forces. 12 February 201013 February (1915, Saturday, Tabaung waxing day 1, 1276), DOB, Bogyoke Aung San (a) Htein Lin (13 February 1915 – 19 July 1947), native of Natmauk, Magwe, national hero, founder of Burma army, 13 February has been commemorated every year as Burmese Children Day.14 February, Valentine’s Day. Lovers express their feelings to each other. One legend contends that Valentine was a Catholic priest who served during the third century in Rome. When Emperor Claudius II decided that single men made better soldiers than those with wives and families, he outlawed marriage for young men — his crop of potential soldiers. Valentine, realizing the injustice of the decree, defied Claudius and continued to perform marriages for young lovers in secret. When Valentine’s actions were discovered, Claudius ordered that he be put to death around 270 A.D. In Burma under oppressive military generals, the Valentine’s Day is celebrated as Burmese Anti Military Dictator Day started by a schoolgirl since 2010.14 February (1991), Founding Day of National League for Democracy – Liberated Area (NLD-LA).14 February (2008), Padoh Mahn Sha (a) Mahn Sha Lar Phan (5 July 1944 – 14 February 2008), Secretary General of the Karen National Union (KNU), was assassinated by Pauk Sa from the group of Htain Maung’s Karen Peace Council, commander San Pyone (assassinated on 26 June 2009) from pro-Burmese junta Democratic Karen Buddhist Army Battalion 7, Soe Myint of the Democratic Karen Buddhist Army Battalion 999 and the Burmese soldiers with the blessing from the Government of Thailand. Page 5 of 38
  • 6. 16 February (1993), death in custody at Insein prison, U Khin Maung Myint, All Burma Federation Students Union, Peoples’ Progressive Party, Dedaye, Irrawaddy.17 February (1863), Founding Day of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), Geneva, Switzerland.17 February (1937), DOB, Maung Swan Yi (a) Win Pe, famous poet, writer, literary critic, scholar, political prisoner, National Literary Prize 1964 for his collection of poetry, Poems of Red and Blue.18 February (1998), death in custody at Insein prison, U Thein Tin (a) Tin Thein Maung (a) Pan-Hta-We Tin Maung, writer, pharmacist, Rangoon division organizer of NLD South Okkalapa, Rangoon.19 February (1947), Mon National Day (according to lunar calendar Tabodwe – Maik by Mon – Waning Day 1), the founding of Hongsawatoi by Sammala and Vimala.19 February (1996), death in custody at Insein prison, U Tun Sein, Labor Union of United National Unity Front, Union of Prisoners in 1970s, Kemmendine, Rangoon.20 February (1948), Chin National Day. It was adopted at the first Chin National Conference held on February 20, 1948 in Falam town in Chin state. During the conference, Chin leaders agreed to abolish the use of the chieftainship system of administration and agreed to form a democratic system of governance.22 February (1932), DOB, Mr. Edward Moore “Ted” Kennedy (22 February 1932 – 25 August 2009), Senator 1962-2009, Democratic Party, Massachusetts, USA. In a statement made on 11 May 1990 Sen. Edward Kennedy urged the US administration to support economic sanctions against Burma’s military dictatorship and to take concrete steps to back efforts of international and private voluntary organizations in aiding Burmese refugees.27 February (1937), DOB, Sayar Kyi Aung (a) Kyi Lin (27 February 1937 – 27 March 2009), famous poet, literature critics, native of Ave, Mandalay, political prisoner gagged by Censorship Board, 8-8-88 uprising.March 20111 March (1935), DOB, U Bilal Raschid, son of U Raschid, native of Thayetmyo, an architect, founder and President of Committee for the Restoration of Democracy in Burma (International), President of the world-wide Burmese Muslim Association, ambassador-designate of NCGUB to the U.N. and testified before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee in this capacity in 1992, President of the Rotary Club of Rangoon, Burma (1969-70), Assistant Governor of Rotary District 7610, Virginia, USA.2 March (1962), The darkest hellhole of military dictatorship terminating democracy and human rights by Gen. Ne Win (Burma Socialist Program Party, BSPP / Ma Sa La, 4 July 1962) with his henchmen Gen. Saw Maung, 18 September 1988/ Gen. Than Shwe, 23 April 1992 (State Law and Order Restoration Council, SLORC / Na Wa Ta / Nyeinpi, 18 September 1988) and Gen. Than Shwe (State Peace and Development Council, SPDC / Na Ah Pha, 15 November 1997). Sao Myi Myi Thaik, age seventeen, son of the first president Sao Shwe Thaik (death in custody 21 November 1962), younger brother of Eugene and elder to Harn, first democracy martyr was killed by Burmese soldiers. Prime Minister U Nu with his cabinet members and over thirty ethnic leaders had been jailed.6 March (2008), death in custody suffering from TB at Tharawaddy prison, Ko Win Tin (a) Annul (1978- 2008), high school student, NLD Youth Pegu.7 March (1990), death in custody at Insein prison, Bo Set Yaung (a) U Khin Maung, Burma Communist Party (BCP), Bahan, Rangoon.8 March (1975), International Woman’s Day. It is a major day of global celebration for the economic, political and social achievements of women. Page 6 of 38
  • 7. 8 March (1991), death in custody at Insein prison, U Nyo Win (1930-91), All Burma Federation Students Union 1954-60, University Student Union, Student United Front, Post-War and Independence Era Old Students Association, Peoples’ Progressive Party, League of Democratic Alliances, Shwekyin, Pegu.10 March (1966), DOB, Ko Mya Aye, , political prisoner 65-year imprisonment (2008) Insein / Maubin / Loikaw prisons, 8-8-88uprising, Saffron Revolution 2007, 88 Generation Students Group, Mingalar Taung Nyunt, Rangoon. Daughter: Waihnin Pwint Thon (Burma Campaign UK). No freedom of expression: If our desire is not allowed to be expressed anywhere, how could we believe the junta’s claim of looking forward to building a democratic nation, October 2006.12 March (1927), DOB, Thura Tin Oo, native of Bassein, Retd. Gen., BC 3651, Chief of Staff and minister of defense (1974-76), monk, political prisoner 1976-80 Insein prison, 1989-95 Insein prison, Kale prison 30 May 2003 - February 2004 + extended yearly on 13 February under house arrest, released on 13 February 2010, Vice Chairman of NLD, Committee Representing People’s Parliament, 8-8-88 uprising. When Ne Win dismissed Tin Oo in March 1976, students took to the streets shouting “Long Live Tin Oo” in demonstrations against the junta and Ne Win. Tin Oo was imprisoned for his alleged involvement in an abortive coup attempt in July 1976. Wife: Dr Tin Moe Wai; son: Thant Zin Oo (Japan). Patriotism: I love the army, but I love the people more than the army (1989). When he was released on 13 February 2010, he told reporters, “I will continue to work for democracy.” We strongly urge that the appropriate measures to be taken by European Commission to make clear that it is not acting in concert with those who are disseminating pro-junta propaganda, 15 September 2010. We want to trust the army and the army to trust us, 15 October 2010.12 March (1930), DOB, U Win Tin (Hanthawaddy), renowned journalist, writer, political prisoner 3-year imprisonment (1989) + extended 11-year (1992) + extended 7-year (1996) Insein prison, released 2008, vice-president of the Association of Burmese Writers, Central Executive Council NLD, advisor to Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, UNESCO / Guillermo Cano World Press Freedom Prize (2001, France), World Association of Newspapers’ Golden Pen of Freedom award (2001), Journalist of the Year by Reporters Sans Frontiers (France, 2006), Gyobingauk, Pegu. Justice: The junta fears U Win Tin because he is incorruptible. Win Tin initiated a Suu-Hlut-Twayt policy: “Suu” referred to Suu Kyi and all political prisoners are released, “Hlut” for Hluttaw convened and “Twayt” as face to face dialogue. Always following the four principles of the NLD’s Shwegondaing Declaration in April 2009; before the 2010 election we demand the military regime to recognize the 1990 election results, release all political prisoners, open dialogue with Aung San Suu Kyi, and review the 2008 constitution, January 2010. Western countries should persuade veto power holders like China and Russia to take practical actions on Burma through the United Nations Security Council, such as weapons sanctions and strong diplomatic pressure, Win Tin said, 28 April 2010. A leader from Burma’s pro-democracy opposition is calling on US President Barack Obama to raise the issue of a United Nations commission of inquiry into crimes against humanity committed by Burma’s military junta with regional representatives thus far unsupportive of the measure, 23 September 2010. Referring to Ban’s repeated statements of “concern” regarding the situation in Burma, Win Tin asked “if he forgets to include in his report the army’s attacks on Burma’s ethnic nationalities and peasants in rural areas, is Ban Ki-moon really concerned?” 29 October 2010.13 March (1988), martyrs Phone Maw, Soe Naing, Win Aung, Tin Maung Oo, Than Shwe, and Maung Maung Soe, Rangoon Institute of Technology (RIT) students, triggered the 8-8-88 uprising. March 13 has been commemorated every year as Burma’s Human Rights Day.13 March (1997), death in custody at Insein prison, Rangoon General Hospital, Rev. Saw Hla Chit, Christian priest, Bogale, Irrawaddy.15 March (1975), deaths of Communist leaders Thakin Zin and Thakin Chit. Page 7 of 38
  • 8. 15 March (1996), death in custody at Thayet prison, Ven. U Arsara (1961-1996), monk, political prisoner 10-year imprisonment (1991), 8-8-88 uprising, 1990 Overturning of Alms Bowl religious boycott, Young Monks Union, Thayetaw Monastery, Lanmadaw, Rangoon.16 March (1927), DOB, Sir Daniel Patrick Monihan (16 March 1927 – 26 March 2003), Senator, Democratic Party, New York, USA, a consistent champion of the Burmese, Moynihan Amendment: Toughened economic sanctions.16 March (1988), Red Bridge Remembrance Day. The white bridge was splattered with students’ blood. The security police and soldiers under Maj Sein Htwa, who raped girls in detention, killed and drowned about 200-300 students. The wounded bodies were cremated day and night at Kyandaw cemetery and some were fed to a crocodile farm in Thingangyun.17 March (2006), beaten to death on the street by fascist members of Rangoon Kemmendine Township police, reserve fire brigade and Union Solidarity and Development Association (USDA / Kyant Phoot), Ko Thet Naing Oo (a) Pya Laung, All Burma Students Democratic Front.18 March (1988, Friday), Bloody Friday. Thousands of students marched down to Sule Pagoda in central Rangoon were arrested or killed by the Lon Htein – commander Sein Lwin – and army units – the 22, 66 and 77 LIDs. Schools and universities were closed down.19 March, Pa-O National Day (according to lunar calendar Tabaung Full Moon Day).20 March (1988), Chin National Revolution Day, Founding Day of Chin National Front (CNF). The CNF dedicated to securing the self-determination of the Chin people, to restore democracy, and to establish Federal Union of Burma.20 March (2009), death of Sayamagyi Kyi Oo (a) Thakinmagyi Hla Kyi, (23 June 1925 - 20 March 2009), native of Bilin, Mon, mother of the Zarganar, highly respected writer, veteran politician, Yankin, Rangoon. She had not given up her beliefs. She could not tolerate injustice. She stands for the Burmese people.21 March (1909, Sunday), DOB, Sayagyi Maung Htin (a) Htin Hpatt, journalist-writer of national fame, native of Labutta, Irrawaddy. One of the everlasting Burmese books will be his “Nga Ba” in Burma. Featured in Oktha journal No 3 published in December 1990, his article “Democracy” clearly reflects the Burmese way of democracy or the wishes of the majority.21 March (1960), International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination. Police opened fire and killed 69 people at a peaceful demonstration in Sharpeville, South Africa, against the apartheid “pass laws.”21 March (1999), World Poetry Day. The purpose of the day is to promote the reading, writing, publishing and teaching of poetry throughout the world and, as the UNESCO session declaring the day says, to “give fresh recognition and impetus to national, regional and international poetry movements.”21 March (2008), Kyaw Zin Naing (1982-2008) set himself on fire at Burma’s most revered Buddhist Shwedagon Pagoda to protest military rule and died on 17 April 2008 from burns of more than 60 per cent of his body.23 March (1876), DOB, Thakin Kodaw Hmaing (23 March 1876 – 23 July 1964), native of Wa-le village, Shwetaung Township, Prome, prominent writer, poet, nationalist, military regime critic, father of Burma’s peace movement, Dobama Asiayone 1934, All Burma Students Union 1936. Wife: Ma Shin. He showed no mercy to those who were mere political opportunists, 1925. He inspired a whole generation of Burmese nationalists in the fight for independence, fostering immense pride in their own history, language and culture, and more importantly urging them to take direct action such as strikes by students and workers, 1927. By 1941 his reputation as a leading nationalist earned him a place on the colonial authorities’ Burma List, regarded as an enemy of the state. After independence in 1948 the country immediately plunged into a widespread civil war which caused great sorrow to him, and he spent the rest of his life trying to bring internal peace to the land. In 1952 he was elected Chairman of the World Peace Congress (Burma) and won the Stalin Peace Prize in 1954. He was Page 8 of 38
  • 9. awarded an honorary doctorate in 1960 by the University of Hamburg, West Germany. Since he was on the list of the censorship board, his works were banned from being published by the oppressive military junta. May a myriad good things with vigour have a chance; may the peacock have its call and dance.23 March (1976), 1976 Hmaing Rarpyi uprising (a) Hmaing Centenary uprising, Students uprising commemorating the centenary of the birth of Thakin Kodaw Hmaing. Over 230 students were jailed long term imprisonment and expelled permanently from schools.23 March (2000), Founding Day of Assistance Association for Political Prisoners (Burma). Bo Kyi founded the AAPP with other former political prisoner colleagues on 23 March 2000, the 11th anniversary of the arrest of 1988 student leader Min Ko Naing. The AAPP is an independent, non- profit organization that monitors the situation regarding political prisoners in Burma, including human rights violations, persecution and intimidation to both current and former political prisoners and their families.23 March (2006), death in custody at Tharawaddy prison, U Ko Oo, secretary of NLD, Thayet Township.24 March (1982), World Tuberculosis (TB) Day is designed to build public awareness that tuberculosis today remains an epidemic in much of the world, causing the deaths of about 1.6 million people each year, mostly in the third world.27 March (1945), Resistance Day, marking the start of Burmese resistance to occupying Japanese army and today we are still struggling to get out from under oppressive military dictatorship and achieve democracy.27 March (2009), death of Sayagyi Kyi Aung (a) kyi Lin (1937-2009), famous poet, literature critics, native of Ave, Mandalay, political prisoner gagged by Censorship Board, 8-8-88 uprising.28 March (1948), People’s Democratic Revolution Day of Burmese Communists. The Communist Party of Burma (CPB) went underground.29 March (2010), NLD’s Decision to not register with the Election Commission. Burma’s largest political party, National League for Democracy (NLD) this afternoon decided not to register with the Election Commission for its continued existence in view of the unjust and unfair election laws recently promulgated by the military junta, chief spokesman of the NLD U Nyan Win told newsmen. The election laws prohibit parties from having members who are currently in detention, so a decision to register would have forced Suu Kyi out of the party. This resolution was adopted unanimously by the Central Committee meeting of the party, which took place at the head office of the NLD in Rangoon this afternoon. The meeting was attended by 113 central committee members from all over Burma headed by Central Executive Committee members, except Chairman Aung Shwe, Secretary U Lwin and CEC member Lun Tin. The meeting also adopted another resolution, which called on the Burma military junta to release all political prisoners including Aung San Suu Kyi, Min Ko Naing, Zarganar, and Khun Htun Oo immediately. This decision of the NLD, not to register with the Election Commission for its continued existence will have devastating effect on the upcoming general elections to be held by the military regime. In explaining about the decision of the NLD not to register with the Election Commission, U Nyan Win said: We have adopted this historic decision not for the continued existence of our party but for the continued pursuit of political goal of the party. Vice-President of the NLD U Tin Oo, who chaired the today’s central committee meeting, also briefed the newsmen saying that the NLD itself would not abolish its own party. The NLD will continue to work peacefully towards the democratic goal with the strength of the entire people and ethnic national races even though the NLD may not be a political party anymore. Now military government can do as they like. They can arrest all of us and do whatever they like. We are ready for all kinds of persecution and intimidation, U Tin Oo declared. Page 9 of 38
  • 10. Vice-President of the party U Tin Oo dubbed Daw Aung San Suu Kyi as Burma’s Gandhi, who he said had steadfastly given her whole life for the people of Burma achieving basic human rights and democratic rights. U Win Tin, member of the Central Executive Committee and co-founder of the NLD, stated: “Still, the NLD will not disappear. We will be among the people, with the people. We will continue to fight for democracy, human rights and equality among all ethnic nationalities, by peaceful means.” “We will work in public politics and social politics even without party registration,” said Win Tin. Senior members of the NLD said they will continue to work for the Burmese people through humanitarian projects to support families of political prisoners, HIV/AIDS patients and Nargis victims. Daw Aung San Suu Kyi said about the right to vote: “People have the right either to vote or not to vote.” Before the meeting, representatives from the several states – Magwe, Pegu and Karen – as well as NLD youth leaders declared that they will against registration, claiming that they can still struggle for democratic rights without a political party. Condemning the oppressive military ruler of Burma, Dictator-King Sr-Gen Than Shwe, for his flawed electoral laws, the international community has declared not to recognize the result of the 2010 sham election since the Junta has insisted that it would go ahead with its own guidelines for the general election. Mr. Do Thawnga, Member of Parliament 1990 NLD Kalemyo-Tahan, Chin and NLD Central Committee Member, passed away on 29 March 2010, the day NLD party decided not to enter Burma’s sham 2010 election. On his death bed, he wrote an opinion sending to NLD central, not to enter election.31 March (1928), DOB, Dr. Salai Tun Than, Ph.D. University of Wisconsin, U.S.A, leader of Civil Disobedience Movement, retired professor, former rector of Yezin Agriculture Institute in Pyinmana, solo protester in front of the Rangoon City Hall (2001), political prisoner 2001-02, Burma Independence Army, Chin Defense Organization, campaign trail – U.S.A., Japan, Korea, and Thailand, Senior General Than Shwe cancelled his Burmese passport, 9 June 2006. Doing thing without thinking is passing time. Thinking without action is daydreaming. Action with appropriate thought is a mission, 25 February 2006. Determination: Sacrifice myself in order to bring this horrible system of military dictatorship to an end.31 March (1974), DOB, Ko Myo Yan Naung Thein, B.Arch. from Rangoon Institute of Technology, political prisoner 1997-2003 Insein prison as the prominent leader of 1996 December Students’ Demonstrations and 2007-09 Insein / Sandoway prisons mental unit for Saffron Revolution 2007. He is, one of the 88 Generation Students, disable resulting in paralysis down the left side of his body due to torture in prison by Special Branch and Swan Arr Shin. Father: Mya Thein; mother: Kyi Kyi Sein. He speaks English, French, Portuguese, Italian and Spanish very fluently, and he plays vital role in struggle for freedom in Burma. He has been working for democratisation of Burma with full determination, dedication and devotion. “We sacrificed a lot. I will have to carry on until we get democracy in Burma. As a student, I didn’t really know about politics. I only knew that the military government is wrong. So I rebelled and demonstrated against the military government. Their rule is totally wrong for Burma. Because of that, they arrested and cruelly imprisoned me. After we were imprisoned, we learned more and more about the injustices carried out by the military government, and that strengthened my beliefs even more,” he said. 19 September 2009 Page 10 of 38
  • 11. April 20111 April, April Fools Day. Practices include sending someone on a “fool’s errand,” looking for things that don’t exist; playing pranks; and trying to get people to believe ridiculous things.1 April (1965). Nationalization of Private Schools. Most of the early mission schools since 1860 (such as La Salle schools) in Burma were nationalized on April 1, 1965 after the order restoration of General Ne Win. Preschools are opened for children over 2 years of age and they are in extensive care or public systems. Kindergarten starts from the age of 5 (not younger than 4 Years and 8 months at the time of schools commencement date 1st of June). Primary (Elementary, Standards K-4), Lower Secondary (Middle, 5-8) and Upper Secondary (High, 9-10) Schools in Burma are under the Department of Basic Education. English is taught as a second language from Kindergarten. When Burma gained independence in 1948, the government sought to create a literate and educated population, and Burma was believed to be on its way to become the first Asian Tiger in the region. However, military dictatorship took hold in 1962 and Burma became an isolated and impoverished nation. All schools were nationalized and education standards began to fall. Through many changes in education systems under the military regime, the junta uses schools as propaganda machines. Furthermore, indigenous people have little chance to promote their language and culture given the supremacy of the Burmese language.2 April (1925), International Children’s Book Day (ICBD) is celebrated to inspire a love of reading and to call attention to children’s book.5 April (1988), Captain Myint Oo ordered his soldiers to load their guns and aim at Aung San Suu Kyi who was walking down the street along with her followers in Danubyu during a campaign tour of the Irrawaddy.6 April (1923), DOB, Dr. Than Htun (6 April 1923 – 30 November 2005), highly respected historian, Ngathaingchaung’s Asian Youth League, Anti-Fascist People’s Freedom League, chairman of Burmese Student Union Ba Ka Tha 1947, professor at History Department, Arts and Science University, Mandalay, visiting professor at Tokyo University, Tokyo International Christian University, Osaka University, and Northern Illinois University, a Literate of the 11th Fukuoka Asian Culture Prizes in the Academic Prize Category (2000). On the generals’ obsession with white elephants, he commented, “An elephant is an elephant.” Than Tun often criticized the generals for attempting to rewrite the history of Burma according to the requirements of their propagandas, and his well-researched books on Burma, had often been banned by the paranoid generals. The monument, inscribed with remarkable words: Keep doing what you are doing, of the well-known late Burmese historian Dr. Than Tun was removed from the Taunglaylone Monastery in Amarapura by an order of the Burmese authorities in 2006.6 April (1938), DOB, Fu Cin Sian Thang, native of Tiddim, Chin, lawyer, political prisoner at least ten occasions between 1972 and 2007, MP, Chairman of the Chin Zomi National Congress, Committee Representing People’s Parliament, United Nationalities Alliance, Chin Ethnic Student Union, Saffron Revolution 2007.7 April (1950), World Health Day. It is celebrated to create “awareness of a specific health theme to highlight a priority area of concern for the World Health Organization.”9 April (1967), Founding Day of Arakan Liberation Party (ALP).10 April (2000), Kayan National Day.11 April (1919), Founding Day of the International Labour Organization (ILO).12 April (1907), DOB, Sayar Zawgyi (a) U Thein Han (12 April 1907 – 26 September 1990), native of Phapon, Irrawaddy, renowned writer, famous author and poet, nationalist literary person and vocal supporter of independence from the British Empire. Always for the people. Page 11 of 38
  • 12. 16 April (1991), death in custody at Interrogation Center, Military Intelligence Unit 12, Rangoon, Ko Soe Htay (1972-91), student.17 April, Burmese New Year (according to lunar calendar Tagu New Year’s Day of the year 1373), water festival can wash away evils and sins accumulated in the past and prepare for the future, bringing the people into a happy new year.17 April (1945), DOB, Maung Wun Tha (a) Soe Thein, native of Waw, Pegu, highly respected writer, editor of the Hanthawaddy and Botahtaung daily, MP 1990 NLD Waw, Pegu, political prisoner 1989, 1990-92 and 1996-2001 Insein prison, 7-7-62 student uprising, 8-8-88 uprising. Independence is something we gained from the British. However, in reality we still have to struggle if we want to enjoy freedom. I want to remind our people to remember the value of freedom, 4 January 2008.17 April (1946), DOB, Lashio Thein Aung (a) Jimmy Jack, The LEGEND, nationally recognized Burmese stereo singer. In 1962 when almost half the nation was on the march “Demonstrations against Democracy,” I was the only-one student in my hometown Lashio who went home on that day. My name is Jimmy Patrick Nathan; I was born in Bhamo and raised in Lashio. I left Burma in 1972 spent some time in the mountains and jungles along the Burma-Thai border as a freedom fighter. Close political ties with Brang Seng, Eugene Htaike, Tin Maung Win, Ye Kyaw Thu and KMT. In Chicago I promised A Ba U Aye Myint that I would stand and fight for Democracy hand in hand with the 8-8-88 Student Generation. Freedom Fighter 72, Man without a Country.21 April (1948), DOB, U Tin Maung Thaw, Secretary of Committee for the Restoration of Democracy in Burma (International), Co-Chair of U.S. Campaign for Burma, USA.22 April (1970), International Earth Day is intended to inspire awareness of and appreciation for the Earth’s environment. John McConnell first introduced the idea of a global holiday called “Earth Day” at a UNESCO Conference on the Environment in 1969. The first Earth Day proclamation was issued by San Francisco Mayor Joseph Alioto on March 21, 1970. UN Secretary-General U Thant supported McConnell’s global initiative to celebrate this annual event, and on February 26, 1971, he signed a proclamation to that effect, saying: May there only be peaceful and cheerful Earth Days to come for our beautiful Spaceship Earth as it continues to spin and circle in frigid space with its warm and fragile cargo of animate life.24 April (1893), DOB, Dedoke U Ba Cho, (24 April 1893 – 19 July 1947, Martyrs’ Day), native of Myaungmya, Irrawaddy, National Hero, Martyr, teacher at National College, writer, Dedoke Daily Newspaper, cabinet member of Bogyoke Aung San.27 April (1949), DOB, Dr. Sai Kham Leik, native of Hsenwi, the most well known songwriter and composer in Burma. He was once detained as a medical student at the Mandalay Medical Institute for participating enthusiastically and forming the Shan Literature and Cultural Committee. Be Patriotic Forever: Without unity and determination the desired goal will never be reached.29 April (2009), Shwegondaing Declaration. We, the members of the National League for Democracy (NLD) including the Central Executive Committee, representatives of State and Division organizational committees, the Members of Parliament—elect still standing with the NLD, Representatives of the Central Women’s Affairs Committee, representatives of the Youth Affairs Implementation Committee gathered on the 28th and 29th of April 2009 in the meeting hall of the Head Quarter of the NLD on West Shwegondaing Street and held discussions on the political and organizational situations and the analytical report regarding the Constitution with the aim to resolve all the political impasse in striving to build up the Union of Burma as the democratic state in accordance with the inspiration of all the people. The stands of the League are: (a) Unconditional Release of All the Political Prisoners including U Tin Oo and Daw Aung San Su Kyi (b) Review of the Draft Constitution (2008) Page 12 of 38
  • 13. A State Constitution based on the democratic principles is required to establish a democratic state. The not yet in force Constitution (2008) of the State Peace and Development Council contains provisions which are not accord with democratic principles. Therefore the emergence of the Constitution which is acceptable to all the people including the ethnic nationalities is urgently required. (c) Organization In this Union of Burma where all the ethnic nationalities live together, a unity based on the principles of equal opportunity and mutual good will must be established. Genuine democracy can flourish only on such a fertile ground. Furthermore, all the political parties must have the freedom to organize. Therefore, the offices of the State/Divisional and Township Organization Committees which were closed and sealed since May 31, 2003, said to be a temporary measure, should be reopened immediately together with those of the parties of ethnic nationalities. (c) Recognition of the result of the Multi Party Democracy General Election (1990) At the present, recognition in some way of the People’s Parliament, which is the outcome of the 1990 election, is urgently needed in accordance with the Section 3 of the People’s Parliament Election law. Only then the democratic traditions can be maintained. Otherwise the State Peace and Development would seem to be breaching their own laws and regulations enacted by themselves. (d) Political Dialogue The NLD has been constantly striving for finding solution through political dialogue since 1988. The League accepts that elections are the landmarks to be passed in the journey to democracy. The NLD will not abandon the struggle for democracy. The League will stand by the people in all circumstances. Therefore if the State Peace and Development Council unilaterally hold possible upcoming election with their own plan and if: (1) All the political prisoners including the leaders of the NLD were unconditionally released, (2) The provisions of the (2008) Constitution which are not in accord with the democratic principles were amended, (3) All inclusive free and fair general election were held under international supervision, The National League for Democracy, through this Shwegondaing Declaration, states that, anticipating for the realization of the benefit of the whole people, it intends to participate in the elections only after gravely considering as a special case and after studying the coming Party Registration Act and the Laws relating to the Elections. NLD, Rangoon.May 20111 May (1890), Labour Day (a) May Day (a) World Workers’ Day.1 May (2001), World Laughter Day (first Sunday of May). Laughter is a positive and powerful emotion that has all the ingredients required for individuals to change themselves and to change the world in a peaceful and positive way.2 May (1957), Founding Day of Karenni National Progressive Party (KNPP). The Constitution of the Union of Burma in 1947 proclaimed that the three Karenni States be amalgamated into a single constituent state of the union, called Karenni State. It also provided for the possibility of secession from the Union after 10 years. In August 1948, the Karenni leader U Bee Htu Re was assassinated by central government militia for his opposition to the inclusion of the Karenni States in the Union of Burma. An armed uprising swept the state that has continued to the present-day. In 1957, pro- independence groups already active in the area formed the Karenni National Progressive Party (KNPP), backed by its own army, the Karenni Army (KA). Apart from a brief ceasefire in 1995, the Page 13 of 38
  • 14. KA has been fighting ever since. “We all know that the 2010 Election will not benefit us, so we have to unite to fight against them,” said Bee Htoo, Chief of Armed Forces, Karenni National Progressive Party (KNPP), 24 September 2010.2 May (2006), death in custody at Sandoway prison, Sandoway hospital, U Myint Than, Shan New Generation Youth, Shan.2 May (2008), Cyclone Nargis. The military media claimed that 351 death and over 100,000 Internally Displaced Persons on 4 May 2008. However, the death toll according to UN is 140,000 reported on an anniversary. A new U.N.-led report says the damage from Burma’s Cyclone Nargis in May is estimated to be $4 billion. The report released Monday says this includes $1.7 billion in damage to assets and $2.3 billion from loss of income of the victims. The report, prepared by the U.N., the Association of Southeast Asian Nations and the Burmese government, is the first comprehensive assessment of the damage caused by the cyclone in May (AP, 21 July 2008). In a rare appearance, first lady Laura Bush spoke to the media from the White House briefing room, urging the government of Burma to accept aid from the United States. No aid response teams are allowed to enter the country without the government’s permission. “The government of Burma should accept this team quickly – as well as other offers of international assistance,” she told reporters (abc.go.com, 5 May 2008). British Ambassador John Sawers called Burma’s refusal to let aid workers in as the death toll mounts “an appalling crisis” and labeled the government’s actions “inexplicable and inexcusable’ (CNN, 10 May 2008). In a sign of the tensions between the generals and the international community, Burma’s U.N. envoy, Kyaw Tint Swe, accused France of sending a warship to his country. France’s U.N. ambassador said the junta was on the verge of a “crime against humanity.” French envoy Jean-Maurice Ripert said the ship is operated by the French navy but is not a warship. It is carrying 1,500 metric tons of food and medicine as well as small boats, helicopters and field hospital platforms (Reuters, 16 May 2008). French President Nicolas Sarkozy says Burma’s ruling junta has made a “bad choice” by not letting foreign military ships join the cyclone aid effort (usatoday.com, 24 May 2008).3 May (1991), World Press Freedom Day. The United Nations General Assembly declared 3 May to be World Press Freedom Day to raise awareness of the importance of freedom of the press and remind governments of their duty to respect and uphold the right to freedom of expression enshrined under Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and marking the anniversary of the Declaration of Windhoek, a statement of free press principles put together by African newspaper journalists in 1991.3 May (1992), death in custody at Insein prison, U Soe Win, younger brother of Bo Zeya, People’s Comrades Party led by Gen Aung San, Mayangon, Rangoon.3 May (2008), four prisoners Ohn Kyaw (NLD member from Dawpon Township), Thant Zaw (Hlaing Township), Win Tun Win (Insein Township), and another anonymous prisoner were tortured to death by Insein prison authorities.6 May (2009), The World Famous Unjustified Trial of Aung San Suu Kyi. John William Yettaw was arrested on May 6 for swimming to and entering Aung San Suu Kyi’s lakeside home, where he stayed for two days. She said that the charges against her were “one-sided.” She accused Burmese authorities of failing to provide proper security despite the fact that she informed them of a previous intrusion by Yettaw in November 2008. Aung San Suu Kyi, her two live-in party members Khin Khin Win and her daughter Win Ma Ma and an American man John William Yettaw appeared the first time at a special court in Insein Prison compound to hear the charges against them on May 14, 2009 with under section 22 of the State Protection Law. The first day, May 18, of the trial against them began today at 10:30 am and finished this afternoon at around 2 pm local time. All were charged under section 22 of the State Protection Act. Four lawyers (Kyi Win, Hla Myo Myint, Nyan Win and Khin Htay Kywe; one of Daw Suu’s Lawyers Aung Thein has had his licence to practise Page 14 of 38
  • 15. law revoked by the authorities) represented Aung San Suu Kyi. Khin Htay Kywe, Hla Myo Myint and Nyan Win also represented National League for Democracy party members Khin Khin Win and Win Ma Ma. Lawyer Khin Maung Oo represented John William Yettaw. There are two judges in the case, U Thaung Nyunt from Rangoon Northern District Court and U Nyi Nyi Soe from Rangoon Western District Court in the presence of district legal advisor Myint Kyaing. Lt. Colonel Police Special Branch Officer Zaw Min Aung read out the statement of prosecution against Aung San Suu Kyi, her colleagues and John William Yettaw. Aung San Suu Kyi said, “I have no guilt as I didn’t commit any crime.” The court initially sentenced Suu Kyi on Tuesday, August 11, to a three-year prison term with hard labour. But after a five-minute recess, the country’s home minister entered the courtroom and read aloud a special order from junta chief Sr-Gen Than Shwe. The order said Than Shwe was cutting the sentence in half to 1 and 1/2 years and that it could be served under house arrest. A US citizen jailed for swimming to the house of Burmese democracy icon Aung San Suu Kyi was set to fly out of the army-ruled nation Sunday, August 16, with a visiting American senator who secured his release. John Yettaw was handed over to US embassy officials at Rangoon’s notorious Insein prison after Democrat Senator Jim Webb persuaded the military junta to spare him from a sentence of seven years’ hard labour, officials said. On 13 November 2010, Aung San Suu Kyi, Khin Khin Win and Win Ma Ma were released after the November 7 Elections.7 May (2005), death in custody at No. 1 Interrogation Center, Ko Aung Hlaing Win, NLD Youth, Tagu Seik Village, Einme Township, Irrawaddy.8 May, Mother’s Day (second Sunday of May) is a day of honouring mothers.10 May (1906), Young Men’s Buddhist Association (YMBA) was established by students of Rangoon College: U Ba Pe, U / Sir Maung Gyi, and U Ba Yin.10 May (1919), DOB, Dagon Taryar, renowned writer and poet, political prisoner 1962-66, gagged by Censorship Board, National Literary Award 2000, Aungban, Shan State. Peace movement: No enemy, only friend; no hatred, only love. Politics is making friends who are enemies.10 May (1976), Founding Day of National Democratic Front (NDF), the non-Burman ethnic armed opposition groups. Current member organizations of NDF: Arakan Liberation Party (ALP), Chin National Front (CNF), Karen National Union (KNU), Lahu Democratic Union (LDU), New Mon State Party (NMSP), Pa-O People’s Liberation Organization (PPLO), Palaung State Liberation Front (PSLF) and Wa National Organization (WNO). The NDF firmly believes that 1. All ethnic nationals must enjoy political equality, regardless of the size of their populations, advancement and backwardness, in order to establish genuine national unity; 2. A state should be established for the Burman ethnic national in order to ensure the equality principle of ethnic nationals in Burma and self-determination right; 3. Ethnic conflicts originating from political causes could only be resolved by political means and not by military means, which has been the course successive Burmese regimes have been pursuing; and 4. The military regime attempting to resolve the conflict only by the military means should be overcome and for that the democratic forces must be organized for united struggle against the military regime.12 May (2009), death in custody at Myingyan prison, Salai Hla Moe (1960-2009), carpenter, political prisoner 11-year imprisonment (2003) Myingyan prison, organizer NLD Tupe Township, Chin.13 May (1998), death in custody at Tharawaddy prison, U Aung Kyaw Moe (a) Moe Aung (1960-98), United National Democracy Party, Kamayut, Rangoon.15 May (1964). The first time demonetization of 50 and 100 kyat notes had ruined tens of thousands of people. For the second time, on 3 November 1985, the 25, 50, and 100 kyat notes were demonetized without warning. On 6 September 1987, hundreds of students from Rangoon Universities – RIT and Page 15 of 38
  • 16. RASU – went on brief demonstration marches across the university campus around Rangoon protesting the government’s action to demonetize kyats 25, 35, 75 banknotes without compensation for the third time on 5 September 1987.16 May (2010). A 15-year-old boy Tin Min Naing was shot and killed and his body hidden under a bridge by a Burmese soldier Private Moe Win associated with Private San Ko Ko and Second Lieutenant Kyaw Moe Khaing from the Light Infantry Battalion 586 based at Pyontaza railway station in Pegu after refusing to join the army. Lawyer Aye Myint, who heads the Guiding Star legal advocacy group which works on child soldiers cases in Burma, said that the incident was a byproduct of army policy that soldiers fulfill recruitment quotas. “I have had some experience with such cases but never one as gruesome as this. The worst cases that I encountered before were soldiers taking some lost children to a deserted place and beating them up to make them join the military,” he said. “This case is too inhumane. The salary earned by soldiers is not enough to cover their needs so they desperately look for children to recruit for food and financial rewards. The practice is now starting to look like kidnapping or robbery.” A UN report released last week slammed Burma’s “persistent” use of child soldiers, and named a number of armed ethnic groups as fellow guilty parties. The Burmese army has also been known to use children as minesweepers, forced to walk in front of troop patrols to shield them from the blast of landmines. A Human Rights Watch Report in 2002 said that as many as 70,000 children under 18 could be in the Burmese army.17 May (1937), DOB, U Moe Thu (a) Maung Moe Thu (a) Sein Myint, writer, editor, movie director, political prisoner 1996-2000 Insein prison, vice-chairman of Ta Ka Tha, co- founder of NLD, Kyauktada Rangoon. He has been gagged by Censorship Board.19 May (2010), death in custody at Myingyan prison, Ko Kyaw Soe (a) Kyaw Kyaw Soe (a) Jeffrey (1961 – 19 May 2010), Catholic, political prisoner 10-year imprisonment (2008) Insein / Myingyan prisons, Human Rights Defenders and Promoters, Taunggyi, Shan. He is the 144th political prisoner died in prison since 1988. Ko Kyaw Soe has left behind a wife, May Han Ei, and a 7 year-old daughter. Murderers: Dictator-King Sr-Gen Than Shwe, chief of Military Affairs Security Lt-Gen Ye Myint, Minister of Home Affairs Maj-Gen Maung Oo, Minister of Industry (1) and native of Myingan Col/U Aung Thaung, Director General of Prisons Department Zaw Win, Myingyan prison warden and prison doctor.20 May (1990), death in custody at Maubin prison, Ko Kyaw Myo Thant (a) Japan Gyi, history student during 8-8-88 uprising, Democratic Party for New Society (DPNS), Bogale, Irrawaddy.21 May (1958), Shan Revolution Day. A charismatic young Shan from Yunnan, Saw Yanda, set up camp in the jungle near Mong Ton, between the Salween River and the Thai border. Saw Yanda announced the foundation of the ‘Noom Suk Harn’ (“Noom Serk Harn Terk-ao Lodliao Gawnkhaw” - Brave Young Warriors for Independence) on 21st May 1958, along with 30 Shan comrades. The Noom Suk Harn had their own flag: an 8 pointed star above a crossed sword and spear. The rationale for the Noom Suk Harn was a patriotic armed group who would seek the removal of all foreign soldiers from Shan States: Burma army, CPB and KMT. These brave idealists wanted to bring peace to Shan States and stop the bloodshed of three warring armies marching over Shan States from one battle to another. Armed resistance will continue as long as any government tries to enslave and terrorise the people of Shan State in the way the SPDC are now doing. When the day comes that the people of Shan State have peace and self-determination, armed insurgency will stop.21 May (1989), All Burma Federation of Students Union Conference in Mandalay, 2 days, the biggest conference and all student leaders from around the country attended.25 May (1757). Fall of Hongsawatoi Mon Kingdom to Burmans (according to the Mon lunar calendar Kason Waning Day 8 of the year 1120), Over 70,000 Mon people were killed by the Burmese King Alaungpaya (a) U Aung Zeya of Konbaung Dynasty. Page 16 of 38
  • 17. 25 May (1907), DOB, U Nu (a) Thakin Nu (25 May 1907 – 14 February 1995), nationalist and political figure, political prisoner 1962-66 and 1989-92, former chairman of All Burma Students Union, founder of the Dobama Asiayone, former prime minister of Union of Burma, Anti-Fascist People’s Freedom League, Nonaligned Movement, National United Liberation Front, Parliamentary Democracy Party, a symbolic provisional government (1988).27 May (1990), 1990 Elections. Daw Aung San Suu Kyi’s NLD won the elections by a landslide, electing 392 (80.82%) candidates out of 485 parliamentary seats. The military-backed National Unity Party won only 10 seats (2.06%). No less than 93 parties contested the election. A majority of the armed forces joined the rest of the population to vote for the opposition and against the dictatorship. The will of the people had been voted: the generals must go. Although the people have spoken clearly and loudly for a new direction, the military junta has made it clear that it will do everything necessary to avoid a transfer of power.29 May (2005), death in custody at Moulmein prison, U Min Tun Wai, NLD Kyaikmayaw, Mon.30 May (1907), DOB, Saopha of Mong Pawng Sai San Tun (a) Sai Tha Tun, (30 May 1907 – 19 July 1947, Martyrs’ Day), native of Mong Pawng, Shan, National Hero, Martyr, Shan nationalist advocating the development of Shan State, cabinet member of Bogyoke Aung San. He was honored posthumously with Sai San Tun Hospital in Taunggyi, Shan.30 May (2003), Depayin Massacre, second attempted assassination on Aung San Suu Kyi and Tin Oo, 70- 282 unarmed NLD brutally killed and hundreds wounded by the Union Solidarity and Development Association (USDA / Kyant Phoot) and Tatmadaw under the order of Sr-Gen Than Shwe, Gen Soe Win (d. 2007), Maj-Gen Soe Naing, Maj-Gen Ye Myint, Col / U Aung Thaung, Brig-Gen Thura Myint Maung, Brig-Gen Aung Thein Lin, and Lt-Col Than Han.31 May (1999), death in custody at Insein prison, Ko Hla Khin, youth leader, NLD Shwepyitha, Rangoon.June 20112 June (1945), death of Bo Hmu Ba Htoo, native of Tavoy, BIA. Col Ba Htoo was widely praised for his lifelong devotion to his nation and the military forces that defended it. Aung San praised Ba Htoo’s bravery and initiative, and elevated him to the rank of colonel. The devoted soldier never lived to accept the promotion, nor did he return to the family he left behind in Tavoy. He died of malaria in a small village in southern Shan State. Aung San later wrote that Ba Htoo was an “upright, intelligent, brave and industrious” military leader. In November 1953, the Tatmadaw built an army town in Yaksauk, southern Shan State, to honor Ba Htoo. Named “Ba Htoo Tatmyo” (Fort Ba Htoo), the town was designed to house military families and provide training for army officers. His son, Capt Myint Htoo, was murdered by MI in notorious Ye Kyi Aing Interrogation center under Dictator Gen Ne Win and Brig-Gen Tin Oo, MIS chief 1972-83.3 June (1930), DOB, Mr. George Fernandes, Defence Minister in the National Democratic Alliance Government (1998-2004), Janata Dal (United) party, India.4 June (1964), Kayan Revolution Day.5 June (1972). World Environment Day, commemorated each year on 5 June, is one of the principal vehicles through which the United Nations stimulates worldwide awareness of the environment and enhances political attention and action. It was established by the United Nations General Assembly in 1972 to mark the opening of the Stockholm Conference on the Human Environment. Another resolution, adopted by the General Assembly the same day, led to the creation of United Nations Environment Programme.6 June (1974), 1974 Workers’ Strike. The workers demanded higher salaries, lowering of basic commodity prices, freedom to form an independent labor union, and some fringe benefits for their families. Page 17 of 38
  • 18. 6 June (1975), 1975 Shwedagon Strike (a) 1975 June strike, one year anniversary of the 1974 Workers’ Strike. In order to prevent student activists from assembling, all universities and colleges were shut down from June 1975 to January 1976.7 June (2000), death soon after release, Daw San San Win, political prisoner since 1997, MP 1990, NLD Ahlone, Rangoon.8 June (1996), death in custody at Thayet prison, Ko Myint Swe (1964-96), Dala, Rangoon.8 June (1998), death in custody at Insein prison / Rangoon General Hospital, U Tin Shwe (a) Monywa Tin Shwe (1930-98), lawyer, well-known writer, NLD Monywa, Sagaing.9 June (1920), DOB, Bhamo Tin Aung (9 June 1920 – 23 October 1978), renowned writer, Jack London of Burma, native of Pegu, political prisoner 1952-59, 1963+, Coco Island 1968-72, student union movement 1936-38, Burmese British Army 1941+. He wrote several novels from a socialist viewpoint and focused on the poorest classes, such as farmers, workers and the oppressed. His works are still popular among readers because he wrote about progressive, modern ideas, including philosophy and religion, for three decades.9 June (2005), death during forced labour session, Ko Win Lwin, Ngapyin Village, Aunglan (Allen) Township, Magwe .11 June (1901), DOB, U Ba Win (a) San Tin, (11 June 1901 – 19 July 1947, Martyrs’ Day), native of Natmauk, Magwe, elder brother of Aung San, teacher at Yenangyaung National School, cabinet member of Bogyoke Aung San.11 June (1991), death in custody at Insein prison, Sayar Maung Thaw Ka (a) Ba Thaw (1928 – 1991), native of Shwebo, Sagaing, people’s hero, ex-maj navy officer, humorist, poet and political activist, political prisoner 20-year imprisonment (1989) accused of trying to cause a mutiny in the army, hunger strike September 1990, death in custody, Insein prison 11 June 1991, Journalists Union, Speaker and CEC member of NLD, 8-8-88 uprising, his name and writings were banned, Kyauktada, Rangoon. On the 17 August 1988, he signed a petition to the army to stop the indiscriminate shooting and killing of the people to wipe out the dissidents. When he was ill, he was denied medical care in Insein prison.12 June (2001), death soon after release with AIDS from Thayet and Insein prisons, Ko Bo Ni Aung, All Burma Students Democratic Front.13 June (2004), death in custody at Insein prison, U Min Thu, lawyer, NLD.14 June (1928), DOB, Che Guevara (a) Ernesto Guevara (a) Che (14 June 1928 – 9 October 1967), Argentine Marxist revolutionary, medical doctor, military theorist, and guerrilla leader.16 June (1993), assassinated by the Burmese military outside Bangkok, Thailand, U Hla Pe, MP 1990, NLD Pyawbwe (2), Mandalay.17 June (1932), DOB, U Kyaw San, former military colonel, political prisoner 1992-95, 1998-2004, 7-year imprisonment (2005) Insein prison (hunger strike 2006), MP 1990, NLD Taze (1), Sagaing.19 June, Father’s Day (third Sunday of June) is a day honouring fathers.19 June (1945, Tuesday), DOB, Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, Daw Aung San Suu Kyi (a) Suu Kyi (a) Daw Suu (a) Amay Suu, DOB: Tuesday, 19 June 1945, native of Rangoon, figurehead of the Burmese democracy revolution, political prisoner 1989-1995, 2000-2002, 2003-2010, survivor of three assassination attempts on her including Depayin Massacre 30 May 2003, Nobel Peace Prize (1991), US Congressional Gold Medal (2008), numerous prestigious prizes, General Secretary of National League for Democracy, Committee Representing People’s Parliament, Prime Minister-Elect 1990. She called on foreign countries to impose complete economic boycott, including trade embargo, against Burma on 4 June 1989. National Convention process: A sham, November 1995. She called for economic sanctions against Burma to make it quite clear that economic change in Burma is not possible without political change on 18 July 1996. She called on tourists to boycott Burma to protest the Visit Burma Year – the Year of Tourism 1996. Please use your liberty to promote ours, 4 Page 18 of 38
  • 19. February 1997. The Burmese election is absolutely unlikely to be free and fair, 29 July 2010. As Suu Kyi said herself less than 48 hours after her 13 November release from house arrest, previous communication with Senior General Than Shwe has hardly been free-flowing in the past. “I think firstly we have to start talking affably – real, genuine talks, not just some more tea or this or that,” she said. A second Panglong conference addressing the concerns of the 21st century is needed for national reconciliation, 16 November 2010. Her birthday has been dedicated as the Burmese Women’s Day.19 June (1969), DOB, Ashin U Gambira (a) Sandawbartha, monk, leader of the All Burma Monks Alliance arrested on 4 November 2007, political prisoner 68-year imprisonment (2008) minus 5-year (2009) Insein / Mandalay / Khamti (hunger strike 2009) / Kale prisons, Saffron Revolution 2007, Index on Censorship medal (2008, UK) for his leading role in last September’s peaceful demonstrations, Honorable Citizenship (2008, Italy). Father: Min Lwin (arrested 4 November – 3 December 2007, Mandalay prison); mother: Daw Yee; brothers: Aung Kyaw Kyaw (NLD, 14-year imprisonment 2007 Taunggyi prison) and Aung Ko Ko Lwin (5-year imprisonment Kyaukpyu prison); sisters: Khin Thu Htay (husband Moe Htet Hlyan, 5-year imprisonment 2009 Moulmein prison), Khin Phyu Htwe and Lwin Lwin Myint (husband Lu Maw Naing). Defense lawyers: Aung Thein (4-month imprisonment), Khin Maung Shein (4-month imprisonment) and Pho Phyu. Health conditions: bronchitis and asthma (2008), malaria (2009), poor eye sight, inhumanly tortured, kept in solitary confinement and fed mouldy inedible rice. I am very happy about the release of Daw Aung San Suu Kyi. Now the more than 2,000 political prisoners, including myself, need to be released too. I am confident that Daw Aung San Suu Kyi will prevail with this cause. Please continue the peaceful movement with Metta and without violence. As I said before unity and patience are most important. 17 November 201019 June (1992), death in custody at Interrogation Center, U Mohamed Ilyas (a) Mohamad Elias (a) Maung Nyo (1932-92), NLD Maungdaw, Arakan.20 June (2001), death in custody at Mandalay prison, La Khong Lay (a) Tin Maung Myint, NLD Madaya, Mandalay.20 June (2001), World Refugee Day. Each year, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) selects a theme and coordinates events across the globe.21 June (1875), Karenni National Day. The agreement was signed on June 21, 1875. Sir Douglas Forsyth, signed the agreement on behalf of the Viceroy and Governor General of India and Kinwon Mingyi, Minister of Foreign Affairs, on behalf of the Burmese monarchy King Mindon. The entry in the Upper Burma Gazetteer reads as follows: It is hereby agreed between the British and Burmese Government that the State of Western Karenee shall remain separate and independent, and that no sovereignty or governing body of any description shall be claimed or exercised over that State. From that day, to the end of British rule in Burma, Burman troops ceased to attack or interfere with Karenni State and the Karenni people therefore marked this recognition of their independence by proclaiming June 21st as their National Day.21 June (1988), Myenigon Massacre, Rangoon. About 300 peaceful students and young monks marching on the Prome Road at Myenigon were beaten, hit, arrested, or killed by 200 Lon Htein using batons and heavy-duty military vehicles under the command of Sein Lwin, according to the Myenigon Massacre survivor Kyaw Mya Htoo.21 June (2002), death in custody at Bassein prison, Maung Maung Aye, NLD Labutta, Irrawaddy.22 June (1996), death in custody at Insein prison, Mr. James Leander Nichols (a) Leo Nichols, Eurasian, honorary consul in Burma for Denmark, Norway, Finland, and Sweden as well as correspondent for Switzerland.23 June (1925), DOB, Sayamagyi Kyi Oo (a) Yuwaddy Kyi Oo (a) Thakinmagyi Hla Kyi, (23 June 1925 – 20 March 2009), native of Bilin, Mon, mother of the Zarganar, highly respected writer, veteran Page 19 of 38
  • 20. politician, Yankin, Rangoon. She had not given up her beliefs. She could not tolerate injustice. She stands for the Burmese people.25 June (1954), the first hijack in Burma. Dakota passenger plane of Burma Airways during its Rangoon- Kyaukpyu-Akyab flight was hijacked by KNU. Lt Saw Kyaw Aye, Lt Thein Kyaw and Ah Nyein forced a pilot to land his domestic DC-3 at gunpoint and made off with a bundle of cash (K 740, 000) destined for government employee plus government supplies.26 June (1976), Tin Maung Oo Day, the first student hanged by the military junta, Salai Tin Maung Oo (a) Richard Din (a) Big Lion, 3rd year Zoology student, Chin Student Association at Rangoon Arts and Science University.26 June (2007, Tuesday). The NLD party started its “Every Tuesday Alms Offering” dedicated to the release of all political prisoners on June 26, 2007, in Suu Kyi’s fourth year of a total seven years (2003-2010) in her third term under house arrest.July 20111 July (1963), DOB, Ko Htoo Ein Thin (a) Ko Hnget (a) Kyaw Myint Lwin (1 July 1963 – 14 August 2004), singer, song composer, native of Bassein, 8-8-88 uprising, All Burma Students Democratic Front, Burma.1 July (1999), death soon after release, U Kyaw Min, political prisoner, NLD Bassein west (2), Irrawaddy.5 July (1951), DOB, U Htaung Kho Thang, Chin leader, native of Tamu, MP, United Nationalities League for Democracy, Tamu, Chin, political prisoner 1998 and 2007, member of the Committee Representing People’s Parliament, Saffron Revolution 2007. Current politics: All the people are very angry with the current political stalemate, August 2006.6 July (1946), DOB, Mr. George Walker Bush, the 43rd President of the United States, 2000-2008, Republican, USA.7 July (1962), 7-7-62 students uprising (a) 1962 Rangoon University students uprising. Students protested new regulations prohibiting unauthorized political gatherings, requiring the locking of dormitories at 8:00 p.m. sharp, and settings fixed study hours.8 July (1941), DOB, U Nwe Aung, M.Sc. (Industrial Chemistry), Chair of Committee for the Restoration of Democracy in Burma (Germany) since 1987, Chair of Burma Bureau (Germany) until April 2009, Director of National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma (NCGUB) PM Office in Washington DC (1994-1996), Director of NCUB Europe Office in London (2007-2010). Politics: Aim to abolish military dictatorship and establish Federal Union in Burma.8 July (1962), Ordered by Gen Ne Win, Brig-Gen Aung Gyi, Col Kyaw Soe, Col Saw Myint, Lt-Col Sein Lwin, and Maj Tun Yi, the fascist Burmese soldiers from Burma Rifle Battalion 4 destroyed the Student Union Building, which had a prominent standing in the history of Burma independence movement. Artillery officer Hla Myint laid dynamites thoroughly around the solid walls and demolished the Student Union Building. Ko Kyaw Win of Myaungmya, who was in bed with injuries, and about 100-400 students were blown up together with the building under a bloody policy declared by Gen Ne Win as to match “sword with sword, spear with spear.” The bodies, some students still alive, were crushed at the sewage treatment plant in Rangoon.12 July (2001), death in custody with AIDS at Tharawaddy prison, Ko Sithu (a) Ye Naing, Botany student during 8-8-88 uprising, Sanchaung, Rangoon.14 July (2010), death of Sayagyi Nan Nyunt Swe (a) Thukhamain (a) Aung Thein (1923 ̶ 14 July 2010), native of Prome, father of Zarganar, writer, artist, political activist, banned by the regime’s censors since 2000. “I feel sorry for my son, it makes me sad and I worry about him. But I am proud of him, Page 20 of 38
  • 21. proud of what he has done, what he is fighting for. It is pride for our country,” said he. “We still survive. Sometimes we don’t have enough...but ‘TIB’”. This is Burma.15 July, Dhamma Day (according to lunar calendar Waso Full Moon Day).15 July (1957), Founding Day of New Mon State Party (NMSP), (according to lunar calendar Waso Full Moon Day).18 July (1918), DOB, Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela, anti-apartheid activist and leader of the African National Congress’s armed wing Umkhonto we Sizwe, political prisoner 27 years released 1990, first President of South Africa to be elected in a fully representative democratic election serving in the office from 1994–99, received more than one hundred awards over four decades, most notably the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993, the most favorite model of Aung San Suu Kyi.18 July (2008), death in custody with TB at Mandalay prison, Ko Rarpyi (a) Maung Maung Rarpyi (a) Khin Maung Tint (1962-2008), political prisoner 2 times, 20-year imprisonment (1998), 8-8-88 uprising, All Burma Students Democratic Front.19 July (1947, 10:37 AM, Saturday), Martyrs’ Day (a) Arzarni Day. Gen Aung San and his cabinet members, Mahn Ba Khaing, Thakin Mya, Dedoke U Ba Cho, Abdul Razak, U Ba Win and Saopha of Mong Pawng Sai San Tun, cabinet secretary U Ohn Maung and a bodyguard Yebaw Maung Htwe were assassinated. U Ba Gyan, U Aung Zan Wai and U Mya were the only survivors. Usually sirens are sounded at 10:37 AM with a two-minute silence was held throughout the whole country in honour of the nine Martyrs of Burma. This ritual is discarded by the Burmese military junta nowadays and there are very few public activities, for example previous practices of flying flags at half mast or sounding are no more practiced nowadays.20 July (1989), Aung San Suu Kyi placed under first house arrest and held her incommunicado. First 20 July 1989 – 10 July 1995, Second 22 September 2000 – 6 May 2002 and Third 30 May 2003 – 13 November 2010. She had been locked up by Gen Ne Win (1911-2002), Gen Saw Maung (1928- 1997) and Gen Than Shwe for 15 of the past 21 years.20 July (2004), death soon after release, Wanay Soe (a) Ko Nay Win (1959-2004), Editor of Pyit Hmu magazine, NLD Ye, Mon.21 July (2004), death in custody at Kale prison, U Khin Maung Myint, Supporting Committee for Central Youth Wing of NLD, Latha Township, Rangoon.23 July (1988), resignation of Chairman Gen Ne Win of the Burma Socialist Program Party (BSPP / Ma Sa La), Traitor of 30 Comrades. During his farewell speech to the Extraordinary Session of the BSPP Party Congress, he angrily warned against potential protestors on the street, stating that if the disturbances continued the Army would have to be called and I would like to declare from here that if the Army shoots it has no tradition of shooting into the air. It would shoot straight to hit.23 July (1991), death in custody at Tharawaddy prison, U Maung Maung Aye, National Democracy Party, Kamayut, Rangoon.24 July (2004), death soon after release, U Kyi Tin Oo, NLD Hlaing Township, Rangoon.26 July (1942), DOB, Daw Mar Mar Aye, nationally recognized Burmese Classic singer, native of Myaungmya, Irrawaddy, gagged by Censorship Board.27 July (1977), Ohn Kyaw Myint Day. An attempted coup ringleader (1976), Captain Ohn Kyaw Myint, Rangoon university student in 1962, personal assistant to then Army Chief of Staff Gen Kyaw Htin, was hanged by military junta on 27 July 1977. He opposed to Ne Win’s Burmese Way to Socialism which he felt was leading the country to ruin. The prison authorities tortured him mentally by giving him hope and then one night they came and took him out around 8 PM suddenly and hanged him between 3 and 4 AM., the next morning. They even did not have the decency to inform his wife. His wife only knew when she came to see him for regular visit, when they delivered his belongings to her. She left heart-broken, crying. Associates: Lt San Kyi, Capt Tun Kyaw and Capt Win Htein. Government Witness: Capt Win Thein. Informer: Gen Than Tin, 1976. Page 21 of 38
  • 22. 29 July (1971), Wa National Revolution Day, Wa National Organisation (WNO).29 July (1990), Gandhi Hall Declaration. We, the National League for Democracy Pyithu Hluttaw members, after assembling here at the Mahatama Gandhi Hall in Kyauktada township, Rangoon, on the seventh and eighth waxing days of Wagaung BE 1352, 28 and 29 July 1990, and after consulting and discussing the matters concerning the well being of the nation, State affairs and convening of the Pyithu Hluttaw, unanimously adopt this Gandhi Hall Declaration. In the first Multi Party General Election held in 30 years on 27 May 1990, the National League for Democracy enjoying the overwhelming support of the nation, won 392 seats out of 485 seats. Thus, not only has the National League for Democracy won over half of the Pyithu Hluttaw (People’s Assembly) seats but has a total majority of over eighty percent to lead the Pyithu Hluttaw and to form a strong government in accordance with the practice of democratic countries. Now the Multi-Party Democracy General Elections have been successfully held. It is only natural that the Pyithu Hluttaw be convened shortly after the elections. However sixty days have gone passed since the elections, and the Pyithu Hluttaw has not been convened. The National League for Democracy, which has won an overwhelming majority in the elections, basing on short-term and long-term interests of the State, has proposed to the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) to hold frank and sincere discussions with good faith and with the object of national reconciliation. However, the State Law and Order Restoration Council has not given a reply to our proposal in any way. Only the Pyithu Hluttaw constituted of Pyithu Hluttaw representatives who have been elected with the confidence of the people will be able to solve, in accordance with the wishes of the people, the political, economic and social crises faced by the people today. Therefore, in accordance with Article (3), chapter (2) of the Pyithu Hluttaw Elections Law, which states: “The Pyithu Hluttaw shall be formed with the Hluttaw representatives who have been elected according to this law from the constituencies”, it is of vital importance to convene the Pyithu Hluttaw expeditiously. Only the Pyithu Hluttaw represented by us has the responsibility to adopt the new constitution which aims at building a new democratic union. Under the present circumstances, we are fully aware of the crises, hardships and problems which must be solved during the transitionary period from one-party system to multi-party democratic system in the country. We hope that solutions will be found by a frank and sincere discussion with good faith and with the object of national reconciliation based on mutual respect between the National League for Democracy and the State Law and Order Restoration Council. Calling for the convening of the Pyithu Hluttaw constituted of people’s representatives is the most basic legal right of the people. In accordance with the wishes of the people, Article (3) Chapter (2) of the Pyithu Hluttaw Election Law, the essence of the democratic system and international procedures, we, the National League for Democracy Pyithu Hluttaw members, unanimously call on the State Law and Order Restoration Council on this day to convene the Pyithu Hluttaw during September 1990. Pyithu Hluttaw Members, National League for Democracy, Mahatama Gandhi Hall, Bo Aung Gyaw Street, Rangoon.31 July (2002), death in custody at Moulmein prison, Mai Aik Pan, Palaung State Liberation Party/Front, National Democratic Front, Namsang, Shan.August 20111 August (2001), death in custody at Thayet prison, Saw Tin Myint, Karen National Union, Lepadan, Irrawaddy.2 August (1992), death in custody at Insein prison, Mahn Dawait (1936-92), Rangoon University Student Union, Karen National Union, Wakema, Irrawaddy. Page 22 of 38
  • 23. 2 August (1996), death in custody at Insein prison, U Hla Than (1947-96), lawyer, MP 1990, NLD Coco Islands, Rangoon.6 August (1988), Pegu Massacre, over 20 students and civilians were gunned down by Fascist Burmese troops in front of High School (3), Pegu.7 August (1993), death in custody at Myitkyina prison, Sumprabum Labour Camp, U Cho Gyi, CEC of National Democratic Front, Mandalay.7 August (1998), death in custody at Tharawaddy prison, Tharawaddy Hospital, U Saw Win (a) Kyaw Zaw Linn (1937-98), MP 1990, NLD Htilin, Magwe, assistant editor of Botataung Newspaper, University Student Union.8 August (1988), 8-8-88 uprising (a) 8/8/88 Nation-wide democracy uprising, approximately 10,000 were imprisoned as well as 500 - 3000 students, monks and civilians were brutally killed by the order of Number One Gen / U Ne Win, President Brig-Gen / U Sein Lwin, Minister of Home and Religious Affairs Maj-Gen Min Gaung, Chief of Police Thein Aung, Head of Rangoon Police Department Pe Kyi, and Rangoon Division Party member Khin Maung Win using 22 Light Infantry Divisions. Secret Code Names: Ne Win – Mar Ga, Sein Lwin – Chin The, Min Gaung – Pyan Lhua 1, Khin Maung Win – Pyan Lhua 2, Pe Kyi – Daw Na.8 August (1990). In commemoration of the second anniversary of 8-8-88 uprising, more than 7,000 monks and novices walked through the streets of Mandalay, solemnly and peacefully accepting alms from the people. Soldiers confronted the monks and opened fire, striking monks with batons, kicking monk’s bowls and robes, killing two monks and two students, and wounding seventeen others. One novice disappeared. Monastics began to boycott all Burmese military and their families, by refusing to accept alms from them and to administer Buddhist rituals to them, such as weddings and funerals. The military junta invaded all 133 monasteries in Mandalay with troops and armor, abolished several monastic organizations, replaced the heads of leading monasteries with state-controlled monks, restructured the Buddhist hierarchy, arrested thousands of monks, imprisoned four hundred for terms of three to twenty years, tortured and killed many, forced at least 75 out of the monastic life, and obliged many to flee into exile.9 August (1788), DOB, Rev. Adoniram Judson (9 August 1788 – 12 April 1850), American Baptist missionary, lexicographer, interpreter in Burmese Army, and Bible translator to Burmese. Born in Massachusetts in 1788. Helped form the American Baptist Missionary Union. During the Anglo- Burmese War, he spent twenty-one months at king’s prison in Ava. In 1834 completed a translation of the whole Bible into the Burmese language. From 1845-1847, after thirty-four years in Burma, he took his only furlough to his native land. Returning to Burma, he spent his remaining years working on his English-Burmese dictionary. He died in 1850 and was buried at sea.9 August (1948), Karenni Revolution Day. The invading Burmese troops and the militia of the pro- Burmese traitors invaded Karenni State and attacked Mya Lè village in August 1948. Although U Bee Htu Re, the president of United Karenni Independence Council (UKIC) with the Karenni police and the people of Mya Lè village resisted with all their might, the invading Burmese troops got the upper hand and they had to retreat to Pruso. When they arrived at Pruso they met with the sawpya of Kyenphogyi and with the rest of the members of UKIC. They formed the Karenni Resistance government under the political guidance of the Karenni National Organization (KNO), in order to maintain the independence and sovereignty of Karenni State. To resist the invading Burmese troops throughout Karenni State by every possible mean and to organize the whole Karenni people to participate in the Resistance movement, they formed the Karenni National Resistance Movement. On 9 August, the invading Burmese troops captured three places in Karenni State. The invading Burmese troops captured Mya Lè and surrounding villages. The capital Loikaw was taken by the Burmese military police that had been stationed at Htisakha and Loikaw. Finally, Mawchi was captured by the Burmese military police stationed there. Stating with that attack on August 9, 1948, Page 23 of 38
  • 24. the Karenni people took up arms and fought against the invading Burmese troops. Consequently, the Karenni people recognized 9 August as the Karenni National Resistance Day, and still celebrate the anniversary of the resistant day every year.9 August (1988). Sagaing Massacre, in which around 300-600 civilians were killed under the order given by Thura Kyaw Zwa and Brig-Gen Tun Kyi. Several thousand demonstrators converged on a police station in Sagaing and were shot at by police and troops. Reportedly, 537 persons were killed (the official figure was 31) and witnesses report that police dumped many of the bodies into the Irrawaddy river.11 August (1936), DOB, Ko Lay (Ava Ghonyi), native of Ava, Mandalay, famous poet, gagged by Censor Board.12 August (1930), DOB, Mr. George Soros, Hungarian-American, financial speculator, philanthropist, founder of Open Society Institute, Chairman of Soros Fund Management LCC, New York, USA.12 August (1950), Karen Martyrs’ Day when Saw Ba U Gyi was fallen, who was the first President of the Karen National Union and the founding father of the Karen Revolution.13 August (1940), DOB, Ludu Sein Win, 15 different pen names, veteran journalist and social critics, political prisoner 1967-80 (2 years in Coco Island), Upper Burma’s left-wing Ludu (the People) newspaper, his name has been censored / suspended / banned in Burmese press several times, Rangoon. Idol: An example of courage to the next generation of activists.13 August (1967), Bloody Rice Killing Day. Burmese military killed 100-300 Arakanese in the streets of Arakan State’s capital, Akyab, when they gathered to stage a peaceful demonstration asking the Burmese military junta for more rice.13 August (2005), death of U Tun Wai (a) Lay Lay (1920-13 August 2005), renowned and beloved actor, respected in cinematic, artistic and political circles political prisoner 1967+, banned from directing and making movies and videos, organiser to make the famous Aung San Suu Kyi’s public address at Shwedagon Pagoda happen on 26 August 1988. The monument, inscribed with remarkable words: What one can do is only in a lifetime, of the well-known late famous actor Tun Wai was removed from the Taunglaylone Monastery in Amarapura by an order of the Burmese authorities in 2006.14 August (1948), Mon Revolution Day (according to lunar calendar Wagaung Full Moon Day). In their 63rd Mon Revolution Day statement 2010, the New Mon State Party (NMSP) said: “In light of the current political situation in Burma, the armed revolution is still the only practical way to achieve the ultimate goals of Mon national sovereignty and self-determination. Hence, it is extremely essential now for our Mon to develop a greater revolutionary awareness and determination. As long as the rights of ethnic nationalities are not fully guaranteed, Mon armed forces and armed revolution must always be in place to fight for our rights and protect our Mon people. The military regime still refuses to recognize and guarantee the democratic rights and the rights of ethnic nationalities in Burma.”14 August (1990), death in custody at Akyab prison, U Tha Tun (a) Oo Tha Htun (1908-90), scholar, distinguished historian, Arakan League for Democracy, Mrauk U, Arakan.15 August (1939), Founding Day of Communist Party of Burma (CPB), the oldest existing political party in Burma. Founders were Thakin Aung San (General Secretary), Thakin Soe (in charge of mass organisation), Thakin Ba Hein, Yebaw Ba Tin (a) Goshal, Thakin Hla Pe (a) Bo Let Ya, Yebaw Tun Maung (a) Dr. Nath, and Thakin Bo. Secret location: 118 49th Street, East Rangoon. When Thakin Soe’s Alan Ni Party (Red Flag Communist Party) split from the Communist Party of Burma / Ba Ka Pa in February 1946, accusing it of revisionism ̶ Earl Browder, leader of the American Communist Party, who proposed that armed struggle would no longer be necessary, as world fascism and imperialism had been weakened, making constitutional methods a real option to achieve national liberation ̶ and went underground, Thakin Than Tun and the majority of Communists continued to cooperate with the Anti-Fascist People’s Freedom League / Pha Sa Pa La. Page 24 of 38
  • 25. In July 1946, Than Tun was forced to resign as general secretary, and the CPB, now dubbed the Alan Phyu Party (White Flag Communist Party), expelled from the AFPFL the following October, after the CPB had accused Aung San and others of selling out to the British and settling for a sham independence. The CPB is a force to be reckoned with in future upheavals and potentially a major challenge to the military regime. The party continues to recruit according to the hard to join, easy to quit principle. If you are not a communist at 20 you don’t have a heart. But if you are still a communist at 40 you don’t have a head.17 August (1948), Karenni Army Day. The Burmese troops captured U Bee Htu Re, the president of United Karenni Independence Council at Pruso, and took him to Loikaw. Seeing the weakness of Karenni people, the Karenni Resistance government consolidated the various Karenni forces into Karenni Army on 17 August and that 17 August 1948 was recognized as Karenni Army Day.19 August (2004), death of U Kyi Maung (1919 – 19 August 2004), a Veteran Jailbird, former military colonel, vice-chairman led the National League for Democracy to a sweeping victory in 1990 elections, Member of Parliament (MP) 1990 for Bahan Township, Constituency 2, Rangoon. “The army must be professional and apolitical,” said Col Kyi Maung in 1990.19 August (2007), Saffron Revolution 2007 after the regime hiked fuel prices on August 15, students and Buddhist monks took the lead, starting in Pakokku, Magwe. In response to the protests, the government began arresting and beating demonstrators. On August 21-22, 2007, participants on the August 19 protests were detained by local authorities.The government arrested 13 prominent Burmese dissidents including Min Ko Naing, Mya Aye, Ko Ko Gyi, Min Zeya, Jimmy, Pyone Cho, and Ant Bwe Kyaw. On September 5, 2007, Burmese troops forcibly broke up a peaceful demonstration in Pakokku and injured three monks. On September 22, around two thousand monks marched through Rangoon and ten thousand through Mandalay, with other demonstrations in five townships across Burma. Those marching through the capital chanted the “Myitta Thote” (the Buddha’s words on loving kindness) marching through a barricade on the street in front of Nobel Peace Prize laureate Aung San Suu Kyi. Although still under house arrest, Suu Kyi made a brief public appearance at the gate of her residence to accept the blessings of the Buddhist monks. Effective September 26, Burma’s junta imposed dusk-till-dawn curfews on the country’s two largest cities of Rangoon and Mandalay. Additionally, gatherings of more than five people were prohibited. On September 27, the junta security forces began raiding monasteries across the country to quell the protests, arresting at least 200 monks in Rangoon and 500 more in the northeast. The monks demanded that the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC): 1. Apologize to the Pakokku monks, by midnight of September 17, 2007 2. Reduce the prices of fuel oil and basic commodities 3. Unconditionally release Aung San Suu Kyi and all other political prisoners 4. Hold dialogue with the democratic political opposition representatives in order to begin a national reconciliation process. Today more than 250 Buddhist monks are imprisoned and some were killed in the notorious prisons, thousands have been disrobed and key monasteries remain under constant watch for their role in the Saffron Revolution, September 2010.23 August (1988), U Tun Wai, renowned and beloved actor, organised the famous Aung San Suu Kyi’s public address to a crowd of more than 500,000 people at Shwedagon Pagoda.26 August (2000), death in custody at Moulmein prison of murderous terror, U Win Bo, former Army captain. To honor political prisoners in notorious prisons all over the coutry, 26 August has been commemorated every year as Burma Prisoners’ Day. Page 25 of 38
  • 26. September 20113 September (1950), DOB, U Htun Aung Gyaw, political prisoner 1975-80, 1974 U Thant uprising, 1975 June strike, 8-8-88 uprising, Freedom Fighter of Burma 1988, former chairman of ABSDF, president of Civil Society Burma, New York, USA, Atrocity: Burmese generals are using their guns to quiet the opposition and the people in general.5 September, Democracy Heroes’ Day of ABSDF.5 September (2010). Maung Aung Thu Hein and Maung Soe Paing Zaw were shot four to six times and killed at home by Capt Thein Kyi Soe, private Maung Tun, and soldiers of Light Infantry Battalion 59 in Pegu under Light Infantry Division 77, threatening the public that when the Tatmadaw is tested, will die in agony; try it.6 September (1936), DOB, Dr. Aung Khin, physician, Vice-Chairman of Committee for the Restoration of Democracy in Burma, Board member of the Burmese American Democratic Alliance, USA. Regardless of religion or ethnicity, let us unite and fight for the Cause of Burma in solidarity. We must have three essential weapons in order to win Than Shwe’s neocolonialism and our lost democracy and human rights. They are (1) Unity, (2) Tenacity, and (3) Perseverance.8 September (1948), Karenni Martyrs’ Day. After the consolidation, the Karenni Resistance army recaptured Mawchi, Phasaung, Bawlake and Namphè. When they saw their troops had been defeated the officers of the invading Burmese troops and Karenni militia, took U Bee Htu Re out of the jail, put him in a sack, dragged him by motorcar and then threw him into the Beluchaung River, on 8 September 1948. Because of this unforgettable cruelty, Karenni people recognized 8 September as Martyrs Day9 September (1939), U Ottama Day, death of nationalist Buddhist Arakanese monk Venerable Sayadaw U Ottama (Sunday, 28 December 1879 – 9 September 1939), native of Akyab, Arakan, the pioneer and martyr of the Burmese independence movement, cosmopolitan revolutionary. He started his political activities, lecturing for Young Men Buddhist Association and giving anti-colonial speeches. In 1921, he was arrested for his infamous “Craddock, Get Out!” speech against Craddock Scheme by Governor of British Burma Sir Reginald Craddock. He was imprisoned 12-month (1920), 3-year (1924) and third time in 1928.11 September, Grandparents’ Day (second Sunday of September) to honor grandparents, to give grandparents an opportunity to show love for their children’s children, and to help children become aware of strength, information, and guidance older people can offer.11 September (1943), DOB, U Hkun Htun Oo, MP 1990, Shan Nationalities League for Democracy, Committee Representing People’s Parliament, Hsipaw (1), Shan, political prisoner 93-year imprisonment (2005) Putao Prison.15 September (2006), The UNSC decided to put the situation of Burma on its agenda. The decision was adopted by a 10-4 vote, with one abstention. (10 supported: U.S., U.K., France, Denmark, Greece, Japan, Argentina, Ghana, Peru, and Slovakia; 4 opposed: China, Russia, Republic of the Congo and Qatar; and one abstained: Tanzania)16 September (1998), Founding Day of Committee Representing of People Parliament (CRPP).17 September (2002), death in custody at Insein prison, U Aung May Thu, All Burma Federation of Students Union, NLD Minhla, Tharawaddy, Pegu.18 September (1988), General Saw Maung, Chief of Staff of the Defence Forces Services and Minister of Defence, had assumed power as the Chairman of a 19-member State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC), so-called coup d’etat. Ko Soe Kyaw Phone Maung, student from Rangoon Art and Science University (Hlaing campus) was killed in front of the USA embassy. Page 26 of 38
  • 27. 19 September (1929), U Wisara Day. On the 166th day of hunger strike in Rangoon Central Prison, Sayadaw U Wisara died for the freedom of Burma. His spirit still helped reawaken political consciousness in Burma, and with his final words, to “never forget,” urged the people to persevere until independence was obtained from Britain. His statue stands near the Shwedagon Pagoda, the nation’s holiest shrine and rallying point for the monk demonstrations against the Burmese oppressive military generals.19 September (1988), Moulmein Massacre, seven students were killed.19 September (1988), shot to death by fascist Burmese soldiers, Ma Win Maw Oo (1972-1988) holding the picture of National Hero Aung San, high school student, Hlaing Thayar, Rangoon. On the picture postcard of ABSDF, holding her head was Dr Saw Lwin who committed suicide in 1995 under the pressure from MI and other side Dr Min Thein of ABSDF was captured at the Mokpalin battle and murdered in Rangoon by MI in 1991.21 September (1981), International Day of Peace. May Peace Prevail On Earth. The Peace Day is dedicated to peace, or specifically the absence of war, such as might be occasioned by a temporary ceasefire in a combat zone. It is observed by many nations, political groups, military groups, and peoples. Long live absolute world peace.22 September (1992), Founding Day of National Council of the Union of Burma (NCUB = DAB + NDF + MPU + NLD-LA).22 September (2007). A march of monks to the residence of Aung San Suu Kyi, “We want national reconciliation, we want dialogue with the military, we want freedom for Aung San Suu Kyi and other political prisoners,” demanded monks.24 September (1927), DOB, Maung Su San (a) Chan Aye (a) Tin Shwe, lawyer, highly respected writer, editor, political prisoner 1957, 1990-92 Insein prison, MP 1990 NLD Moulmein (2), 1938-39 Rangoon University student boycott, Anti-Fascist People’s Freedom League 1945, Ba Ka Tha 1946- 47, Ba Ka Pa 1949-57, Mingalar Taung Nyunt, Rangoon.24 September (1968), death of CPB Chairman Thakin Than Tun.24 September (1988), Founding Day of National League for Democracy (NLD).25 September (1994), death in custody at Tharawaddy prison, U Kyi, NLD Tharawaddy, Pegu.26 September (2007), By the order of Sr-Gen Than Shwe (Butcher of Burma 2007), Col / U Aung Thaung, Lt-Col / U Thaung, Lt-Gen Myint Swe, Maj-Gen Htay Oo, Maj-Gen Maung Oo, Maj-Gen Hla Htay Oo, Brig-Gen Kyaw Hsan, Brig-Gen Win Myint, Brig-Gen Thura Myint Maung, Col Thein Han, Lt- Col Aung Kyaw Zaw; Fascist Burman soldiers from Light Infantry Divisions 99 as well as 77 shot and killed approximately 31-200 protesters, ransacked Buddhist monasteries, beaten monks and dissidents and arrested an estimated 3,000-6000 people. The Tatmadaw burned an undetermined number of bodies, some still alive, at the Ye Way crematorium sealed off by armed guards northeast of Rangoon. Shin U Thilawuntha, professor of sacred Buddhist scripture of the Yuzana Monastery in Myitkyina, was beaten to death in detention. Maj-Gen Ohn Myint ordered the arrest and personally involved in the brutal torture.27 September (1942), DOB, Pyapon Ni Lon Oo (a) Aung Myint, highly respected poet, political prisoner, gagged by Censorship Board.27 September (2007), Japanese video journalist Kenji Nagai, AFP, was shot to death by the Burmese military near the Sule Pagoda in Rangoon while covering the demonstration.28 September (1982), Maj Mahn Ngwe Aung and Myo Aung, Karen National Union, were killed during a shootout with soldiers guarding the building while attempting to seize control of the Burmese broadcasting building in Rangoon.28 September (2005), death in custody at Insein prison, Nai Aung Loon (a) Ong Lorn, New Mon State Party. Page 27 of 38
  • 28. October 20111 October (1999), Burmese Embassy Siege, Bangkok, Thailand. Vigorous Burmese Student Warriors: Myint Thein, Ye Thiha, Hla Myint, Kyaw Oo (Johnny) and Swe Min.1 October (2008), death in custody, Ko Aung Moe Win, NLD youth, Natmauk, Magwe.2 October (1869), DOB, Mahatma Gandhi (a) Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948), political and spiritual leader of India and the Indian independence movement, Non- violence idol of Aung San Suu Kyi, India.2 October (2007) International Day of Non-Violence. On 15 June 2007 the United Nations General Assembly voted to establish 2 October as the International Day of Non-Violence. The resolution by the General Assembly asks all members of the UN system to commemorate 2 October in “an appropriate manner and disseminate the message of non-violence, including through education and public awareness.” In January 2004, Iranian Nobel laureate Shirin Ebadi had taken a proposal for an International Day of Non-Violence from a Hindi Teacher in Paris, Akshay Bakaya, teaching International school students in Paris to the World Social Forum in Bombay. The idea gradually attracted the interest of some leaders of India’s Congress Party until a Satyagraha Conference resolution in New Delhi in January 2007 initiated by Sonia Gandhi and Archbishop Desmond Tutu called upon the United Nations to adopt the idea.3 October (1990, Thadingyut Full Moon Day of the year 1352). Patam nikkujjana kamma – meaning a refusal to accept alms from members of the Fascist military regime and their families or to attend religious ceremonies held by them. Eight offences are listed as reasons for holding “patam nikkujjana kamma.” These include vilifying or making insidious comparisons between monks, inciting dissension among monks, defaming Buddha and Dhamma and the Sangha. First: Some senior monks belonging to the State Sangha Maha Nayaka Committee were also involved in the boycott campaign starting on Thadingyut Full Moon Day. On 20 October 1990, the regime issued Order 6/90, dissolving “illegal” monk organizations and unions. The next day, Order 7/90 was issued, declaring that any monk or novice who contravened regulations banning non- religious activities would be disassociated from the Sangha and would be prosecuted. The following day, the military crackdown began. In Mandalay alone, more than 130 monasteries were raided and monks were disrobed and imprisoned. As many as 300 monks nationwide were forced to disrobe and were arrested. Some monks in Burma may believe that the “patam nikkujjana kamma” of 1990 is still in effect, since they haven’t yet received any proper apology – only a harsh crackdown. Second: On 5 September 2007, several hundred monks in the city of Pakokku marched and chanted the Metta Sutta in solidarity with a suffering nation. Troops attacked, tying up and beating three monks. The next day, young monks briefly took several government officials hostage. In a widely read leaflet, the All Burma Monks Alliance demanded that the military apologize for their brutal actions against Pakokku’s monks. There was no apology. The alliance urged all of Burma’s Buddhist monks to boycott alms. City by city, monks took to the streets. The Saffron Revolution had begun. On 17 September 2007, the Buddhist monks have withdrawn spiritual services from all military personnel in a symbolic move that is seen as very powerful in such a deeply religious country as Burma. Third: The International Burmese Monks’ Organization and the Sangha League are launching another monks’ boycott in Burma similar to the 2007 Saffron Revolution when Buddhist monks were instrumental in leading anti-government protests. The All Burma Monks’ Alliance, which led the 2007 demonstrations, has renewed its call for the regime to apologize for the beating and arrests of monks in Pakokku two years ago and to release all monks who were imprisoned during the Page 28 of 38
  • 29. subsequent crackdown. The monks set an Oct. 3, 2009, deadline for the regime to respond, saying that if there is no apology, monks will start another boycott of alms offered by all military and government personnel. Burmese authorities responded to the monks’ call by increasing security in Rangoon early this month. In October, the ABMA expelled junta leader Sr-Gen Than Shwe from the Buddhist faith on the grounds that he had failed to issue an apology for his abuse of monks and the religion of Buddhism.3 October (2005), death in custody at Police Station, U Htay Lwin, NLD, Aung Myay Thazan, Mandalay.4 October (1926), DOB, Kyemon U Thaung (a) Aung Bala (a) Tin Maung (4 October 1926 – 3 April 2008), native of Nyaung U, Mandalay, renowned senior journalist, writer, political prisoner 1964- 67, Mirror Daily, New Era journal, Burma Media Association, Radio Free Asia, International Press Institute (IPI) Press Hero Award (2000, Austria), Florida, USA. His name was gagged by Censorship Board in Burma since 1978.5 October (1994), World Teachers’ Day. It is celebrated annually across the world on October 5th. Ever since the importance of teachers has been recognized by UNESCO, by adopting the “Recommendation concerning the status of teachers.” This includes celebrations to honor the teachers for their special contribution in a particular field area or the community in general.6 October (1989), Ye Thiha and Ye Yint hijacked F-28 aircraft of Burma Airways that was on its way from Mergui to Rangoon, and forced the aircraft to land in Thailand without harming any people. They demanded, among other things, the release of Burmese political prisoners.7 October (1897), DOB, Thakin Mya (a) Mya Shwe, (7 October 1897 – 19 July 1947, Martyrs’ Day), native of Prome, National Hero, Martyr, Kemmendine Students Union Club 1916, always smiling Sayar Mya at the Myoma National High School, lawyer defending Sayar San, Dobama Asiayone 1934, MP 1936/1939 Southern Tharawaddy, EC Chauk-Yenangyaung oilfield workers’ strike, chairman of the First National Convention of the Burmese Peasant League 1939, cabinet member of Bogyoke Aung San.7 October (1931), DOB, Archbishop Desmond Tutu, South Africa.9 October (1983), Rangoon bombing by North Korea, North Korean commandos detonated a bomb in Rangoon during a state visit by Republic of Korea officials. Twenty-one Burmese and Korean officials were killed.9 October (2007), death in custody at interrogation center Palate, Mandalay, U Win Shwe (1965-2007), NLD Kyaukpadaung, Mandalay.10 October (1941), DOB, U Peter Limbin, MP 1990, Members of Parliament Union, Independent, Maymyo, Mandalay, former Foreign Minister of NCGUB.10 October (2003), death in custody at Insein prison, Saw Do Saw (a) Saw Than, Karen National Union, Karen.10 October (2007), Ko Win Shwe, NLD, was murdered by police and security forces during interrogation in Sagaing. White House foreign affairs spokesman Gordon Johndroe said “The United States strongly condemns the atrocities committed by the junta and calls for a full investigation into the death of Win Shwe during his detention in Burma. The junta must stop the brutal treatment of its people and peacefully transition to democracy or face new sanctions from the United States.”11 October (1999), death of U Ye Kyaw Thu, co-founder of Committee for the Restoration of Democracy in Burma (CRDB).11 October (2002), death in custody at Kengtung prison, Sai Pha Than, NLD Kengtung, Shan.12 October, Abhidhamma Day (according to lunar calendar Thadingyut Full Moon Day).12 October (1988), Founding Day of Arakan League for Democracy (ALD). The ALD which won 11 of the 25 Arakan parliamentary seats in 1990, issued a statement ‘Nine-Point Arakan Demand’ on 15 July 1995 after the release of Daw Aung San Suu Kyi. To facilitate the building of a peaceful, prosperous and genuine federal union, the ALD urged SLORC to release all political prisoners, Page 29 of 38
  • 30. recognize the 1990 election results, re-instate all Members of Parliament ‘disqualified’ by SLORC, dissolve the National Convention, declare a nation-wide cease-fire, repeal all undemocratic laws, agree to equality and self-determination for all, guarantee human rights and basic freedoms, and hold tripartite talks between the armed forces, the democracy movement and ethnic leaders.13 October (1993), death in custody at Thayet Prison, Ko Ai Ko (a) Aik Ko (1962-93), student at Workers’ College during 8-8-88 uprising, Hlaing, Rangoon.14 October (1988), Founding Day of Democratic Party for New Society (DPNS).14 October (1991), Norwegian Nobel Committee announced Aung San Suu Kyi as 1991 Nobel Peace Prize winner.16 October (2006), death in custody at Mandalay prison, Ko Thet Win Aung, student. US State Department statement: This death demonstrates the tragic price the people of Burma are forced to pay for opposing the repressive policies of the regime and standing up for their human and democratic rights.18 October (1962), DOB, Ko Min Ko Naing, native of Rangoon, student president, second well-known political dissident in Burma (first Aung San Suu Kyi), political prisoner 1989-2004 Insein / Akyab prisons, 2006 and 65-year imprisonment (2008) Insein / Maubin / Kengtung prisons, zoology student during 8-8-88 uprising, Saffron Revolution 2007, chairman of All Burma Federation of Students Union / Ba Ka Tha (re-established 1988), 88 Generation Students Group, John Humphrey Freedom Award (1999, Canada), Student Peace Prize (2001, Norway), Civil Courage Prize (2005, New York) and Gwangju Prize for Human Rights (2009, South Korea), Thingungyun, Rangoon. Father: Thet Nyunt; mother: Hla Kyi; sister: Kyi Kyi Nyunt. Health conditions: gout and osteoporosis. The people of Burma must have the courage to say no to injustice and yes to the truth. They must also work to correct their own wrongdoing that hurt society, August 2006. White Expression (10 October 2006 ̶ 18 October 2006, his 44th Birthday), wearing white clothing in a show of support for the release of all political prisoners, was held to pressure the military government to release him and all of political prisoners. The 88 generation students also organized the Signature campaign (started a week after Min Ko Naing and four colleagues were arrested) to pressure the junta to release him and all political prisoners. Open Heart campaign (4 January 2007, Independence Day) was to encourage the people to exercise freedom of expression writing to State Peace and Development Council leader senior general Than Shwe about their feelings under the military government. White Sunday campaign (11 March 2007 ̶ 20 May 2007), visited the families of political prisoners in Rangoon every Sunday, was to express support to family members of political prisoners.18 October (1990), death in custody at Insein prison, Hse Shi (a) Hsi Shi (a) Se Shi, Kachin Independence Army, Kachin.19 October (2004), death in custody at Insein prison, Rangoon General Hospital, Ko Zaw Myo Htet (a) Zaw Zaw, university student, Minhla, Sagaing.20 October (1998), death in custody at Wakema prison, U Kyaw Din (1939-98), NLD Wakema, Irrawaddy.20 October (2007), World Malaria Day. It is hoped that the establishment of World Malaria Day will mobilize communities across the world to get involved in the fight. It is in recognition of the fact that the world health community recognizes malaria as a global emergency that knows no borders.21 October (1998), death in custody at Military Camp Mandalay, U Aung Min, NLD, Mandalay.23 October (1931), DOB, Maung Tha Ya (a) Thein Lwin, renowned Burmese novelist, political prisoner 1953-55, native of Mandalay, one of the founding members of the All Burma Federation of Students Union 1951, National Literary Prize 1969 for Mut thut yat lo lan hma ngo (Crying in the Middle of the Road), the military junta banned his works since 1989, Nevada, USA.23 October (1935), DOB, U Aung Lwin (a) San Shwe Maung, repected actor and director, native of Akyab, NLD, banned from appearing in movies 2004. Page 30 of 38
  • 31. 24 October (1876), DOB, Sayar San (a) Ya Gyaw (24 October 1876 – 28 November 1931), native of Shwebo, nationalist, Buddhist monk, Burmese medicine man, astrologer, leader of the anti-British rebellion of 1930-32, General Council of Burmese Association, Galon Army. Climbing to the gallows with his head high, he was hanged on 28 November 1931 at the British Tharawaddy prison.25 October (1960), Founding Day of Kachin Independence Organisation (KIO).26 October (1903), DOB, Mahn Ba Khaing, (26 October 1903 – 19 July 1947, Martyrs’ Day), native of Henzada, Irrawaddy, National Hero, Martyr, Burma Rifle 1920, opened national school, MP 1937 Northern Bassein, businessman of Banana plantation in Pazundaung Rangoon, cabinet member of Bogyoke Aung San.26 October (2006), death in custody at Moulmein prison, Maung San.27 October (2007), Founding Day of International Burmese Monks Organization. The IBMO was formed in the United States on 27 October 2007, after appeals by monks and laypeople to protect Buddhism in Burma following the regime’s brutal crackdown on the September “Saffron Revolution.” IBMO chairman U Pannya Vamsa, Penang, Malaysia, and secretary U Uttara, head of the Buddhist organization, Sasana Ramsi Vihara, London.November 20111 November (1992), assassinated by the Burmese military in Kunming, China, U Win Ko, MP 1990, NLD Ye-U, Sagaing, Finance Minister of NCGUB.2 November (1959), DOB, Kyaw Thu, patriot, a well-known actor, artist, poet, social activist, political prisoner 2007, vice president of the Free Funeral Services Society (FFSS), Thukha clinic, Happy Haven Humanitarian Project, Saffron Revolution 2007, Cyclone Nargis 2008, Citizen of Burma Award 2010, gagged by Censorship Board. “I will only do work that I believe in. I won’t do any job that I don’t believe in,” is his philosophy.3 November (2007), died one month after being beaten, Ko Ko Win, Saffron Revolution 2007, NLD South Okkalapa, Rangoon.4 November (1946), DOB, Mrs. Laura Bush, First Lady of the United States of America (2000-08). Daw Suu has been under house arrest off and on for the last 20 years, but she never lost hope or stopped believing in a free Burma, 18 December 2010.5 November (1883), DOB, P Moe Nin (5 November 1883 – 6 January 1940), native of Thonze, Pegu, was one of Burma’s most prolific and treasured writers. He is often regarded as the father of Burmese short story writing and the modern Burmese novel. He translated uncountable and valuable works of general knowledge, including self-help books, from Western languages.5 November (1911), DOB, U Raschid (5 November 1911 – 21 April 1968), M.A. Nationalist leader, close friend and associate of U Nu and Bogyoke Aung San. First General Secretary, Rangoon University Students Union (RUSU) at its founding in 1931. President of RUSU 1936. First President of All Burma Students Union, 1936. First Student Member of the Rangoon University Council, 1937. Formed first Labour Union in Burma, 1937. Member of Drafting Committee of 1947 Constitution of Burma. Cabinet Minister in successive Cabinets of PM U Nu, 1952 - 62. President, International Labor Organization, 1961. President, All-Burma Burman Muslim Organization (BMO) 1960 – 1974. Suffered six years detention after military coup of 1962; and again from 1972 to mid 1974.5 November (1988), Founding Day of All Burma Students Democratic Front (ABSDF, Ma Ka Da Ta).5 November (2005), death in custody at Insein prison, Ko Aung Myint Thein, human rights activist, Free Trade Union of Burma, Democracy and Peace Party, Shwe Paukan, Rangoon.9 November (1990), death in custody at Interrogation Center, U Maung Ko (a) Sayar Ko (a) Min Thit (1938-90), General Secretary of All Burma Port Workers’ Union, NLD, Rangoon. Page 31 of 38
  • 32. 10 November, Tazaungdine Festival (according to lunar calendar Tazaungmone Full Moon Day).10 November (1990), Ye Man and Ye Htin Kyaw hijacked the Thai International Airways TG-305 airplane that was flying from Bangkok to Rangoon and forced the plane to land in India without harming any people. The demands put forward by them included the release of all political prisoners, including Aung San Suu Kyi; the withdrawal of martial law and the abolition of all military tribunals; the reopening of the universities, which were closed down after the 1988 military coup; and the handing over of power to the National League for Democracy, which scored a landslide victory in the 1990 general elections.11 November (1906), DOB, Gen Smith Dun (11 November 1906 – 1979), Four-foot Colonel, former Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces, an ethnic Karen, Indian Military Academy where he won the first Sword of Honor, played a key role in the early years of Burma’s independence, a loyal and professional leader of the Burmese army. As its commander, he kept his Karen soldiers sharp and disciplined. Suspicion of his ethnic roots, however, lingered even after his dismissal. The government kept him in Kalaw, Shan State under surveillance until his death in 1979.12 November (1866), DOB, Sun Yat Sen (a) Sun Deming, (12 November 1866 – 12 March 1925), Chinese revolutionary and the Father of Modern China, China.15 November (2002), death in custody at Insein prison, Insein Hospital, U Maung Ko, NLD Kyaukpadaung, Mandalay.17 November (1921), DOB, Sayagyi Paragu (meaning “expert”), native of Thananthanaw village, Henzada Township, Irrawaddy, well-Known Burmese writer, philanthropist, ex-monk, single, founded Burma’s third largest public library called Paragu Shantiniketan Reference Library ̶ named after Shantiniketan (meaning “abode of peace”), an international university founded by Indian poet Rabindranath Tagore ̶ in North Okkalapa Township donating his own collection of 5,000 books. Much of his writing stresses the importance of parahita and lawkahita, two Pali terms that espouse service for humankind. He established a school for poor children. Paragu won national kudos for his translations in 1963 and 1986. And in 2002, he was given Burma’s National Literary Award for his lifetime of achievements.17 November (1941), International Students Day. On 17 November 1939 students resistance in the streets of Prague against Nazi occupation inspired the establishment of an anti-Nazi students coalition. In 1941 November 17th was declared International Students Day by the International Students Council in London that became the starting point of the founding of the International Union of Students (IUS). We will never forget the Nazi atrocities. Given the significance of the alliance, which defeated the Nazis, the courage that was taken by our predecessors in resisting nazism and fascism, the IUS has maintained the tradition of marking 17 November each year as the International Students Day.18 November (1992), death in custody at Insein prison / Rangoon General Hospital, Ven. U Zawtika (1932- 1992), monk, political prisoner 3-year imprisonment (1990) for 1990 Overturning of Alms Bowl religious boycott, Shwe Phone Pwint Monastery, Pazundaung, Rangoon.19 November (1933), DOB, Poet Tin Moe (a) U Ba Gyan (19 November 1933 – 22 January 2007), native of Kan Mye Zagyan, Myingyan. Cigar’s burnt down, The sun is brown, Will somebody take me home?20 November (1920), National Day (according to lunar calendar Tazaungmone Waning Day 10). At Rangoon University on 5 December 1920 (Tazaungmone Waning Day 10, 1282) student leaders: Sayagyi Tun Pe, Tun Wai, Pe Thein, Ko Myint, Ba Oo, Tun Thwin protested against the British colonial administration’s Rangoon University Act which forbade Burmese people from pursuing higher learning, starting the independence movement. Burmese National Day became a symbol of the strong link between political and educational rights and highlighted the important role that patriotic students have played in Burmese politics. Page 32 of 38
  • 33. 20 November (1948), DOB, Mr. John Robert Bolton, Permanent U.S. Representative to the U.N. 2005-06, Republican, played a key role in bringing Burma before the UN Security Council in 2006. He is a senior fellow at the American Enterprise Institute, Washington, D.C.21 November (1962), death in custody at Insein prison, Sao Shwe Thaik (1894 – 21 November 1962), a well-respected Shan political figure, was the first President of the democratic and newly independent Union of Burma from 1948-52. He was the chairman of the chamber of nationalities until 1962. In the military coup of March 1962 he was arrested by the Revolutionary Council headed by General Ne Win and died in prison. His residence in Yawnghwe, the haw, is now a museum, and is open to the public. The following is his presidential address to the nation on the day of independence, 4 January 1948. Let us rejoice at the independence which has come to us today, the result of sacrifices undergone by us and those who preceded us in the years that have passed. Let us rejoice also that the independence has come not as a result of armed conflict but as the fruit of friendly negotiations with that great nation whose political bonds we replace by mutual consent to-day with the stronger bonds of friendship and goodwill. Today is for us not only a day of freedom but also a day of reunion. For a long time, the principal races of Burma, the Kachins and the Chins have tended to look upon themselves as separate national units. Of late, a nobler vision, the vision of a Union of Burma, has moved our hearts, and we stand united today as one nation determined to work in unity and concord for the advancement of Burma’s interests and for the speedy attainment of her due position as one of the great nations of the world. It is unity which has brought our struggle for independence to this early fruition and may unity continue to be the watchword for every member of the Sovereign Independent Republic to be henceforth known as the Union of Burma.25 November (1981), By resolution 54/134 of 17 December 1999, the General Assembly designated 25 November as the International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women, and invited governments, international organizations and NGOs to organize activities designated to raise public awareness of the problem on that day. Women’s activists have marked 25 November as a day against violence since 1981. This date came from the brutal assassination in 1960, of the three Mirabal sisters, political activists in the Dominican Republic, on orders of Dominican ruler Rafael Trujillo (1930-1961).26 November (BC 94), Shan New Year (according to lunar calendar Nataw Waxing Day 1 of the year 2106).26 November (1944), Writers’ Day (sarsodaw nei, according to lunar calendar Nataw Waxing Day 1). The Burma Writers Union was established before World War II and was allowed to continue to operate through the Japanese occupation. In 1944 the group inaugurated a festival in honor of the literati (sarsodaw). The day is dedicated to Pon Nya, a famous 19th century poet and playwright. Today writers, reporters, journalists and poets are firmly maintaining the excellent tradition of this special day and seizing the opportunity to speak freely about our democratic rights and against the fascist military regime in uniform or under a civilian guise.27 November (2003), death soon after release, Ko Hla Maung, Karen, political prisoner 20-year imprisonment (1994), MP 1990, Patriotic Old Comrades League (POCL), Kya Inn Seikkyi (1), Rangoon.28 November (1931), Sayar San was hanged by the British Imperialists.29 November (1915), DOB, Ludu Daw Amah (a) Ahmar (29 November 1915 – 7 April 2008), native of Mandalay, renowned journalist, the mother of Burma, political prisoner 1978-79, Rangoon University Students’ Union 1936, Kyi Pwa Yay Magazine, Ludu (People’s) Journal, her name has been censored in Burmese press, banned on newspapers since 1967, Mandalay. She prefers the spelling Amah as her name. Do or Die: People power should be used if Burma junta doesn’t respond Page 33 of 38
  • 34. to National League for Democracy (NLD) call for action, April 2006. In our country the military junta will not govern forever. Nor can rule forever. 8 August 2007.December 20111 December (1920). Rangoon University was founded when University College and Judson College were merged. Rangoon University modeled itself after University of Cambridge and University of Oxford. From the beginning, Rangoon University has been at the center of civil discontent throughout its history. All three nationwide strikes against the British in 1920, 1936 and 1938 began at the university. The tradition of student protest at the university continued under the Burmese military junta in 1962, 1974, 1988 and 1996.1 December (1969), South East Asia Peninsular (S.E.A.P) Games uprising. Students from Rangoon, Mandalay and Moulmein took advantage of the Southeast Asian Games in Rangoon to protest the Revolutionary Council. The protest was crushed down, many students were expelled from their universities and Burma stopped hosting SEAP games since then.1 December (1988), World AIDS Day is dedicated to raising awareness of the AIDS pandemic caused by the spread of HIV infection. It is common to hold memorials to honor persons who have died from HIV/AIDS on this day.1 December (1999), death of U Tin Maung Win, founder and chairman of Committee for the Restoration of Democracy in Burma (CRDB).3 December (1919), DOB, Bo Kyaw Zaw (a) Thakin Shwe, Thirty Comrades, Kunming, China.3 December (1996), 1996 December student movement in Rangoon and students marched to downtown. Over 200 students were arrested.5 December (1927), DOB, Thai King Bhumibol Adulyadej, the ninth King of Chakri Dynasty, Thailand.5 December (1974), 1974 U Thant uprising, approximately 1,000 students were killed during anti- government demonstrations. One student leader Salai Tin Maung Oo, 3rd year Zoology was hanged. In order to prevent student activists from assembling, all universities and colleges were shut down from December 1974 to May 1975.6 December (1936), DOB, U Win Khet, editor, Burma Media Association, NLD (LA) Australia.6 December (1959), DOB, Dr. Cynthia Maung, Backpack Health Worker Team, Maesot clinic, Thailand.7 December (1920), Burmese Student Uprising. In 1920 the students spearheaded the strike against the Act of 1920, which placed Rangoon University under the University of Calcutta. This strike not only drew the support of all the people of Burma but also heightened the patriotism of the Burmese people. The names of the eleven Rangoon University student leaders who led the first students’ strike against British rule are inscribed on the stone erected close to the two Sun-Moon pagodas within the grounds of Shwedagon Pagoda: Ba Shin (Twante), Nyi Pake, Pho Kun, Ko Aye, Hla Tin, Ba Oo, Pe Thein, Tun Win, Ba Shin (Tavoy), Ba Khin and Aung Din.8 December (2010), death in custody at Moulmein prison, Ashin Nameinda (a) U Myo Min, 50-year-old monk serving his twelfth year of a 20-year sentence for distributing leaflets to encourage protests in September 1999. He is the 145th political prisoner died in prison since 1988. He had been suffering mouth ulcers and thus was unable to eat, but according to the Thailand-based Assistance Association for Political Prisoners–Burma (AAPP), was not given adequate treatment. Health condition: diabetes and scabies. Despite the reverence with which Burma holds its monastic community, monks currently account for 256 of Burma’s 2,202 political prisoners. One monk, U Nandawuntha, is serving a 71-year sentence, while nearly two dozen of those detained are serving sentences of 20 years or more. Conditions inside Burma’s 44 prisons are notoriously poor, and inmates are regularly required to bribe prison doctors in order to receive treatment. Torture is widespread, particularly for Page 34 of 38
  • 35. political prisoners. Tomas Ojea Quintana, the UN’s special rapporteur for Burma, followed the news of Ashin Nameinda’s death and the release last month of opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi with calls for the junta to release the remaining 2,200-plus political prisoners in Burma.10 December (1945), DOB, U Aye Tha Aung, native of Myebon, Arakan, ex-army sergeant-major, political prisoner 1975-77 Insein prison, 2000-02, MP, Arakan League for Democracy, Secretary of Committee for Representing the People’s Parliament (CRPP).10 December (1948), World Human Rights Day (a) International Human Rights Day. The Day marks the anniversary of the Assembly’s adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948. Over the years, a whole network of human rights instruments and mechanisms has been developed to ensure the primacy of human rights and to confront human rights violations wherever they occur.11 December (1949), Anti-Feudal Pa-O Resistance Day.11 December (1987), Least Developed Country. The Burmese economy was in the 1950’s second in Asia only to Japan in wealth and prosperity. As some critics labeled it, “Military Mismanagement,” the junta had run the country into a state of poverty and depression to the point that Burma qualified under the UN’s Least Developed Country Status. The UN recommened “Least Developed Country” Status on 29 October 1987. The UN’s General Assembly approved LDC status for Burma on 11 December 1987.12 December (2003), death in custody at Insein prison, Rangoon General Hospital, Saw Sar Do Saw, school teacher, Karen National Union, Lepadan, Irrawaddy.13 December (1929), DOB, Sayamagyi Kyi Aye, medical doctor, renowned writer and poet. She lives in New York, USA, with her family since 1972. Her advice: Time is precious; thus, read, learn and be humble. Don’t be afraid of learning as a student. 13 December 2010.15 December, Kayan Martyrs’ Day.15 December (1975), Arakan State Day. Arakan had status as a division in Burma from 1948, when the country gained its independence, to 1974, when a new constitution was approved by General Ne Win’s Burma Socialist Program Party. Arakan became a state in 1974 in accordance with the new constitution. Arakan was a sovereign country that existed for 5,000 years before the Burmese king invaded in 1784. When Burma gained independence, Arakan became a part of the Union of Burma. The Arakanese nationalism is based on the principles of federalism, political equality and the right to self-determination of all different ethnic nationalities in Burma.15 December (2009), death of Ei Kyar Kwe (a) Danubyu Kyaw Tun (1937-2009), writer, poet, satirist in political, social and current affairs, chief editor of Thauk Kyar, native of Danubyu, Irrawaddy, founder and chairman of the Danubyu Poets’ Club.16 December (1972), DOB, Ma Su Su Nway, native of Htan Manaing village, Kawhmu Township, Rangoon, villager, labor and rights activist, first Burmese citizen to take government officials to court for making people labor without compensation, political prisoner 2005-06 Insein prison for fighting against forced labour practices, military detention May-June 2007 for participating in a peaceful prayer campaign for the release of Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, and 12 ½ minus 4-year imprisonment (2008) Insein / Kale/ Khamti prisons for trying to paste up a leaflet near a Rangoon hotel where a visiting U.N. human rights investigator had been staying, NLD Youth, Htan Manaing Village, Kawmu Township, Rangoon, John Humphrey Freedom Award (2006, Canada), Homo Homini Award (2008, Czech), Honorable Citizenship (2008, Italy). Health conditions: congenital heart condition, high blood pressure, malaria and gout. Pursuit of Happiness: The main thing is, only when Aunty Suu is free, I will be happy, 6 June 2006. Liberty: As long as we do not get democracy, we will have to return to prison. We are fighting for our rights, 7 June 2006.16 December (2005), death in custody at Pegu prison, Ko Aung Zaw Latt, student.17 December (1784), Fall of Mrauk-U Arakanese Kingdom to Burmans (according to lunar calendar Nataw Waning Day 7of the year 1146 AE, 31 December 1784). Page 35 of 38
  • 36. 17 December (2006), Founding Day of the Justice Restorers, a group of 30 Burmese law students.18 December (1961), DOB, Ko Ko Gyi, AGTI (PE) 1983, mastermind strategist, political prisoner 1989, 1991-2005 Insein / Thayet prisons, 2006-2007 and 65-year imprisonment (2008) Insein / Maubin / Kengtung / Mong Hsat prisons, graduate student in International Relations at the University of Rangoon in 8-8-88 uprising, Saffron Revolution 2007, deputy chairman and chief strategist of the Ba Ka Tha / All Burma Federation of Students Union, 88 Generation Students Group, Honorable Citizenship (2008, Italy), Thingangyun Rangoon. Father: Thaung Tun; brother: Aung Tun. Students’ union must be independent. Political problem is solved by political mean through face to face dialogue, 1988. We paid the price with our families, our youth and our society. But we are satisfied with that sacrifice, March 2005.18 December (1990), Founding Day of National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma (NCGUB). Dr. Sein Win, Prime Minister since 1990, cousin of Aung San Suu Kyi, established itself in Manerplaw near the Thai border. The NCGUB stated its goals: (1) to eliminate the militarization of the country, (2) to achieve democratic rights and human rights, and (3) to establish a genuine federal union where the rights of minority groups, including rights of self-determination, are fully guaranteed.19 December (1990), death in custody at Myingyan prison, U Chit Htaung, NLD Phasawng, Kayah State.19 December (2008), Maung San, NLD Youth, political prisoner 2-year imprisonment (2007) Pegu prison, committed suicide in protest of the deprivation of medical care and tortures he suffered in the hand of prison authorities. His family came to request the permission for treatments recently but it was turned down and they confiscated all the food and medicine parcels for him. The authorities also refused to return his remains home and buried him in Pegu.20 December (1938), Bo Aung Kyaw Day. Bo Aung Kyaw, student from Judson College, was killed by the British police during third Rangoon University student boycott.23 December (1997), death of former CPB Chairman Thakin Ba Thein Tin.23 December (2009), death in custody at Tharawaddy / Insein prisons, Ma Tin Tin Htwe (a) Ma Pae (1971- 2009), political prisoner 3 ¼-year imprisonment (2007) Tharawaddy prison, 2007 Saffron Revolution. According to AAPP, there are 143 political prisoners who have died in prison since 1988.25 December, Christmas Day.25 December, Karen New Year (according to lunar calendar Pyatho Waxing Day 1 of year 2751).26 December (1941), The Thirty Comrades had set up in Bangkok the Burma Independence Army (BIA) and they now followed the Japanese army when it captured Rangoon on 7 March 1942.26 December (1944), Burma Army Day, Army of Bogyoke Aung San, Motto: People are our parents! Serve the people heartily! Do all for our people! Unite the people during the war!26 December (1988), Founding Day of People’s Defense Force (PDF) by former Col Sein Mya.27 December (1941, Saturday), Founding Day of Burma Independence Army (BIA) at the residence of patriotic U Lun Pe, Bangkok, Thailand. It transformed into Burma Defence Army (DBA) on 1 August 1942. Aung San became Minister of Defence in the new Ba Maw regime, and also Commander-in-Chief of the renamed Burma National Army (BNA), with the rank of Major General, in August 1943.The BNA was renamed the Patriotic Burmese Forces, and cooperated in driving the Japanese from Southern Burma.28 December (1879, Sunday), DOB, Venerable U Ottama (a) Maung Paw Tun Aung (28 December 1879 – 9 September 1939), native of Akyab, political prisoner 1920-21, 1924-27 and 1928, writer, the pioneer and martyr of the Burmese independence movement, cosmopolitan revolutionary, Shwe Zedi monastery, Akyab, Arakan. An admirer of Gandhi, he did not advocate use of violence. He represented the Indian National Congress at the funeral of Dr Sun Yat Sen in June 1929. He was honored posthumously with U Ottama Garden near Shwedagon Pagoda, Rangoon and U Ottama Statue at U Ottama Garden in Akyab. Page 36 of 38
  • 37. 28 December (2008), death in custody at Mandalay prison, Htay Lwin Oo (1962-2008), teacher, labor rights activist, NLD from Amarapura in Mandalay, was arrested on 21 December 2003 and sentenced to 7- year imprisonment under section 5 (J) of the Emergency Provisions Act.30 December (1988), death soon after release with disability, Ko Zaw Win Tun, physics student, Rangoon University, Thaketa, Rangoon.Federal Union of Burma.New Year’s Resolution, 1 January 2011Burma CompatriotsCitizens for Peace, Liberty, Justice, Equality, Stability, and ProsperityRevolutionaries against censorship, lawlessness, slave labor, rape, torture, corruption, and crony capitalismContact Info: burmacompatriots@gmail.comNote:In honor of the strong will of the Burmese people, we would like to use the conventional English only in allof our documentations regarding Democracy for Burma.Advertisements Accepted:Dear Sir or Madam: The comprehensive document, Burma Freedom Calendar 2011, is one of a kind in the modernBurmese history struggling to have freedom from the world’s most oppressive military regime. To keep thehighest quality, it covers all important events, renowned men and women, holidays, declarations, amongothers. As you know, Burma is rich in natural resources, such as gems, jade, gold, tin, antimony, zinc,copper, tungsten, lead, coal, marble, limestone, hardwood timber, fishery reserves, natural gas, petroleum,and hydropower. In addition, smiling, laughing, and hard working are the characteristics of the Burmesepeople. Close to ending of crony capitalism and beginning of the democracy, we are presently acceptingadvertisements from well known corporations around the world, if you plan and make a part of history, todo business at some time in the future when our national leader give the green light to start the investment inBurma. We plan to use your support for the education, health care, social services, conservation of thenatural environment, protection of native people, and running costs, of course. Furthermore, you cansponsor the following renowned documents regarding Burma. 1. Above the Law 2. Also Known As 3. Burma Desk Reference 4. Burma Freedom Strategy 5. Burma Political Ethics 6. Burmese Political Jokes 7. Crimes Against Humanity in Burma 8. Cyclone Nargis 2008 9. Destructive Elements in Burma 10. Elections of Burma 11. Enemies of the Burmese Revolution 12. Foreign Relations of the Burmese Military Junta Page 37 of 38
  • 38. 13. Heroes Burma Democracy 14. Policy of the Burmese Military Junta 15. Political Prisoners in Burma 16. Referendum 2008 17. Report Card on the Burmese Military Junta 18. Quotations for the Burmese Revolution 19. Quotes of Aung San Suu Kyi 20. Trial of Aung San Suu Kyi We look forward to hearing from you, if you interest in advertising or sponsoring our credentials. Toreach us, please send messages to burmacompatriots@gmail.com. Thank you for your consideration.Sincerely,Burma CompatriotsPrimary Sources:30 Comrades, 88 Generation Students Group, Aahara Sazaung, Agence France Presse, Ah Yae Taw Pon,Alternative ASEAN Network on Burma, All Burma Federation of Students’ Union, All Burma Students’Democratic Front, All Burma Young Monks Union, Amnesty International, Asian Legal Resource Centre,Assistance Association of Political Prisoners-Burma, Associated Press, Aung Linn Htut, Aung Myo Thein,Aung Way, Aung Zaw, Bangkok Post, Bertil Lintner, Bhamo Tin Aung, Bo Bo Kyaw Nyein, BritishBroadcasting Corporation, Burma Bulletin, Burma Campaigns, Burma Digest, Burma for Democracy,Burma Lawyers’ Council, BurmaNet News, Burma Related News, Burmatoday.net, Burmese RegimeFigures and Supporters of the Reserve Bank of Australia, Cable News Network, Central IntelligenceAgency, Chin Human Rights Organization, Chinlandguardian.com, Christian Science Monitor, ChristianSolidarity Worldwide, Christopher Gunness, Committee for the Restoration of Democracy in Burma,Committee Representing of People Parliament, Dagon Taryar, Democracyformilitarymight.blogspot.com,Democratic Voice of Burma, Demowaiyan.com, Facebook, Freeburma.info, Freedom News Group, GeorgeOrwell (1903–1950), Henry Soe Win, Hla Kyaing, Htun Aung Gyaw, Htun Myat Oo, Human Rights Watch,Independent Mon News Agency, International Labour Organization, Irrawaddy, Jane’s Defence Weekly, DrJosef Silverstein, Kachin Independence Organization, Kachin News Group, Kaladan News, Prof KanbawzaWin, Kantarawaddy Times, Kaowao News, Karen Human Rights Group, Karen National Union, KhinMaung Soe, Khin Yi, Kin Oung, Kyaw Than, Larry Jagan, Law Yone, Ludu Daw Ahmar (1915-2008),Ludu U Hla (1910-1982), Ludu Sein Win, Luminary Magazine, Maung Chit, Maung Yit, Mizzima, Moe MaKa, Mya Han, Prof Mya Maung (1933–1998), Myo Thein, Narinjara News, Nation Daily Newspaper,National League for Democracy, Nay Myo Wai, Network for Democracy and Development, New Era, NewLight of Burma, New York Times, News & Articles on Burma, News Headlines, niknayman-niknayman.co.cc, Online Burma Library, Photayokeking.blogspot.com, Po Than Joung, Radio Free Asia,Rapporteurs Sans Frontièr, Recent Burmese News, Redo8888.com, Ronnie Nyein, Reuters, San San Myint,San San Tin, Salong, Scribd, Shan Herald Agency for News, Sean Turnell, Shwe Gas Bulletin, ShweKhamauk Bulletin, Shwenanda.com, Tha Tun (1908–90), Dr Than Htun (1923–2005), Time, Tin Kyi, TinMaung Thaw, Tin Oo, Toe Lwin, Uncensored Burma Daily News, United Press International, Voice ofAmerica, Vigorous Burmese Student Warriors, Washington Post, Wikipedia, Win Tin, Win Tint Tun,Xinhua, Yeyint Nge, Zarganar, Sayar Zawgyi, and Zin Linn. Page 38 of 38