Unit 1 reviewer physics

1,557 views
1,381 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,557
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
15
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Unit 1 reviewer physics

  1. 1. Unit I
  2. 2. Physics (from Greek φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), i.e. "knowledge, science of nature", from φύσις, physis, i.e. "nature”) the natural science that involves the study of matter and its motion through space and time, along with related concepts such as energy and force. More broadly, it is the general analysis of nature, conducted in order to understand how the universe behaves.
  3. 3. Mechanics-This is the study of mechanical movements of bodies, especially machines. This field facilitated the growth of industries which revolutionised the lifestyle. Thermodynamics-This is the study about effects of variations in pressure, volume and temperature on physical systems. It is based on the analysis of integrated motion of the particles using statistics. Electromagnetism- describes the interaction of charged particles with electric and magnetic fields. It can be divided into electrostatics, the study of interactions between charges at rest, and electrodynamics, the study of interactions between moving charges and radiation. Relativity- The special theory of relativity enjoys a relationship with electromagnetism and mechanics; that is, the principle of relativity and the principle of stationary action in mechanics. Acoustics- Study of production, control, transmission, reception, and effects of sounds. Optics- Study of nature, properties of light, and optical instruments. Electricity- study of electric circuits, formation and laws and its application. Nuclear Physics- is the field of physics that studies the constituents and interactions of atomic nuclei.
  4. 4.  Direct Proportion- When we say that two things are directly proportional, it does not just mean that when one increases, so does the other. It means that they both increase or decrease BY THE SAME FACTOR! If one triples, the other triples too. If one is divided by 5, so is the other.  There is a more concise way to say this: If two quantities are directly proportional, then their ratio is constant.
  5. 5. Direct Proportion Student Height Shadow (meters) (meters) 1 1.44 .33 2 1.35 .29 3 1.38 .30 4 .85 .20 5 1.26 .31 6 1.61 .36 7 1.15 .24 8 1.29 .31 We can write this as an equation. In the example we are currently working on, it would be: H/S=k where k is the constant value of the ratio. But then it is easy to rearrange this equation so that it looks like this: H=kS
  6. 6.  Inverse Proportion-When we say that two things are inversely proportional, it does not just mean that when one increases, the other decreases. It means that they change BY FACTORS THAT ARE INVERSES! If one triples, the other gets divided by three. If one is divided by 5, the other must be multiplied by 5.  There is a more concise way to say this: If two quantities are inversely proportional, then their product is constant.
  7. 7. Inverse Proportion Trial Pressure Volume # (atm) (mL) 1 1.0 30.1 2 1.4 21.9 3 1.8 17.7 4 2.2 14.6 5 2.6 11.8 6 3.0 9.8 7 3.4 8.8 8 3.8 8.2 In this case, the two quantities are P (pressure) and V (volume). If we are saying that their product is constant, then: PV=k which can also be written as V=k/P
  8. 8. Direct Square Proportion  We already know that "is proportional to" means that the two things have a constant ratio. But now we are saying that first you have to square one of those two things and then the ratio is constant. In equation form, it would be:  which is an equation that you learned in geometry class. But you learned it in a re-arranged form:  Informally, we can say that if THING 1 is proportional to the square of THING 2, then when THING 2 increases by a given factor, THING 1 increases by the SQUARE of that factor. So for example, if you DOUBLE the radius of a circle, then the area gets multiplied by FOUR (because 22=4) and if you TRIPLE the radius of the circle, the area increases by a factor of NINE (because 32=9)
  9. 9. Direct Square Proportion Cylinder Radius, r Volume,V # (cm) (mL) 1 2.0 35.2 2 4.0 140.8 3 6.0 316.8 4 8.0 563.2 5 10.0 880
  10. 10. Inverse Square Proportion Like inverse proportions, we can start by saying that when one goes up, the other goes down. But this time, the first quantity is inversely proportional to the SQUARE of the second quantity. So when the second quantity changes by some factor, the first quantity changes by the INVERSE of the SQUARE of that factor. As usual, it's more concise when you say it mathematically. We'll write that the product of THING 1 and the SQUARE of THING 2 is a CONSTANT, or in this case, using 't' for thickness and 'r' for radius:
  11. 11. Inverse Square Proportion
  12. 12. The scientific Notation is also called the power-of-ten notation. Mx10 raise to nth power. M=(1-9) To convert a large number to scientific notation, first count how many times the decimal place must be moved to the left to make the value one or less than 10, then multiply this number by 10 raised to the number of steps that you made. Example: Mass of earth 6000000000000000000000000 6x10 raised to 24 To convert a small number to scientific notation, first count how many times the decimal place must be moved to the right to make the value one or less than 10, then multiply this number by 10 raised to the negative number of steps that you made. Example: Mass of Electron 0.000000000000000000000000000000911 9.1x10 raised to -31
  13. 13. Identifying SF Rule 1: All nonzeros are considered significant (1- 9). Ex: 2334.9=5SF Rule 2: All zeros between significant digits or nonzero digits are SF. Ex. 23006=5SF Rule 3: All zeros to the left of the first significant numbers are NOT significant. Ex: 0.00045=2SF
  14. 14. Identifying SF Rule 4: All zeros at the end/ at the right of the significant digits are considered significant if it comes with decimal point or over bar. Ex: 31.30=4SF 300=1SF Rule 5: Constants have infinite number of significant digits. Ex: Π=infinite SF
  15. 15. Addition and Subtraction of Significant Figures The number of significant figures of the sum or difference is the same as in the number that has the fewest number of decimal point. Ex: 23.36+52.3+15.224=90.9 Multiplication and Division of Significant Figures The number of significant figures of the product or quotient is the same as in the number that has the fewest significant figures. Ex: 13.5x9.4=127
  16. 16.  Fundamental Quantities  The SI is founded on seven SI base units for seven base quantities assumed to be mutually independent. Fundamental Quantity Name (unit) Symbol (unit) Length Meter m Mass Kilogram kg Time Second s Temperature Kelvin K Electric Charge Coulomb C Amount of Substance mole mol Luminous Intensity candela cd
  17. 17.  Derived Quantities  Other quantities, called derived quantities, are defined in terms of the seven base quantities via a system of quantity equations. The SI derived units for these derived quantities are obtained from these equations and the seven SI base units.
  18. 18. Derived Quantity Name (unit) Symbol (unit) Area square meter m2 Volume cubic meter m3 speed, velocity meter per second m/s Acceleration meter per second squared m/s2 wave number reciprocal meter m-1 mass density kilogram per cubic meter kg/m3 specific volume cubic meter per kilogram m3/kg current density ampere per square meter A/m2 magnetic field strength ampere per meter A/m amount-of-substance concentration mole per cubic meter mol/m3 luminance candela per square meter cd/m2 mass fraction kilogram per kilogram, which may be represented by the number 1 kg/kg = 1
  19. 19. Prefix Symbol 10n Decimal English word yotta Y 1024 100000000000000000000000 0 septillion zetta Z 1021 1000000000000000000000 sextillion exa E 1018 1000000000000000000 quintillion peta P 1015 1000000000000000 quadrillion tera T 1012 1000000000000 trillion giga G 109 1000000000 billion mega M 106 1000000 million Kilo k 103 1000 thousand Hecto h 102 100 hundred Deca da 101 10 ten 100 1 one
  20. 20. Prefix Symbol 10n Decimal English word[n 1] 100 1 one Deci d 10−1 0.1 tenth Centi c 10−2 0.01 hundredth Milli m 10−3 0.001 thousandth Micro µ 10−6 0.000001 millionth Nano n 10−9 0.000000001 billionth Pico p 10−12 0.000000000001 trillionth Femto f 10−15 0.000000000000001 quadrillionth Atto a 10−18 0.000000000000000001 quintillionth zepto z 10−21 0.000000000000000000001 sextillionth yocto y 10−24 0.000000000000000000000 001 septillionth
  21. 21.  Scalar quantities are those that are described by magnitudes. Ex: 600m  Vector quantities are expressed completely with magnitude and direction. Ex: 600m, NE
  22. 22. Parallelogram Method (tail to tail method) Step 1: Scale the given vectors Ex: 100km=10cm Step 2: Draw the scaled vectors. Both tails are in the origin of the Cartesian plane. Step 3: Create parallelogram by drawing shadow of each vectors, should be parallel and equal magnitude. Step 4: Draw the resultant vector, vector/line from tails of the given vectors to the opposite point. Step 5: Measure the value of magnitude and direction of the resultant vector by measuring again and use the scale for the magnitude. Use protractor for the direction.
  23. 23. Polygon Method (head to tail method) Step 1: Scale the given vectors Ex: 100km=10cm Step 2: Draw the first scaled vectors and draw small x- y plane on the head of the vector. Step 3: Draw the second vector wherein its tail is connected in the head of the first vector. Step 4: Draw the resultant vector, simply connect the head of the second vector and tail of the first vector. Step 5: Measure the value of magnitude and direction of the resultant vector by measuring again and use the scale for the magnitude. Use protractor for the direction.

×