Europe’s century of peace and progress

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  • 1.  (1815-1914) – the century before World War, was an interlude of peace and progress in world history.  This century saw the remarkable flowering of modern civilization, the expansion of trade and industries, the blossoming of arts and sciences, and the emergence of socialism.
  • 2. Mass production – enabled factories to produce thousands of manufactured goods, instead of by dozens as in the 18th century. Corporation- is a group of capitalists who secure a franchise from the government, authorizing them to engage in certain business.
  • 3. Expansion of World Commerce Dr. Hutton Webster – American Historian England retain her commercial supremacy. - far-flung colonies, her unrivalled navy and the business and the colonial genius of her people made her the mistress of the commercial world. Germany ranked next to England in international trade, with France a close third.
  • 4. Vikers Morgan mass production
  • 5.  Two great crisis during 19th century: “Crisis of 1857” which started in the United States “Crisis of 1873” Which began in Austria. Causes of depression are: - speculation, failure of crops, unwise investments, overi ssue of paper money.
  • 6. In the early 1820’s laborers in England form trade unions in order to secure higher wages and better working conditions. “labor unions” agitated for the welfare of the working masses. End of 19th century-industrial nations led by Germany promulgated social legislation to promote welfare of the labor.
  • 7. Labor unions used strike, picket, boycott, sabotage, and suffrage. Strike – is an organized cessation of work to force employer to grant workers demands. Picket – is a peaceful campaign of the strikers to persuade non strikers not to work and to appeal t the public moral support. Boycott – is an organized movement to discourage the use of products made by an employer who is hostile to labor. Sabotage – an act of violence, such as the destruction of machinery, which radical strikers engage in to force their employer to accept their demands. Suffrage – is the right to vote.
  • 8. Strike Picket
  • 9. The capitalist had his own weapons 1. Blacklist – which contains the names of troublesome laborers. 2. Lockout – the closing of factory by the employer to force laborers to accept his terms. 3. Political influence – many influential friends in the government. 4. 4. wealth – he could afford to live the laborers starved.
  • 10. Utopian Socialism – named after Utopia was founded by an Englishman, Robert Owen and two Frenchmen, Saint-Simon and Fourier. Marxian Socialism – founded by Karl Marx (1818- 83), a German writer. All wealth is produced by labor, therefore, it must belong to the laborer. Syndicalism – founded in France by Georges Sorel, a French engineer and writer. - he urged all syndicates to rise immediately and overthrow the capitalist system by means of violence, murder, and terrorism.
  • 11. Growth and Humanitarianism As early as 1815 – the Congress of Vienna agreed to abolish the inhuman slave trade which had long desolated Africa, and degraded Europe and America. Czar Alexander II emancipated the serfs in Russia in 1861. Negro slaves were emancipated in the United States in 1865 after a bloody civil war. Cesare Beccaria – an Italian reformer, denounced the brutal treatment of criminals in Christian Europe and advocate penal reform. “Essay on Crimes and Punishments”
  • 12. Elizabeth Fry – an English Quakeress who led the crusade. The emerging of humanitarian spirit of the 19th century was also manifested in the treatment of the unfortunates.  Assylums for insane persons, poorhouses for beggars, and school for the deaf, dumb and blind were established in European countries and also the animals.
  • 13. Humanitarian organizations Salvation Army – founded by William Booth Young Men’s Christian Association – began in England – which began in England. International Red Cross – Founded by Henry Dunant. Civic- spirited millionaire’s have contributed generously to promote welfare of mankind.
  • 14. Since the French revolution the field of business, politics, and education were gradually opened to women. Wesleyan College (1836) in Georgia and Mount Holyoke Female Seminar in Massachusetts. Oberlin College was the first private school and the University of Iowa (1856) was the first state university to adopt co-education. 1893- Australia and New Zealand extended the right to vote to women. Norway (1907) first country to grant woman suffrage in Europe.
  • 15. The elementary school system was established the secondary school, which prepared young people for university education. Kindergarten by Friedrich Froebel (1782-1852), a German educator. Higher learning developed in 19th century the United States out-stripped Europe in popularizing higher learning.
  • 16. Pope Leo XII (1878-1903) – promulgated the encyclical “Rerum Novarum”( May 15, 1891) Pope was hailed as the “ Pope of the Workingmen” Scientific Progress Scientist of all nations are the benefactors of mankind. Laboratory is the common meeting place of all scientist.
  • 17. Charles Lyell (1797-1859) - revolutionized the geological science with his uniformitarian theory. “ The Principles of Geology”(1830) Evolution Charles Darwin “ The Origin of Species by means of Natural Selection” - it was supported by Alfred Russel Wallace.
  • 18.  The researches of Antoine Lavoisier laid down the basis of modern chemistry.  John Dalton –matter is composed of minute atoms. In Germany, chemical science advanced because of Friedrick Wohler and Justus von Liebig. Dmitri Mendeleev – a Russian scientist, propounded the “periodic law” in chemistry. Louis Pasteur – he introduced the pasteurization.
  • 19.  Michael Faraday – invention of the electric dynamo in 1831.  Thomas Edison – invented the electric bulb 1879. In 1898, the French husband-and-wife team of Dr. Pierre and Marie Currie amazed the world with their discovery of the new element radium. Albert Einstein- his theory of relativity.
  • 20.  Elias Metchnikoff (Russian) – discovered the white blood corpuscles.  Robert Koch(German)- discovered an antitoxin against diphtheria. Anesthesia- it was first used in 1846by Dr.John C. Warren, an American surgeon in Boston. Exploration Von Humboldt – “Father ofScienceof Climatology” Dr. David Livingstone and Henry Stanley- explored the “Dark Continent”(Africa).
  • 21. Literature Lord Alfred Tennyson- was the poetic voice of age. Robert Browning “ The Ring and the Book”. French Literature in the 19th century saw the decline of the Romantic Age and the age of Realism. The literature of Italians was both nationalist and classical. Alessandro Mazzoni – best Italian novelist. Early part of 20th centuries Hans Christian Andersen – one of the well-known writers.
  • 22. Men had become more materialistic and individualistic. Herbert Spencer – wrote the Synthetic Philosophy History and the Social Science The great historian of the age were: Leopold von Ranke (German) the father of the scientific method of historical writing. The greatest sensation in the new science of Psychoanalysis of Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) AN Austrian physician. Auguste Comte (1798-1857) – founded the Sociology.
  • 23. Music Versatile – this is the music in the 19th century. Fine Arts the greatest sculptors of the 19th century were Canova ( Italian), Thorwaldsen (Dane), and Rodin (French). Impressionism – a new type of painting became popular in 19th century. The architecture was characterized by the revival of the classical and Gothic styles.
  • 24. Early Advocate of World Peace King Henry IV advocated the “Grand Design” for the purpose of preserving world peace. In 19th century the peace movement was promoted by private benefactors. The Hague conference Czar Nicholas II – invited the powers to meet in an international conference. First Peace Conference was held in Hague, Netherlands, from May 18 to July 29, 1899.
  • 25. It Accomplished the ff: 1. the establishment of Permanent Court of Arbitration. 2. The codification of the laws of warfare 3. The prohibition of the use of poison gas. 4. The adoption of the rules of the geneva Convention of 1864 pertaining to the treatment of wounded soldiers. Second World Peace in 1907 this time it was attended by delegates from 44 nations- 21 Europeans, 19 Americans, and 4 Asians.