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(1815-1914) – the century before World War,
was an interlude of peace and progress in
This century saw the remarkable flowering of
modern civilization, the expansion of trade
and industries, the blossoming of arts and
sciences, and the emergence of socialism.
Mass production – enabled factories to produce
thousands of manufactured goods, instead of by
dozens as in the 18th century.
Corporation- is a group of capitalists who secure a
franchise from the government, authorizing
them to engage in certain business.
Expansion of World Commerce
Dr. Hutton Webster – American Historian
England retain her commercial supremacy.
- far-flung colonies, her unrivalled navy
and the business and the colonial genius of
her people made her the mistress of the
Germany ranked next to England in
international trade, with France a close
Two great crisis during 19th century:
“Crisis of 1857” which started in the United
“Crisis of 1873” Which began in Austria.
Causes of depression are:
- speculation, failure of crops, unwise
investments, overi ssue of paper money.
In the early 1820’s laborers in England form
trade unions in order to secure higher wages
and better working conditions.
“labor unions” agitated for the welfare of the
End of 19th century-industrial nations led by
Germany promulgated social legislation to
promote welfare of the labor.
Labor unions used strike, picket, boycott, sabotage, and
Strike – is an organized cessation of work to force employer
to grant workers demands.
Picket – is a peaceful campaign of the strikers to persuade
non strikers not to work and to appeal t the public moral
Boycott – is an organized movement to discourage the use of
products made by an employer who is hostile to labor.
Sabotage – an act of violence, such as the destruction of
machinery, which radical strikers engage in to force their
employer to accept their demands.
Suffrage – is the right to vote.
The capitalist had his own weapons
1. Blacklist – which contains the names of
2. Lockout – the closing of factory by the
employer to force laborers to accept his
3. Political influence – many influential friends
in the government.
4. 4. wealth – he could afford to live the
Utopian Socialism – named after Utopia was
founded by an Englishman, Robert Owen and two
Frenchmen, Saint-Simon and Fourier.
Marxian Socialism – founded by Karl Marx (1818-
83), a German writer.
All wealth is produced by labor, therefore, it must
belong to the laborer.
Syndicalism – founded in France by Georges
Sorel, a French engineer and writer.
- he urged all syndicates to rise
immediately and overthrow the capitalist
system by means of violence, murder, and
Growth and Humanitarianism
As early as 1815 – the Congress of Vienna agreed to
abolish the inhuman slave trade which had long
desolated Africa, and degraded Europe and America.
Czar Alexander II emancipated the serfs in Russia in
Negro slaves were emancipated in the United States in
1865 after a bloody civil war.
Cesare Beccaria – an Italian reformer, denounced the
brutal treatment of criminals in Christian Europe and
advocate penal reform.
“Essay on Crimes and Punishments”
Elizabeth Fry – an English Quakeress who led the
The emerging of humanitarian spirit of the 19th century
was also manifested in the treatment of the
Assylums for insane persons, poorhouses for
beggars, and school for the deaf, dumb and blind
were established in European countries and also the
Salvation Army – founded by William Booth
Young Men’s Christian Association – began in England –
which began in England.
International Red Cross – Founded by Henry
Civic- spirited millionaire’s have contributed
generously to promote welfare of mankind.
Since the French revolution the field of business,
politics, and education were gradually opened to
Wesleyan College (1836) in Georgia and Mount
Holyoke Female Seminar in Massachusetts.
Oberlin College was the first private school and
the University of Iowa (1856) was the first state
university to adopt co-education.
1893- Australia and New Zealand extended the
right to vote to women.
Norway (1907) first country to grant woman
suffrage in Europe.
The elementary school system was established the
secondary school, which prepared young people
for university education.
Kindergarten by Friedrich Froebel (1782-1852),
a German educator.
Higher learning developed in 19th century the
United States out-stripped Europe in
popularizing higher learning.
Pope Leo XII (1878-1903) – promulgated the
encyclical “Rerum Novarum”( May 15, 1891)
Pope was hailed as the “ Pope of the Workingmen”
Scientist of all nations are the benefactors of
Laboratory is the common meeting place of all scientist.
Charles Lyell (1797-1859)
- revolutionized the geological science with his
“ The Principles of Geology”(1830)
Charles Darwin “ The Origin of Species by means
of Natural Selection”
- it was supported by Alfred Russel
The researches of Antoine Lavoisier laid down the
basis of modern chemistry.
John Dalton –matter is composed of minute
In Germany, chemical science advanced
because of Friedrick Wohler and Justus von
Dmitri Mendeleev – a Russian
scientist, propounded the “periodic law” in
Louis Pasteur – he introduced the
Michael Faraday – invention of the electric
dynamo in 1831.
Thomas Edison – invented the electric bulb
In 1898, the French husband-and-wife
team of Dr. Pierre and Marie Currie amazed
the world with their discovery of the new
Albert Einstein- his theory of relativity.
Elias Metchnikoff (Russian) – discovered the
white blood corpuscles.
Robert Koch(German)- discovered an antitoxin
Anesthesia- it was first used in 1846by Dr.John
C. Warren, an American surgeon in Boston.
Von Humboldt – “Father ofScienceof
Dr. David Livingstone and Henry Stanley-
explored the “Dark Continent”(Africa).
Lord Alfred Tennyson- was the poetic voice
Robert Browning “ The Ring and the Book”.
French Literature in the 19th century saw the
decline of the Romantic Age and the age of
The literature of Italians was both nationalist and
Alessandro Mazzoni – best Italian novelist.
Early part of 20th centuries Hans Christian
Andersen – one of the well-known writers.
Men had become more materialistic and
Herbert Spencer – wrote the Synthetic Philosophy
History and the Social Science
The great historian of the age were:
Leopold von Ranke (German) the father of the
scientific method of historical writing.
The greatest sensation in the new science of
Psychoanalysis of Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) AN
Auguste Comte (1798-1857) – founded the Sociology.
Versatile – this is the music in the 19th
the greatest sculptors of the 19th century were
Canova ( Italian), Thorwaldsen (Dane), and Rodin
Impressionism – a new type of painting
became popular in 19th century.
The architecture was characterized by the revival
of the classical and Gothic styles.
Early Advocate of World Peace
King Henry IV advocated the “Grand Design” for the
purpose of preserving world peace.
In 19th century the peace movement was promoted
by private benefactors.
The Hague conference
Czar Nicholas II – invited the powers to
meet in an international conference.
First Peace Conference was held in
Hague, Netherlands, from May 18 to July
It Accomplished the ff:
1. the establishment of Permanent Court of
2. The codification of the laws of warfare
3. The prohibition of the use of poison gas.
4. The adoption of the rules of the geneva
Convention of 1864 pertaining to the
treatment of wounded soldiers.
Second World Peace in 1907 this time it was
attended by delegates from 44 nations- 21
Europeans, 19 Americans, and 4 Asians.