A number of idea-gathering strategieswhich can help yougenerate ideas or topic foryour writing task include:FREEWRITINGBRAINSTORMINGJOURNAL WRITING
In this stage, you begin to plan yourwriting. Involves: Formulating a topic sentence Identifying purpose and audience Choosing a point of view Deciding on the verb tense andcohesive devices to use
FORMULATING A TOPIC SENTENCEYou examine your ideas and begin to focusthem around one main idea.TOPIC SENTENCEthe sentence stating the main idea or thatwhich summarizes the idea of the paragraphis generally placed as the first sentence of theparagraphcontains a word or a phrase that specificallydirects the writer as to what s/he is going todiscuss or write about in his paragraph
BE CAREFUL. Topics are not the same astopic sentences.TOPICS are the subjects you will write about.TOPIC SENTENCE states the main idea youhave developed on a topic.TOPIC: why courtesy is importantTOPIC SENTENCE: Courtesy takes the conflictout of unpleasant encounters.WRITING GOOD TOPICSENTENCES
WRITING GOOD TOPIC SENTENCESTOPIC: dog and their ownersTOPIC SENTENCE: Many dog owners begin tolook like their pets.
EXERCISE:• Tell whether the item is a TOPIC or a TOPICSENTENCE.1. Three characteristics of a good friend.TOPIC2. Learning to drive takes practice.TOPIC SENTENCE3. The most frightening experience in my life.TOPIC4. I learned to be punctual on my first job.TOPIC SENTENCE5. A younger brother can be a good buddy.TOPIC SENTENCE
TOPIC SENTENCES DO NOT ANNOUNCE; THEYMAKE A POINT.ANNOUNCEMENT: I will discuss the process ofchanging tires.TOPIC SENTENCE: Changing a tire is easy if you havethe right tools and follow a simple process.ANNOUNCEMENT: An analysis of why recyclingpaper is important will be the subject of this paper.TOPIC SENTENCE: Recycling paper is importantbecause it saves trees, money, and even certainanimals.WRITING GOOD TOPICSENTENCES
EXERCISE:• Determine whether or not the statement is anannouncement.1. Hunting too near a populated area can bedangerous.2. The emotional benefits of exercise are going tobe explained.3. This essay concerns the increase in the robberiesin our community.4. Our town needs a better transport system.5. The consequence of telling a “white lie” will bethe subject of this paper.
WRITING GOOD TOPICSENTENCES• TOPIC SENTENCES SHOULD NEITHER BE TOOBROAD NOR TOO NARROW.TOO BROAD: I changed a great deal in my lastyear in high school.A NARROWER, BETTER TOPIC: In my last year ofhigh school, I overcame my shyness.TOO NARROW: I fear examinations.AN EXPANDED TOPIC SENTENCE: I fearexaminations for two reasons.
EXERCISE• Tell whether or not each topic sentence is toobroad.1. Being a parent is not easy.2. The habit of gossiping can get a person intotrouble.3. Amy dreams of putting a restaurant.4. The economy makes life difficult for manyFilipinos.5. The toughest part of training my puppy wasgetting him to walk on leash.
IDENTIFYING PURPOSE ANDAUDIENCEYour purpose sets the direction in yourwriting.Purpose in writing propels you tocommunicate thoughts and feelings withconviction and enthusiasm and provides theoverall design that is to govern what you haveset out to do.“Why am I writing about this topic?”
IDENTIFYING PURPOSE ANDAUDIENCEEqually important with identifying yourpurpose is to determine your audience orreaders.Addressing a group of audience/readers willgive your writing immediacy that will catchand hold their interest.“Who am I addressing?”
POINT OF VIEW is theposition from which awriter looks at hissubject.It is necessary to decideon the point of view touse in your writing inorder to stay within thecontext that will ensureunity in your essay.CHOOSING A POINT OF VIEW
DECIDING ON THE VERB TENSEAND COHESIVE DEVICES TO USE• In this stage, you also decidewhether to use the present tense orthe past tense and what cohesivedevices to use.
This stage requires that you criticallyread your paragraph bearing in mind thequalities of an effective paragraph: unity,coherence, emphasis, and order.UNITY – A paragraph has unity if all thesentences support or develop thecontrolling idea contained in the topicsentence.
COHERENCE – This refers to the linking ortying together of ideas/thoughtspresented in the paper.EMPHASIS – This is to effectively get thepoint of your paper across. It helps youto express your point strongly.ORDER – This is concerned witharranging ideas logically. Orderguides/directs the reader towardsunderstanding the point or topic.
REVISION Revising the first draft gives you the chanceto check whether your ideas flow smoothlyand clearly.Revision puts more substance in yourwriting.
EDITINGThis necessitates that you:• adjust your diction (Choice of Words)• delete irrelevant details• punctuate words or sentences• coordinate or subordinate ideas• emphasize important points or ideas• add appropriate transitions (link words)
REWRITING This is done afterrevising and editingyour paragraph.
Publication ends the writingstage.At this point, the final version ofyour writing is ready for readingby you, your teacher or yourclassmates.