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The scope of abnormal psychology

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  • 1. THE SCOPE OF ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY February 19, 2013
  • 2. •Define Abnormal behavior in your own words •Differentiate normal from abnormal behavior
  • 3. •Form sound judgment about abnormal behaviors •Trace the roots of abnormality in the behavior of some individuals
  • 4. What comes into your mind when you hear the word “ABNORMAL” in the context of human behavior?
  • 5. ACTIVITY ΨGo through each of the items and try to figure out which of these you would regard as abnormal. ΨWrite AB if you regard the item as abnormal while N if you think it is normal.
  • 6. 1. Wearing a mini-skirt in a formal gathering 2. Biting one’s fingernails when anxious 3. Being unable to sleep, eat or study after being heart-broken. 4. Refusing to eat for days in order to stay slim.
  • 7. 5. Taking medicine, each time one can hardly sleep 6. Sweating profusely at the thought of being trapped in an elevator 7. Kissing a same-sex member in public 8. Taking two packs of cigarette to relieve oneself of tension
  • 8. 9. Engaging in thorough washing of hands when coming home from a ride in the LRT or MRT 10.Bringing a “lucky charm” to an award’s night
  • 9. Defining Abnormal Behavior
  • 10. There are two ways to approach the problem of definition: 1.Deviation from the average or normal – statistical average provides framework for thinking about normality Problem: cut-off point
  • 11. 2. Deviation from the optimal – comparing a person’s behavior to one’s notion of the ideal human functioning Problem: subjectivity
  • 12. • Refer to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) in order to tell that a behavior is normal or abnormal
  • 13. Origins of Abnormal Behavior
  • 14. • Causes of behavior vary to some degree from one type of disorder to another • However, STRESS appears to be the dominating element common to all of them
  • 15. The difference between normal and abnormal behavior depends on the amount of stress the person feels and his ability to handle such amount of stress. Both factors are influenced by biological structure, psychological traits and the environment (Kagan et.al)
  • 16. BIOLOGICAL INFLUENCES • Individual differences exist because of the activity of the brain concerned with emotions • heredity can contribute to tendencies toward the most severe forms of abnormal behavior
  • 17. PSYCHOLOGICAL INFLUENCES • acquired psychological traits also play a significant role in determining how much anxiety and stress we are likely to experience
  • 18. ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES • Severe mental disorders are most common among people living in poverty Kelly, Snowden and Munoz, 1987
  • 19. • Environmental influences likewise dictate the particular kind of behavior a person is most likely to exhibit
  • 20. CATEGORIES OF DISORDERS
  • 21. OBJECTIVES At the end of the discussion about Different Disorders, you are expected to: COGNITIVE: Ψ categorize different mental or behavior disorders
  • 22. AFFECTIVE: Ψ adjust to situations involving individuals with disorders PSYCHOMOTOR: Ψ demonstrate positive attitude and understanding towards individuals with disorders
  • 23. How much do you know about these celebrities?
  • 24. Personality Disorders (PD) Anxiety Disorders (AD) Somatoform and Dissociative Disorders Sexual Disorders Mood Disorders Schizophrenia and Related Psychotic Disorders
  • 25.   Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) DSM-IV- more than 230 disorders are described
  • 26. PERSONALITY DISORDERS (PD)
  • 27. A class of personality types and behaviors that the American Psychiatric Association (APA) defines as "an enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates markedly from the expectations of the culture of the individual who exhibits it"
  • 28.   This is the extreme form of PD in which the person seems to lack any normal conscience or sense of social responsibility as well as feeling for other people. They are sometimes called sociopaths
  • 29.  People who demonstrate this disorder are often impulsive, unpredictable, and often get upset easily.
  • 30.  People with paranoid PD are unable to get rid of their constant suspicions and mistrust of other people, even when facts evidently point out the truth.
  • 31.  These disorders involve personality disturbances which have qualities that resemble schizophrenia but do not take on its psychotic form.
  • 32.   It is marked by an indifference to social and sexual relationships and a very narrow range of emotional experience and expression. A true loner
  • 33.  They look peculiar and even bizarre in their way of relating with others, their way of thinking, their way of acting, and even in their way of dressing.
  • 34.  These are PD that are marked by behaviors that involve excessive display of emotions and egocentricity.
  • 35.  People with histrionic PD are highly excitable, and often react to little events with gigantic display of shallow and nongenuine emotions.
  • 36.   Those with narcissistic PD are often quite charming and attractive and preoccupied with appearance, but once you get to know them, they are easy to dislike. They have sense of selfimportance and claim perfection
  • 37.  These PD are located on the extreme spectrum on attitudes towards relationship with other people.
  • 38.  It is characterized by extreme sensitivity to possible rejection which are interpreted by them as forms of criticism, avoidance of close relationship unless there is certainty of acceptance and approval and others.
  • 39.  Unlike Avoidant PD, people with dependent PD are strongly drawn towards others. They are inclined to depend on others at all costs, even if the latter are mean and abusive.
  • 40.  These disorders share the common feature of conflict over the matter of control.
  • 41.   People with O-C PD constantly feel immobilized by decisions because they are afraid of making mistakes. They tend to be strongly perfectionist.
  • 42.  Individuals with P-A PD demonstrate resentment toward others, but only indirectly, through such unpleasant techniques as procrastination, stubbornness, and intentional inefficiency.
  • 43. ANXIETY DISORDERS (AD)
  • 44. Anxiety Disorders are marked by experience of physiological arousal, apprehension or feeling of dread, hyper vigilance, avoidance, and sometimes, a specific fear or phobia
  • 45.  People are said to suffer from panic disorder when they experience frequent and recurrent sensations of fear and physical discomfort or when their tension is converted into a flood of terror.
  • 46.  Anxiety states may become attached to specific objects, situations, or activities and this characterizes phobic disorders.
  • 47.       Agoraphobia – market and open places Arachnophobia – spiders Aviaphobia – flying Bacteriophobia – germs Bronthophobia – thunder Cynophobia - dogs
  • 48.        Doraphobia – touching animal fur Eisotrophobia – mirrors Galephobia – cats Ideaphobia – nthoughts Necrophobia – fear of dead bodies Spectrophobia – seeing oneself in mirrors Xenophobia - strangers
  • 49.  This applies to a condition in which the person feels afraid or apprehensive being observed by others, thus acting in ways that are humiliating or embarrassing.
  • 50.  People who have this have a number of worries that spread to various spheres of their life, rather than being focused on one specific fear.
  • 51.  these are people who are unable to recover from anxiety associated with a traumatic life event.
  • 52. SOMATOFORM AND DISSOCIATIVE DISORDERS
  • 53. These disorders entail the expression of conflict through radical, and at times, extremely unusual, disturbances in behavior, with symptoms that are quite difficult to explain (Halgin and Whitbourne, 1994)
  • 54.  Involve the expression of psychological conflict in physical symptoms for which no medical origins could be found.
  • 55.   Converting unacceptable conflicts or drives into physical symptoms Symptoms include involuntary loss or alteration of bodily function
  • 56.   These are multiple and recurrent bodily symptoms rather than a single physical complaint as that of conversion Symptoms include pain in hands and feet, back pain, blurred vision, etc.
  • 57.   Preoccupied or delusional idea that some parts of their body is defective or ugly Symptoms: exaggeration of something abnormal about the body, too much concerned with height, weight, size, shape
  • 58.    Exaggeration or distortion of normal bodily occurrence Preoccupation of fear of bodily symptoms Ex. Fear of having a serious disease, pains or aches thought to be cancerous
  • 59.   Also called multiple personality disorder, is characterized by development of more that one self or personality. The core personality is called the host, while the other existing personalities are called as alters
  • 60. SEXUAL DISORDERS
  • 61. Sexual Disorders constitute behaviors in which there are problems related to sexual aim or object, sexual performance, or sexual identity or orientation, which cause harm to other people or cause the individual to experience some forms of distress (Kleinmunts, 1990)
  • 62.  These are recurrent, intense sexual urges and sexually arousing fantasies focused on inanimate objects, on the suffering or humiliation of oneself or of one’s partner, on children, or on other nonconsenting individuals.
  • 63.  intense sexual urges and arousing fantasies involving the deliberating exposure of genitals to strangers or to unsuspecting victims usually women and children.
  • 64.  Strong, recurrent sexual attraction to an object and may derive sexual pleasure from viewing, touching or holding, burning or cutting into pieces the fetish object, usually an undergarment, stocking, or shoes.
  • 65.  Involves recurrent, intense sexual urges and sexually arousing fantasies of rubbing against or fondling another person.
  • 66.  This is a form of paraphilia in which an adult has sexual urges directed toward prepubescent or pubescent children.
  • 67.  A person has compulsion to derive sexual satisfaction from watching pornographic films or reading pornographic literature.
  • 68.  This a rare form of sexual disorder in which the individual achieve sexual pleasure from having sex with animals, such as cows, horses, etc.
  • 69.  A bizarre form of sexual disorder in which the individual, usually a male, derives sexual gratification from having sex with a corpse or a dead person.
  • 70.  Considered a taboo in virtually all societies, this involves having sexual relations between or among members of the same clan or family.
  • 71. MOOD DISORDERS
  • 72. The predominant feature of Mood Disorder is disturbance in a person’s emotional state or mood (Kagan et.al. 1994). Mood Disorders are of two types: depressive and bipolar
  • 73.   Prolonged and disabling disruptions in emotional state Experience depressive episodes only
  • 74. Involves acute, but time-limited episodes of depression. Melancholic – lose interest in most of their activities Seasonal – develop depressive symptoms usually for a month or two and they are able to return to normal functioning 
  • 75.   Mild and chronic depressive symptoms Symptoms: depressed mood for most of the day, more days than not, poor appetite or overeating, low self esteem
  • 76.  There are two forms of Mood Disorders in which alterations in mood are the main feature: bipolar disorder and cyclothymia
  • 77.   Experience both manic (hyper, overexcited) and depressive episodes Ex. Euphoria may turn into extreme irritability
  • 78.  They experience recurrent or persistent mood shifts, but not as intense as those in bipolar disorder
  • 79. SCHIZOPHRENIC AND RELATED PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS
  • 80. A psychiatric diagnosis denoting a persistent, often chronic, mental illness variously affecting behavior, thinking and emotion Schizo – split or divide Phrenos – mind “shattered mind"
  • 81.  Its prominent symptoms is bizarre or unusual bodily movements, ranging from immobility to chaotic or wild, stereotyped movements of the body.
  • 82.    Disorganized speech Disorganized behavior Flat or inappropriate affect
  • 83.  Preoccupation with one or more delusions or frequent auditory hallucinations Delusion- false belief or thinking Hallucination – false perception
  • 84.  Mixed symptoms of schizophrenia such as delusions, hallucinations, incoherence, or disorganized behavior and others.
  • 85.  Under this category are people who have been previously diagnosed with schizophrenia and no longer have prominent psychotic symptoms but still manifest some lingering signs of disorder.
  • 86. Thank You!!!