THE SCOPE OF
ABNORMAL
PSYCHOLOGY
February 19, 2013
•Define Abnormal behavior in
your own words
•Differentiate normal from
abnormal behavior
•Form sound judgment about
abnormal behaviors

•Trace the roots of
abnormality in the behavior of
some individuals
What comes into your
mind when you hear
the word
“ABNORMAL” in the
context of human
behavior?
ACTIVITY
ΨGo through each of the items
and try to figure out which of
these you would regard as
abnormal.
ΨWrite AB if you...
1. Wearing a mini-skirt in a formal
gathering
2. Biting one’s fingernails when
anxious
3. Being unable to sleep, eat or
st...
5. Taking medicine, each time
one can hardly sleep
6. Sweating profusely at the
thought of being trapped in an
elevator
7....
9. Engaging in thorough washing
of hands when coming home
from a ride in the LRT or MRT
10.Bringing a “lucky charm” to an
...
Defining Abnormal
Behavior
There are two ways to approach the
problem of definition:
1.Deviation from the average or
normal – statistical average
pro...
2. Deviation from the optimal –

comparing a person’s
behavior to one’s notion of
the ideal human functioning
Problem: sub...
• Refer to the Diagnostic and
Statistical Manual (DSM) in
order to tell that a behavior is
normal or abnormal
Origins of Abnormal
Behavior
• Causes of behavior vary to
some degree from one type of
disorder to another
• However, STRESS appears to
be the dominati...
The difference between normal and
abnormal behavior depends on the
amount of stress the person feels
and his ability to ha...
BIOLOGICAL INFLUENCES
• Individual differences exist
because of the activity of the brain
concerned with emotions
• heredi...
PSYCHOLOGICAL INFLUENCES

• acquired psychological traits
also play a significant role in
determining how much
anxiety and...
ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES

• Severe mental disorders are
most common among people
living in poverty
Kelly, Snowden and Muno...
• Environmental influences
likewise dictate the particular
kind of behavior a person is
most likely to exhibit
CATEGORIES
OF
DISORDERS
OBJECTIVES
At the end of the discussion about
Different Disorders, you are
expected to:

COGNITIVE:
Ψ categorize different...
AFFECTIVE:
Ψ adjust to situations involving
individuals with disorders
PSYCHOMOTOR:
Ψ demonstrate positive attitude
and un...
How much do you
know about
these celebrities?
Personality Disorders (PD)
Anxiety Disorders (AD)
Somatoform and Dissociative Disorders

Sexual Disorders
Mood Disorders
S...




Diagnostic and Statistical
Manual (DSM)
DSM-IV- more than 230
disorders are described
PERSONALITY
DISORDERS
(PD)
A class of personality types
and behaviors that the
American Psychiatric
Association (APA) defines as
"an enduring pattern...




This is the extreme form of PD in
which the person seems to lack
any normal conscience or sense
of social responsibi...


People who demonstrate this
disorder are often impulsive,
unpredictable, and often get
upset easily.


People with paranoid PD are
unable to get rid of their constant
suspicions and mistrust of other
people, even when fact...


These disorders involve
personality disturbances which
have qualities that resemble
schizophrenia but do not take on
it...




It is marked by an indifference to
social and sexual relationships
and a very narrow range of
emotional experience a...


They look peculiar and even
bizarre in their way of relating
with others, their way of thinking,
their way of acting, a...


These are PD that are marked
by behaviors that involve
excessive display of emotions
and egocentricity.


People with histrionic PD are
highly excitable, and often react
to little events with gigantic
display of shallow and n...




Those with narcissistic PD are
often quite charming and
attractive and preoccupied with
appearance, but once you get...


These PD are located on the
extreme spectrum on attitudes
towards relationship with other
people.


It is characterized by extreme
sensitivity to possible rejection
which are interpreted by them as
forms of criticism, a...


Unlike Avoidant PD, people with
dependent PD are strongly
drawn towards others. They are
inclined to depend on others a...


These disorders share the
common feature of conflict over
the matter of control.




People with O-C PD constantly
feel immobilized by decisions
because they are afraid of
making mistakes.
They tend to...


Individuals with P-A PD
demonstrate resentment toward
others, but only indirectly,
through such unpleasant
techniques a...
ANXIETY
DISORDERS
(AD)
Anxiety Disorders are
marked by experience of
physiological arousal,
apprehension or feeling of
dread, hyper vigilance,
av...


People are said to suffer from
panic disorder when they
experience frequent and
recurrent sensations of fear and
physic...


Anxiety states may become
attached to specific objects,
situations, or activities and this
characterizes phobic disorde...








Agoraphobia – market and open
places
Arachnophobia – spiders
Aviaphobia – flying
Bacteriophobia – germs
Bron...









Doraphobia – touching animal fur
Eisotrophobia – mirrors
Galephobia – cats
Ideaphobia – nthoughts
Necropho...


This applies to a condition in
which the person feels afraid or
apprehensive being observed by
others, thus acting in w...


People who have this have a
number of worries that spread to
various spheres of their life,
rather than being focused o...


these are people who are
unable to recover from anxiety
associated with a traumatic life
event.
SOMATOFORM
AND
DISSOCIATIVE
DISORDERS
These disorders entail the
expression of conflict through
radical, and at times,
extremely unusual,
disturbances in behavi...


Involve the expression of
psychological conflict in
physical symptoms for which
no medical origins could be
found.




Converting unacceptable
conflicts or drives into physical
symptoms
Symptoms include involuntary
loss or alteration o...




These are multiple and recurrent
bodily symptoms rather than a
single physical complaint as that of
conversion
Sympt...




Preoccupied or delusional idea
that some parts of their body is
defective or ugly
Symptoms: exaggeration of
somethin...






Exaggeration or distortion of
normal bodily occurrence
Preoccupation of fear of bodily
symptoms
Ex. Fear of havin...




Also called multiple personality
disorder, is characterized by
development of more that one
self or personality.
The...
SEXUAL
DISORDERS
Sexual Disorders constitute
behaviors in which there are
problems related to sexual aim or
object, sexual performance, or
...


These are recurrent, intense
sexual urges and sexually
arousing fantasies focused on
inanimate objects, on the
sufferin...


intense sexual urges and
arousing fantasies involving the
deliberating exposure of genitals
to strangers or to unsuspec...


Strong, recurrent sexual
attraction to an object and may
derive sexual pleasure from
viewing, touching or holding,
burn...


Involves recurrent, intense
sexual urges and sexually
arousing fantasies of rubbing
against or fondling another
person.


This is a form of paraphilia in
which an adult has sexual urges
directed toward prepubescent or
pubescent children.


A person has compulsion to
derive sexual satisfaction from
watching pornographic films or
reading pornographic literatu...


This a rare form of sexual
disorder in which the individual
achieve sexual pleasure from
having sex with animals, such ...


A bizarre form of sexual disorder
in which the individual, usually a
male, derives sexual gratification
from having sex...


Considered a taboo in virtually all
societies, this involves having
sexual relations between or
among members of the sa...
MOOD
DISORDERS
The predominant feature of
Mood Disorder is disturbance
in a person’s emotional state
or mood (Kagan et.al. 1994).
Mood Di...




Prolonged and disabling
disruptions in emotional state
Experience depressive episodes
only
Involves acute, but time-limited
episodes of depression.
Melancholic – lose interest in most
of their activities
Seasonal ...




Mild and chronic depressive
symptoms
Symptoms: depressed mood for
most of the day, more days than
not, poor appetite...


There are two forms of Mood
Disorders in which alterations in
mood are the main feature:
bipolar disorder and cyclothym...




Experience both manic (hyper,
overexcited) and depressive
episodes
Ex. Euphoria may turn into
extreme irritability


They experience recurrent or
persistent mood shifts, but not as
intense as those in bipolar
disorder
SCHIZOPHRENIC
AND RELATED
PSYCHOTIC
DISORDERS
A psychiatric diagnosis denoting a
persistent, often chronic, mental
illness variously affecting behavior,
thinking and em...


Its prominent symptoms is
bizarre or unusual bodily
movements, ranging from
immobility to chaotic or wild,
stereotyped ...




Disorganized speech
Disorganized behavior
Flat or inappropriate affect


Preoccupation with one or
more delusions or frequent
auditory hallucinations

Delusion- false belief or thinking
Halluc...


Mixed symptoms of
schizophrenia such as delusions,
hallucinations, incoherence, or
disorganized behavior and
others.


Under this category are people
who have been previously
diagnosed with schizophrenia
and no longer have prominent
psych...
Thank You!!!
The scope of abnormal psychology
The scope of abnormal psychology
The scope of abnormal psychology
The scope of abnormal psychology
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The scope of abnormal psychology

  1. 1. THE SCOPE OF ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY February 19, 2013
  2. 2. •Define Abnormal behavior in your own words •Differentiate normal from abnormal behavior
  3. 3. •Form sound judgment about abnormal behaviors •Trace the roots of abnormality in the behavior of some individuals
  4. 4. What comes into your mind when you hear the word “ABNORMAL” in the context of human behavior?
  5. 5. ACTIVITY ΨGo through each of the items and try to figure out which of these you would regard as abnormal. ΨWrite AB if you regard the item as abnormal while N if you think it is normal.
  6. 6. 1. Wearing a mini-skirt in a formal gathering 2. Biting one’s fingernails when anxious 3. Being unable to sleep, eat or study after being heart-broken. 4. Refusing to eat for days in order to stay slim.
  7. 7. 5. Taking medicine, each time one can hardly sleep 6. Sweating profusely at the thought of being trapped in an elevator 7. Kissing a same-sex member in public 8. Taking two packs of cigarette to relieve oneself of tension
  8. 8. 9. Engaging in thorough washing of hands when coming home from a ride in the LRT or MRT 10.Bringing a “lucky charm” to an award’s night
  9. 9. Defining Abnormal Behavior
  10. 10. There are two ways to approach the problem of definition: 1.Deviation from the average or normal – statistical average provides framework for thinking about normality Problem: cut-off point
  11. 11. 2. Deviation from the optimal – comparing a person’s behavior to one’s notion of the ideal human functioning Problem: subjectivity
  12. 12. • Refer to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) in order to tell that a behavior is normal or abnormal
  13. 13. Origins of Abnormal Behavior
  14. 14. • Causes of behavior vary to some degree from one type of disorder to another • However, STRESS appears to be the dominating element common to all of them
  15. 15. The difference between normal and abnormal behavior depends on the amount of stress the person feels and his ability to handle such amount of stress. Both factors are influenced by biological structure, psychological traits and the environment (Kagan et.al)
  16. 16. BIOLOGICAL INFLUENCES • Individual differences exist because of the activity of the brain concerned with emotions • heredity can contribute to tendencies toward the most severe forms of abnormal behavior
  17. 17. PSYCHOLOGICAL INFLUENCES • acquired psychological traits also play a significant role in determining how much anxiety and stress we are likely to experience
  18. 18. ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES • Severe mental disorders are most common among people living in poverty Kelly, Snowden and Munoz, 1987
  19. 19. • Environmental influences likewise dictate the particular kind of behavior a person is most likely to exhibit
  20. 20. CATEGORIES OF DISORDERS
  21. 21. OBJECTIVES At the end of the discussion about Different Disorders, you are expected to: COGNITIVE: Ψ categorize different mental or behavior disorders
  22. 22. AFFECTIVE: Ψ adjust to situations involving individuals with disorders PSYCHOMOTOR: Ψ demonstrate positive attitude and understanding towards individuals with disorders
  23. 23. How much do you know about these celebrities?
  24. 24. Personality Disorders (PD) Anxiety Disorders (AD) Somatoform and Dissociative Disorders Sexual Disorders Mood Disorders Schizophrenia and Related Psychotic Disorders
  25. 25.   Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) DSM-IV- more than 230 disorders are described
  26. 26. PERSONALITY DISORDERS (PD)
  27. 27. A class of personality types and behaviors that the American Psychiatric Association (APA) defines as "an enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates markedly from the expectations of the culture of the individual who exhibits it"
  28. 28.   This is the extreme form of PD in which the person seems to lack any normal conscience or sense of social responsibility as well as feeling for other people. They are sometimes called sociopaths
  29. 29.  People who demonstrate this disorder are often impulsive, unpredictable, and often get upset easily.
  30. 30.  People with paranoid PD are unable to get rid of their constant suspicions and mistrust of other people, even when facts evidently point out the truth.
  31. 31.  These disorders involve personality disturbances which have qualities that resemble schizophrenia but do not take on its psychotic form.
  32. 32.   It is marked by an indifference to social and sexual relationships and a very narrow range of emotional experience and expression. A true loner
  33. 33.  They look peculiar and even bizarre in their way of relating with others, their way of thinking, their way of acting, and even in their way of dressing.
  34. 34.  These are PD that are marked by behaviors that involve excessive display of emotions and egocentricity.
  35. 35.  People with histrionic PD are highly excitable, and often react to little events with gigantic display of shallow and nongenuine emotions.
  36. 36.   Those with narcissistic PD are often quite charming and attractive and preoccupied with appearance, but once you get to know them, they are easy to dislike. They have sense of selfimportance and claim perfection
  37. 37.  These PD are located on the extreme spectrum on attitudes towards relationship with other people.
  38. 38.  It is characterized by extreme sensitivity to possible rejection which are interpreted by them as forms of criticism, avoidance of close relationship unless there is certainty of acceptance and approval and others.
  39. 39.  Unlike Avoidant PD, people with dependent PD are strongly drawn towards others. They are inclined to depend on others at all costs, even if the latter are mean and abusive.
  40. 40.  These disorders share the common feature of conflict over the matter of control.
  41. 41.   People with O-C PD constantly feel immobilized by decisions because they are afraid of making mistakes. They tend to be strongly perfectionist.
  42. 42.  Individuals with P-A PD demonstrate resentment toward others, but only indirectly, through such unpleasant techniques as procrastination, stubbornness, and intentional inefficiency.
  43. 43. ANXIETY DISORDERS (AD)
  44. 44. Anxiety Disorders are marked by experience of physiological arousal, apprehension or feeling of dread, hyper vigilance, avoidance, and sometimes, a specific fear or phobia
  45. 45.  People are said to suffer from panic disorder when they experience frequent and recurrent sensations of fear and physical discomfort or when their tension is converted into a flood of terror.
  46. 46.  Anxiety states may become attached to specific objects, situations, or activities and this characterizes phobic disorders.
  47. 47.       Agoraphobia – market and open places Arachnophobia – spiders Aviaphobia – flying Bacteriophobia – germs Bronthophobia – thunder Cynophobia - dogs
  48. 48.        Doraphobia – touching animal fur Eisotrophobia – mirrors Galephobia – cats Ideaphobia – nthoughts Necrophobia – fear of dead bodies Spectrophobia – seeing oneself in mirrors Xenophobia - strangers
  49. 49.  This applies to a condition in which the person feels afraid or apprehensive being observed by others, thus acting in ways that are humiliating or embarrassing.
  50. 50.  People who have this have a number of worries that spread to various spheres of their life, rather than being focused on one specific fear.
  51. 51.  these are people who are unable to recover from anxiety associated with a traumatic life event.
  52. 52. SOMATOFORM AND DISSOCIATIVE DISORDERS
  53. 53. These disorders entail the expression of conflict through radical, and at times, extremely unusual, disturbances in behavior, with symptoms that are quite difficult to explain (Halgin and Whitbourne, 1994)
  54. 54.  Involve the expression of psychological conflict in physical symptoms for which no medical origins could be found.
  55. 55.   Converting unacceptable conflicts or drives into physical symptoms Symptoms include involuntary loss or alteration of bodily function
  56. 56.   These are multiple and recurrent bodily symptoms rather than a single physical complaint as that of conversion Symptoms include pain in hands and feet, back pain, blurred vision, etc.
  57. 57.   Preoccupied or delusional idea that some parts of their body is defective or ugly Symptoms: exaggeration of something abnormal about the body, too much concerned with height, weight, size, shape
  58. 58.    Exaggeration or distortion of normal bodily occurrence Preoccupation of fear of bodily symptoms Ex. Fear of having a serious disease, pains or aches thought to be cancerous
  59. 59.   Also called multiple personality disorder, is characterized by development of more that one self or personality. The core personality is called the host, while the other existing personalities are called as alters
  60. 60. SEXUAL DISORDERS
  61. 61. Sexual Disorders constitute behaviors in which there are problems related to sexual aim or object, sexual performance, or sexual identity or orientation, which cause harm to other people or cause the individual to experience some forms of distress (Kleinmunts, 1990)
  62. 62.  These are recurrent, intense sexual urges and sexually arousing fantasies focused on inanimate objects, on the suffering or humiliation of oneself or of one’s partner, on children, or on other nonconsenting individuals.
  63. 63.  intense sexual urges and arousing fantasies involving the deliberating exposure of genitals to strangers or to unsuspecting victims usually women and children.
  64. 64.  Strong, recurrent sexual attraction to an object and may derive sexual pleasure from viewing, touching or holding, burning or cutting into pieces the fetish object, usually an undergarment, stocking, or shoes.
  65. 65.  Involves recurrent, intense sexual urges and sexually arousing fantasies of rubbing against or fondling another person.
  66. 66.  This is a form of paraphilia in which an adult has sexual urges directed toward prepubescent or pubescent children.
  67. 67.  A person has compulsion to derive sexual satisfaction from watching pornographic films or reading pornographic literature.
  68. 68.  This a rare form of sexual disorder in which the individual achieve sexual pleasure from having sex with animals, such as cows, horses, etc.
  69. 69.  A bizarre form of sexual disorder in which the individual, usually a male, derives sexual gratification from having sex with a corpse or a dead person.
  70. 70.  Considered a taboo in virtually all societies, this involves having sexual relations between or among members of the same clan or family.
  71. 71. MOOD DISORDERS
  72. 72. The predominant feature of Mood Disorder is disturbance in a person’s emotional state or mood (Kagan et.al. 1994). Mood Disorders are of two types: depressive and bipolar
  73. 73.   Prolonged and disabling disruptions in emotional state Experience depressive episodes only
  74. 74. Involves acute, but time-limited episodes of depression. Melancholic – lose interest in most of their activities Seasonal – develop depressive symptoms usually for a month or two and they are able to return to normal functioning 
  75. 75.   Mild and chronic depressive symptoms Symptoms: depressed mood for most of the day, more days than not, poor appetite or overeating, low self esteem
  76. 76.  There are two forms of Mood Disorders in which alterations in mood are the main feature: bipolar disorder and cyclothymia
  77. 77.   Experience both manic (hyper, overexcited) and depressive episodes Ex. Euphoria may turn into extreme irritability
  78. 78.  They experience recurrent or persistent mood shifts, but not as intense as those in bipolar disorder
  79. 79. SCHIZOPHRENIC AND RELATED PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS
  80. 80. A psychiatric diagnosis denoting a persistent, often chronic, mental illness variously affecting behavior, thinking and emotion Schizo – split or divide Phrenos – mind “shattered mind"
  81. 81.  Its prominent symptoms is bizarre or unusual bodily movements, ranging from immobility to chaotic or wild, stereotyped movements of the body.
  82. 82.    Disorganized speech Disorganized behavior Flat or inappropriate affect
  83. 83.  Preoccupation with one or more delusions or frequent auditory hallucinations Delusion- false belief or thinking Hallucination – false perception
  84. 84.  Mixed symptoms of schizophrenia such as delusions, hallucinations, incoherence, or disorganized behavior and others.
  85. 85.  Under this category are people who have been previously diagnosed with schizophrenia and no longer have prominent psychotic symptoms but still manifest some lingering signs of disorder.
  86. 86. Thank You!!!
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