Divina commedia


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Divina commedia

  1. 1. • An epic poem written by Dante Alighieri • It is widely considered the preeminent work of Italian literature, and is seen as one of the greatest works of world literature.
  2. 2. • The poem is written in the first person, and tells of Dante's journey through the three realms of the dead. The Roman poet Virgil guides him through Hell and Purgatory. • Beatrice, Dante's ideal woman, guides him through Heaven.
  3. 3. • The poem's imaginative and allegorical vision of the afterlife is a culmination of the medieval worldview as it had developed in the Western Church. • It is divided into three parts: Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso.
  4. 4. CHARACTERS • Dante –Dante acts as both the narrator and the main character of The Divine Comedy. – Dante writes the epic poems as if he has just returned from his divine journey.
  5. 5. CHARACTERS • Virgil –Beatrice sends Virgil to Earth to retrieve Dante and act as his guide through Hell and Purgatory. Since the poet Virgil lived before Christianity, he dwells in Limbo (Ante-Inferno) with other righteous non-Christians.
  6. 6. CHARACTERS • Beatrice – Although the real Beatrice died at a young age and there is no evidence that her relationship with Dante ever grew beyond passing conversation, Beatrice remained the object of Dante's affection and desire throughout his life. Beatrice serves as Dante's muse and inspiration.
  7. 7. CHARACTERS • Beatrice – In The Divine Comedy it is Beatrice who, out of love for the poet, initiates Dante's journey because she believes that he has strayed from a righteous path and she thinks that this divine journey will save him from himself. Thus, she leaves her seat in Heaven to descend to Hell where she asks Virgil to serve as Dante's guide.
  8. 8. • represent three types of sin: the selfindulgent, the violent, and the malicious. These three types of sin also provide the three main divisions of Dante's Hell: – The first 5 Circles for the selfindulgent sins, Circles 6 and 7 for the violent sins, and Circles 8 and 9 for the malicious sins.
  9. 9. • He sees a sun-drenched mountain in the distance, and he tries to climb it, but three beasts, a leopard, a lion, and a she-wolf, stand in his way.
  10. 10. • Dante is forced to return to the forest where he meets the spirit of Virgil, who promises to lead him on a journey through Hell so that he may be able to enter Paradise. Dante agrees to the journey and follows Virgil through the gates of Hell.
  11. 11. • The two poets enter the vestibule of Hell where the souls of the uncommitted are tormented by biting insects and damned to chase a blank banner around for eternity. The poets reach the banks of the river Acheron where souls await passage into Hell proper.
  12. 12. First Circle of Hell: Limbo • The ferryman, Charon, reluctantly agrees to take the poets across the river to Limbo, the first circle of Hell, where Virgil permanently resides. In Limbo, the poets stop to speak with other great poets, Homer, Ovid, Horace, and Lucan, and then enter a great citadel where philosophers reside.
  13. 13. Limbo • Here resides the unbaptized and the virtuous pagan who, though not sinful, did not accept Christ.
  14. 14. Second Circle: The Lustful • Dante and Virgil enter Hell proper, the second circle, where monster, Minos, sits in judgment of all of the damned, and sends them to the proper circle according to their sin. Here, Dante meets Paolo and Francesca, the two unfaithful lovers buffeted about in a windy storm.
  15. 15. Minos • King of Crete, son of Zeus and Europa.
  16. 16. Third Circle: The Gluttons • The poets move on to the third circle, the Gluttons, who are guarded by the monster Cerberus. These sinners spend eternity wallowing in mud and mire, and here Dante recognizes a Florentine, Ciacco, who gives Dante the first of many negative prophesies about him and Florence.
  17. 17. Cerberus
  18. 18. Fourth Circle: The Hoarders & Wasters • Upon entering the fourth circle, Dante and Virgil encounter the Hoarders and the Wasters, who spend eternity rolling giant boulders at one another.
  19. 19. Fifth Circle: The Wrathful • They move to the fifth circle, the marsh comprising the river Styx, where Dante is accosted by a Florentine, Filippo Argenti; he is amongst the Wrathful that fight and battle one another in the mire of the Styx.
  20. 20. Sixth Circle: Heretics • The city of Dis begins Circle VI, the realm of the violent. The poets enter and find themselves in Circle VI, realm of the Heretics, who reside among the thousands in burning tombs. Dante stops to speak with two sinners, Farinata degli Uberti, Dante's Ghibelline enemy, and Cavalcante dei Cavalcanti, father of Dante's poet friend, Guido.
  21. 21. • The poets then begin descending through a deep valley. Here, they meet the Minotaur and see a river of boiling blood, the Phlegethon, where those violent against their neighbors, tyrants, and war-makers reside, each in a depth according to their sin. • Virgil arranges for the Centaur, Nessus, to take them across the river into the second round of circle seven, the Suicides. Here Dante speaks with the soul of Pier delle Vigne and learns his sad tale.
  22. 22. Minotaur Centaur
  23. 23. Circle of Hell
  24. 24. Seventh Circle: Violence • It is divided into 3 Rings: 1. Outer ring -housing the violent against people and property who is immersed in Phlegethon to a level commensurate with their sins.
  25. 25. 2. Middle ring -The suicides, who are transformed into gnarled thorny bushes and trees. They are torn at by the harpies. Harpies
  26. 26. 3. Inner ring -Violent against God(Blasphemers), violent against nature(Sodomites), and violent against order (Usurers), all reside in a desert of flaming sand with fiery flakes raining from the sky.
  27. 27. • In the third round of Circle VII, a desert wasteland awash in a rain of burning snowflakes, Dante recognizes and speaks with Capaneus, a famous blasphemer. He also speaks to his beloved advisor and scholar, Brunetto Latini. This is the round held for the Blasphemers, Sodomites, and the Usurers.
  28. 28. Eighth Circle: Fraud • Bolgia 1: Panderers and seducers march in separate lines in opposite directions, whipped by demons. •Bolgia 2: Flatterers also exploited other people, this time using language. They are steeped in human excrement.
  29. 29. • Bolgia 3: Those who committed simony (simonists) are placed head-first in holes in the rock , with flames burning on the soles of their feet. •Bolgia 4: Sorcerers, astrologers, and false prophets here have their heads twisted around on their bodies backward. • Bolgia 5: Corrupt politicians are immersed in a lake of boiling pitch.
  30. 30. Bolgia 5 & 6
  31. 31. • Bolgia 6: The poets find the hypocrites who are damned to walk endlessly in circles wearing leaden cloaks. •Bolgia 7: Two cantos are devoted to the thieves. They are guarded by the centaur Cacus are pursued and bitten by snakes & lizards. •Bolgia 8: Two further cantos are devoted to fraudulent advisers or evil counsellors, who are concealed within individual flames.
  32. 32. Bolgia 7
  33. 33. • Bolgia 9: A sword-wielding demon hacks at the Sowers of Discord, dividing parts of their bodies as in life they divided others. As they make their rounds the wounds heal, only to have the demon tear apart their bodies again. •Bolgia 10: In the final Bolgia, various sorts of falsifiers (alchemists, counterfeiters, perjurers, and imposters) – who are a "disease" on society – are themselves afflicted with different types of diseases.
  34. 34. Ninth Circle: Treachery • They arrive at the ninth circle. It is comprised of a giant frozen lake, Cocytus, in which the sinners are stuck. Dante believes that he sees towers in the distance, which turn out to be the Giants. One of the Giants, Antaeus, takes the poets on his palm and gently places them at the bottom of the well.
  35. 35. • The ninth circle is divided into 4 concentric zones. Round 1: Caïna, after Cain, who killed his brother. Traitors to kindred are here immersed in the ice up to their faces – "the place / where shame can show itself“.
  36. 36. • Round 2: –Antenora, after Antenor of Troy, who according to medieval tradition, betrayed his city to the Greeks. Traitors to political entities, such as parties, cities, or countries, are located here.
  37. 37. • Here, Dante accidentally kicks a traitor in the head, and when the traitor will not tell him his name, Dante treats him savagely. • Dante hears the terrible story of Count Ugolino, who is gnawing the head and neck of Archbishop Ruggieri, due to Ruggieri's treacherous treatment of him in the upper world.
  38. 38. • Round 3: -Ptolomaea, probably after Ptolemy, son of Abubus, who invited Simon Maccabaeus and his sons to a banquet and then killed them. Traitors to their guests are punished here, lying supine in the ice.
  39. 39. • Dante speaks with a soul who begs him to take the ice visors, formed from tears, out of his eyes. Dante promises to do so, but after hearing his story refuses.
  40. 40. •Round 4: -Judecca, after Judas Iscariot, Biblical betrayer of Christ. It houses the Traitors to Their Masters, who are completely covered and fixed in the ice, and Satan, who is fixed waist deep in the ice and has three heads, each of which is chewing a traitor: Judas, Brutus, and Cassius.
  41. 41. • Satan is waist deep in ice, weeping tears from his six eyes, and beating his six wings as if trying to escape, although the icy wind that emanates only further ensures his imprisonment
  42. 42. • The poets climb Satan's side, passing the center of gravity, and find themselves at the edge of the river Lethe, ready to make the long journey to the upper world. They enter the upper world just before dawn on Easter Sunday, and they see the stars overhead.
  43. 43. Circle of Hell
  44. 44. Settings: • Mountain of Purgatory
  45. 45. Characters: • Casella –The lady who plays a music that attracted both Dante and Virgil in the shores of Purgatory.
  46. 46. • Cato –A pagan who has been placed by God as the general guardian of the Purgatory.
  47. 47. • Gate of Purgatory –It is guarded by an angel who uses sword to draw the letter “P” in the forehead to anyone who enters the Purgatory.
  48. 48. • Matelda –A woman of grace and beauty who prepares souls for their ascent in heaven.
  49. 49. • Having survived the depths of Hell, Dante and Virgil ascend out of the undergloom, to the Mountain of Purgatory on the far side of the world.
  50. 50. • The Mountain is on an island, the only land in the Southern Hemisphere, created by the displacement of rock which resulted when Satan's fall created Hell (which Dante portrays as existing underneath Jerusalem).
  51. 51. • The mountain has seven terraces, corresponding to the seven deadly sins or "seven roots of sinfulness."
  52. 52. • On the shores of the island, Dante and Virgil watch a boat arrive. Guided by an angel, the boat shuttles a new batch of penitent souls to Purgatory. Like these souls, Dante is about to climb Mount Purgatory, learning lessons, and cleansing himself of sin in preparation for ascending to Heaven.
  53. 53. • At the shores of Purgatory, Dante and Virgil meet Cato.
  54. 54. First Terrace of Purgatory: The Proud • On the terrace where proud souls purge their sin, Dante and Virgil see beautiful sculptures expressing humility, the opposite virtue. The first example is of the Annunciation to the Virgin Mary.
  55. 55. • After being introduced to humility, Dante and Virgil meet the souls of the proud, who are bent over by the weight of huge stones on their backs. As they walk around the terrace, they are able to profit from the sculpted examples of humility.
  56. 56. • After his conversations with the proud, Dante notes further sculptures on the pavement below, this time illustrating pride itself. The sculptures show Satan (Lucifer), the building of the Tower of Babel, King Saul, Arachne, King Rehoboam, and others. • As the poets ascend to the next terrace, an angel brushes Dante's forehead with his wings, erasing the letter "P" (peccatum) corresponding to the sin of pride, and Dante hears the beatitude Beati pauperes spiritu ("Blessed are the poor in spirit," Matthew 5:3) (Canto XII).
  57. 57. Second terrace: The Envious • On entering the terrace of the envious, Dante and Virgil first hear voices on the air telling stories of generosity, the opposite virtue. • An episode from the life of the Virgin Mary; this time, the scene from the Life of the Virgin is the Wedding at Cana
  58. 58. • The souls of the envious wear penitential grey cloaks, and their eyes are sewn shut with iron wire, resembling the way a falconer sews shut the eyes of a falcon in order to train it.
  59. 59. Third terrace: the Wrathful • Dante has a vision containing examples of gentleness. • Black smoke, the punishment of the wrathful, envelops them, rendering them blind. • Dante and Virgil met Marco Lombardo.
  60. 60. Fourth terrace: the Slothful • Virgil explains how love determines the structure of Purgatory. Love and Freewill. • The slothful are purged to run without rest. • Dante had a nightmare about a Siren.
  61. 61. Fifth terrace: the Covetous • They witness the punishment: lying face down on the ground and bound by hand and foot. • The penitents shout exampples of poverty and generosity.
  62. 62. • Mount Purgatory trembles suddenly. -This happens everytime a penitent soul becomes completely purged and ready to ascend to heaven. •An epic poem named Statius joins Dante and Virgil.
  63. 63. Sixth terrace: the Gluttonous • They encounter a strange tree. • A disembodied voice cites examples of temperance •They encountered a man named Forese Donati, who explains the punishment for the gluttons are agonizing thirst and hunger.
  64. 64. Seventh terrace: the Lustful • Dante, Virgil and Statius witness the punishment: walking on flames. • The lustful examples of chastity.
  65. 65. • For Dante to leave the seventh terrace, he must walk through the a wall of flames. • He hesitates with fear. Virgil lures him through, saying that he will see Beatrice on the other side. •Virgil anounces that Dante is ready for the Earthly Paradise.
  66. 66. In the Earthly Paradise… • Dante meets a woman named Matilda. - Explained the origins of the wind and water in the forest of the Earthly Paradise.
  67. 67. PARADISO
  68. 68. • Dante’s journey through heaven guided by Beatrice. • Represents the soul’s ascent to God. • Based on the 4 cardinal virtues: –Prudence, Justice, Temperance, and Fortitude.
  69. 69. Spheres of heaven
  70. 70. st 1 sphere: Moon: the Inconstant • Souls who abandoned their vows, and so were deficient in the virtue of fortitude.
  71. 71. 2nd sphere: Mercury: the Ambitious • Souls who did good out of desire for fame, but who, being ambitious, were deficient in the virtue of justice. • Their earthly glory pales into insignificance beside the glory of God, just as Mercury pales into insignificance beside the sun.
  72. 72. rd 3 sphere: Venus: the Lovers • Souls that did good out of love, but were deficient in the virtue of temperance.
  73. 73. th 4 sphere: Sun: the Wise • Souls of the wise, who embody prudence.
  74. 74. 5th sphere: Mars: the Warriors of the Earth • Souls who fought for Christianity, and who embody fortitude.
  75. 75. th 6 sphere: Jupiter: the Just Rulers • Soul who personified justice, something of great concern to Dante.
  76. 76. 7th sphere: Saturn: the Contemplatives • Souls of the contemplatives, who embody temperance.
  77. 77. 8th sphere: Fixed Stars: Faith, Hope and Love • Sphere of the Church Triumphant.
  78. 78. 9th sphere: Primum Mobile: the Angels • The abode of angels.
  79. 79. The Empyrean • The abode of God • Dante sees an enormous rose, symbolising divine love, the petals of which are the enthroned souls of the faithful (both those of the Old Testament and those of the New). All the souls he has met in Heaven, including Beatrice, have their home in this rose.
  80. 80. • Dante comes face-to-face with God Himself. • God appears as three equally large circles occupying the same space, representing the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. • Within these circles Dante can discern the human form of Christ.
  81. 81. • The Divine Comedy ends with Dante trying to understand how the circles fit together, and how the humanity of Christ relates to the divinity of the Son but, as Dante puts it, "that was not a flight for my wings." In a flash of understanding, which he cannot express, Dante does finally see this, and his soul becomes aligned with God's love.