The link bw cow health & nutrition
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The link bw cow health & nutrition

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Jaylor's Ruminant Nutritionist, Janet Kleinschmidt, looks at cow health and nutrition in terms of nutritional imbalances, deficiencies, or erratic management of feeding programs. See our latest ...

Jaylor's Ruminant Nutritionist, Janet Kleinschmidt, looks at cow health and nutrition in terms of nutritional imbalances, deficiencies, or erratic management of feeding programs. See our latest SlideShare presentation now.

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The link bw cow health & nutrition The link bw cow health & nutrition Presentation Transcript

  • THE LINK BETWEEN COW HEALTH AND NUTRITION
  • COW HEALTH AND NUTRITION NUTRITIONAL IMBALANCES, DEFICIENCIES OR ERRATIC MANAGEMENT OF FEEDING PROGRAMS CAN CREATE LARGE NUMBERS AND VARIOUS TYPES OF HEALTH PROBLEMS, GENERALLY REFERED TO AS METABOLIC DISEASES. COMPOUNDING THE PROBLEM ARE EVER- CHANGING NUTRITIONAL NEEDS OF THE COW, HER LACTATION/DRY PERIOD NEEDS, FEED QUALITY CHANGES AND PRODUCER MANAGEMENT PRACTICES.
  • COW HEALTH AND NUTRITION FREQUENTLY WHEN METABOLIC DISEASE INCREASES, OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIOUS DISEASE ALSO INCREASES. IF THESE DISEASES ARE NOT PREVENTED OR REDUCED, VERY COSTLY CONSEQUENCES IN REPRODUCTION, PRODUCTION AND HUMAN RESOURCES WILL OCCUR.
  • REDUCED DRY MATTER INTAKE (DMI) HOW MUCH SHOULD LACTATING AND DRY COWS EAT? LACTATING B/W 19-28 KG DM 42 lb - 61 lb FAR AWAY DRY 12 KG DM 26 lb CLOSE UP DRY 10 KG DM 22 lb
  • REDUCED DRY MATTER INTAKE (DMI) AS A NUTRITIONIST THE QUESTION I ASK FIRST WHEN CONFRONTED WITH REDUCED DMI IS: WHY ARE DMI’S REDUCED?  Empty bunks  Inadequate bunk space, crowded facilities  Ration DM < 45% or > 55%  High fibre ration, NDF>33%, ADF>20% ANALYSE YOUR FORAGES!!!!  Low salt intake
  • REDUCED DRY MATTER INTAKE (DMI)
  • REDUCED DRY MATTER INTAKE (DMI)  Water intake restricted or poor quality  Moldy feed  Poor bunk management, old feed not cleaned out.  Unpalatable feeds and/or low quality forages being fed. WHAT CAN BE DONE?
  • REDUCED DRY MATTER INTAKE (DMI)  WORK WITH YOUR NUTRITIONIST TO ENSURE THAT ALL PARTS OF YOUR RATION ARE PROPERLY BALANCED  SUBMIT FORAGES FOR ANALYSIS MONTHLY  CHECK MOISTURE LEVELS ON ALL WET INGREDIENTS WEEKLY  ENSURE YOU HAVE AN EXCELLENT 2 GROUP DRY COW PROGRAM (OR 1 GROUP)  CHECK FOR “SARA” (SUBACUTE RUMEN ACIDOSIS): – OVER FEEDING GRAIN – POOR eNDF – SORTING BY COWS – PERFORM RUMEN pH’s
  • REDUCED DRY MATTER INTAKE (DMI)  START FEEDING SODIUM BICARBONATE (150-220 G/H/D)  START FEEDING A YEAST PRODUCT  FEED HIGHLY PALATABLE FEEDS SUCH AS BREWERS GRAINS, MOLASSES ETC.  TALK TO YOUR VET ABOUT SUPPORT TREATMENTS FOR KETOSIS  CONSIDER ADMINISTERING Ca AS SOON AS POSSIBLE TO ALL MATURE COWS AFTER CALVING
  • KETOSIS & SUB-CLINICAL KETOSIS THIS METABLOIC DISEASE OCCURS MOST FREQUENTLY IN EARLY LACTATION. SUBCLINICAL KETOSIS IS CHARACTERIZED BY “MELT DOWN” I HAVE SEEN IT IN MID TO LATE LACTATION DUE TO OVER CROWDING OR FOOT ISSUES. OFTEN KETOSIS IS ASSOCIATED WITH FAT COW SYNDROME, RP’S, MASTITIS, METRITIS AND DA’S. KETOSIS POSITIVE COWS SHOULD BE MONITORED FOR OTHER ISSUES.
  • KETOSIS & SUB-CLINICAL KETOSIS SIGNS OF KETOSIS INCLUDE:  REDUCED DMI  WEIGHT LOSS  DECREASED MILK PRODUCTION  DEPRESSION AND LISTLESSNESS  “DOWNER COW”  “KETONE” BREATH What can be done?
  • KETOSIS & SUB-CLINICAL KETOSIS  ENSURE YOU HAVE AN EXCELLENT 2 GROUP DRY COW PROGRAM  MAINTAIN DRY COWS IN A BCS OF 3.5 TO 4.0  TRY AND HAVE A SEPARATE “TRANSITION GROUP”  MAKE SURE THAT COWS FEET ARE KEPT TRIMMED AND TREATED  CONSIDER FEEDING NIACIN IN THE CUD GROUP AND UP UNTIL 100 DIM  USE CRC RUMENSIN BOLUSES IN THE CUD GROUP AND 200 MG MONENSIN H/D IN THE MILKING HERD  WORK WITH YOUR VET ON PROTOCOL TO HANDLE CLINICAL CASES OF KETOSIS – PROPYLENE GLYCOL – DEXTROSE
  • MILK FEVER MILK FEVER GENERALLY OCCURS AT OR NEAR CALVING DUE TO A LARGE Ca DEMAND AT THE ONSET OF COLOSTRUM/MILK PRODUCTION. I HAVE SEEN IT IN HIGH PRODUCTION, 3X COWS IN MID LACTATION. SIGNS OF MILK FEVER INCLUDE: STAGGERING, TREMORS,“DOWNER COW”, MUSCULAR WEAKNESS AND SUBNORMAL TEMPERATURE. THERE IS A SUB-CLINICAL FORM OF MILK FEVER WHICH MIMICS SUB-CLINICAL KETOSIS.
  • MILK FEVER OTHER PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH MILK FEVER:  BLOAT  DA’S  KETOSIS  MASTITIS  COMPROMISED IMMUNE SYSTEM  REDUCED TOTAL PRODUCTIVITY  DYSTOCIA  UTERINE PROLAPSE  RP’S  METRITIS  “MELT DOWN” AND ASSOCIATED REPRODUCTIVE FAILURE
  • MILK FEVER WHAT CAN BE DONE?  ENSURE YOU HAVE AN EXCELLENT 2 GROUP DRY COW PROGRAM  I BALANCE MY CUD RATIONS USING 0.70% Ca, 0.35% P, 0.25% Mg AND K , <1.2% ON A DM BASIS.  IF I CANNOT ACHIEVE THESE VALUES I USE ANIONIC SALTS, IN WHICH CASE Ca LEVELS IN THE RATION SHOULD BE >150 G/H/D  MONITORING URINE pH HELPS CHECK EFFECTIVENESS OF ANIONIC SALTS (6.0 to 6.5  BALANCE CUD VITAMINS AS FOLLOWS: VITAMIN A 200 KIU/DAY VITAMIN D 50 KIU/DAY VITAMIN E 1,000 – 4,000 IU/DAY
  • MILK FEVER
  • MILK FEVER  NEVER FEED FREE CHOICE MINERALS TO CUD COWS.  NEVER FEED SODIUM BICARBOANTE TO CUD COWS.  LIMIT SALT TO CUD COWS (UDDER EDEMA AND MILK FEVER)  WORK WITH YOUR VET ON PROTOCOL TO HANDLE CLINICAL CASES OF MILK FEVER
  • DISPLACED ABOMASUM (DA) MOST DA’S OCCUR SHORTLY AFTER CALVING. I HAVE SEEN IT IN MID TO LATE LACTATION DUE TO OVER CROWDING OR FOOT ISSUES. SIGNS OF DA’S RESEMBLE KETOSIS: OFF FEED SCANT BOWEL MOVEMENTS NORMAL TEMPERATURE DRASTIC REDUCTION IN MILK GENERAL DISCOMFORT
  • DISPLACED ABOMASUM (DA) WHAT CAN BE DONE?  ENSURE YOU HAVE AN EXCELLENT 2 GROUP DRY COW PROGRAM  DO NOT OVER FEED GRAIN OR UNDER FEED FORAGE IN EITHER THE CUD GROUP OR THE FRESH GROUP (HIGH GROUP TMR + 1-2 KG LONG STEM HAY)  ELIMINATE MOLDY FEEDS FROM ALL DAIRY RATIONS
  • RETAINED PLACENTA (RP) RP’S ARE CONSIDER A PROBLEM WHEN 8-10% OF THE HERD DOES NOT DROP THEIR FETAL MEMBRANES WITHIN 24 HOURS AFTER CALVING RP’S ARE THE SYMPTOM OF ANOTHER PROBLEM: 1. Milk fever (sub or clinical) 2. Ketosis (sub or clinical) 3. Protein deficiency 4. Se &/or Vit. E deficiency 5. Twins, hard calving, late/early calf etc.
  • RETAINED PLACENTA (RP) WHAT CAN BE DONE?  ENSURE YOU HAVE AN EXCELLENT 2 GROUP DRY COW PROGRAM  ENSURE THAT ALL PROTEINS ARE BALANCED IN THE CUD COW GROUP  ENSURE EXCELLENT VITAMIN A,D, & E NUTRITION IN THE CUD COWS  ENSURE EXCELLENT Se NUTRITION IN THE CUD GROUP. I BALANCE AT 7-8 MG/H/D IN THIS GROUP.  USE AN ANIONIC SALT TO REDUCE MILK FEVER.  AVOID FAT OR THIN COW SYNDROME  AVOID STRESS AROUND THE TIME OF CALVING.
  • METRITIS LIKE RP’S, METRITIS, OR INFECTION OF THE UTERUS, IS USUALLY A SYMPTOM OF ANOTHER PROBLEM:  TWINS OR HARD CALVING  DIRTY CALVING AREA  FAT COW OR THIN COW SYNDROME  AGGRESSIVE OR UNHYGENIC INTERVENTION AT CALVING  RP’S
  • METRITIS WHAT CAN BE DONE?  AVOID RP’S  INJECT Se &/OR VITAMIN E  ELIMINATE MOLDY FEEDS FROM ALL DAIRY RATIONS  INDUCE OR NATURAL ESTRUS  MAINTAIN A HIGH LEVEL OF SANITATION IN THE CALVING AREA  FEED A WELL BALANCED RATION IN THE FAD AND CUD GROUPS.  MONITOR BCS IN ALL ANIMALS AND MANAGE ACCORDINGLY
  • REPRODUCTIVE FAILURE REPRODUCTIVE FAILURE IN DAIRY HERDS CAN BE DIVIDED IN TO MANY CATAGORIES: CYSTIC OVARIES ANESTRUS REPEAT BREEDERS ABORTIONS DISEASE CONDITIONS
  • CYSTIC OVARIES CYSTIC OVARIES ARE AN ISSUE WHEN THEY EFFECT 15% OF THE MATURE HERD OR 5% OF THE HEIFER HERD. CYSTIC OVARIES CAN BE THE RESULT OF:  MINERAL IMBALANCE, SPECIFICALLY Ca, P & Mg  EXTREMEMLY FAT OR THIN COWS  HIGH ESTROGEN LEVELS IN CERTAIN FORAGES AND MYCOTOXINS  GENETIC PREDISPOSITION  STRESSFUL CONDITIONS IN EARLY LACTATION
  • CYSTIC OVARIES WHAT CAN BE DONE?  ENSURE Ca, P & Mg ARE WELL BALANCED IN THE MILKING RATION (Ca 1.0%-1.1%; P 0.36-0.4%; Mg 0.35%-0.40%)  PUT THIN DRY COWS DIRECTLY INTO THE CUD GROUP  BCS ALL MEMBERS OF THE HERD ONCE A MONTH AND ADJUST THE NeL ACCORDINGLY.  DO HERD HEALTHS REGULARLY  MONITOR ALL RATION INGREDIEINTS FOR MOLD &/OR MYCOTOXINS  IF POSSIBLE, TAKE INTO CONSIDERATION “CYSTIC FAMILIES” WHEN BREEDING (DIFFICULT, USUALLY HIGH PRODUCERS)
  • ANESTRUS ANESTRUS, OR FAILURE TO SHOW SIGNS OF HEAT, IS IN MOST CASES A FAILURE TO DETECT HEAT. ANESTRUS IS THE RESULT OF:  ANEMIA DUE TO DIFFERENT DISEASES CONDTIONS, PARASITES, DEFICIENCIES IN CP, Fe, Cu, Co OR Se  P DEFICIENCY  ENERGY DEFICIENCY  CYSTIC OVARIES  PYOMETRA
  • ANESTRUS WHAT CAN BE DONE?  PUT THIN DRY COWS DIRECTLY INTO THE CUD GROUP  BCS ALL MEMBERS OF THE HERD ONCE A MONTH AND ADJUST THE NeL ACCORDINGLY.  CHECK PROBLEM COWS FOR ANEMIA AND TREAT ACCORDINGLY  AVOID OTHER METABLOIC DISEASES ASSOCIATED WITH ANESTRUS  ENSURE THE VITAMINS AND MINERALS ARE WELL BALANCED IN THE MILKING RATION
  • REPEAT BREEDERS AS WITH ANESTRUS COWS REPEAT BREEDERS ARE USUALLY A “MAN MADE” PROBLEM. FROM A NUTRITIONIST PRESPECTIVE I WILL SEE IT IF THERE IS A SERIOUS IMBALANCE OR DEFICIENCY OF VITAMINS AND MINERALS. ACIDOSIS IS ALSO ASSOCIATED WITH POOR FERTLITY.
  • ABORTIONS CAUSE OF ABORTION CAN BE INFECTIOUS OR NON- INFECTIOUS. A NORMAL HERD RATE SHOULD BE AROUND 1 TO 3% OR LESS. NUTRITIONALLY THERE ARE SEVERAL ASPECTS TO LOOK AT:  HIGH SOLUBLE PROTEIN AT BREEDING OR IN THE 1ST TRIMESTER OF PREGNANCY  NITRATE POISONING AND MYCOTOXINS  WEED CONTAMINATION OF FORAGES
  • ABORTIONS WHAT CAN BE DONE?  ENSURE THAT ALL PROTEIN FRACTIONS ARE BALANCED  TEST STRESSED FEEDS FOR NITRATE LEVELS AND MYCOTOXINS  ENSURE THAT FORAGES ARE HARVESTED CONTAMINATION FREE
  • INFECTIOUS FOOT PROBLEMS COWS WHO CANNOT WALK DO NOT EAT OR SHOW HEATS, ARE MORE PRONE TO METABOLIC DISORDERS AND ARE LIKELY TO BE PREMATURELY CULLED FROM THE HERD. REMEMBER: ONCE, STRAWBERRY FOOT IS IN YOU HERD IT IS THERE INDEFINITELY. ANY STRESS IN THE HERD OR INDIVIDUAL COWS WILL MAKE THEM SUSCEPTIBLE TO A FLARE UP OF STRAWBERRY FOOT.
  • INFECTIOUS FOOT PROBLEMS LAMENESS DUE TO INFECTION CAUSES COWS TO SPEND LESS TIME ON THEIR FEET: ONCE THEY ARE SETTLED IN A STALL THEY ARE RELUCTANT TO LEAVE IT EVEN IF IT MEANS FOREGOING FOOD AND WATER. THIS IN TURN LEADS TO SLUG FEEDING, REDUCED RUMEN pH (ACIDOSIS) AND EVENTUALLY LAMINITIS. DA’s, LOW BCS AND KETOSIS ARE ALSO COMMON IN THESE ANIMALS.
  • LAMINITIS AND ACIDOSIS NUTRITION IS PROBABLY THE SINGLE MOST IMPORTANT FACTOR CONTRIBUTING TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF LAMINITIS. FACTORS SUCH AS:  THE AMOUNT AND TYPE OF GRAIN  GRAIN PROCESSING  FORAGE TYPE AND QUALITY, LEVELS ETC. INFLUENCE INTAKE PATTERNS, ENERGY METABOLISM AND SUB-CLINICAL ACIDOSIS.
  • LAMINITIS AND ACIDOSIS BOTH LOW ROUGHAGE LEVELS AND REDUCED PARTICLE SIZE EXACERBATE ACIDOSIS DURING THE TRANSITION PERIOD. What to do?  ENSURE NDF IS BETWEEN 28-33% FOR HIGH PRODUCTION GROUPS (75% OF WHICH SHOULD BE COMING FROM THE FORAGE FRACTION).  NSC LEVELS SHOULD BE BETWEEN 35-40%, ALTHOUGH IN MY EXPERIENCE I DO NOT LIKE TO GO OVER 37-38% IF POSSIBLE.  15 TO 20% OF PARTICLES IN THE RATION SHOULD BE AT LEAST 4 CM LONG.
  • LAMINITIS AND ACIDOSIS DIAGNOSE ACIDOSIS AND SARA  AT THE BARN LEVEL I LOOK AT CUD CHEWING, FEET, BODY ABSCESSES, BF%:MP%, TMR TEXTURE AND “SHAKER BOX”  RUMENOCENTESIS IS AN EXCELLENT TOOL TO DETERMINE ACIDOSIS OR SARA STATUS (CLINICAL 5.0-5.5 pH, SARA 5.5 TO 6.0 pH)
  • MASTITIS ALTHOUGH MOST MASTITIS IS RELATED TO THE ENVIRONMENT, MILKING PROCEEDURE ETC. THERE ARE NUTRITIONAL CONNECTIONS. ACIDOSIS IS CLOSELY ASSOCIATED WITH HIGH SCC AND MASTITIS A POORLY BALANCED RATION CAN LOWER THE ANIMALS IMMUNE SYSTEM AND CONTRIBUTE TO MASTITIS HIGH LEVELS OF MYCOTOXINS (VOMITOXIN) CAN BE ASSOCIATED WITH MASTITIS
  • MASTITIS
  • TAKE HOME MESSAGE METABLOIC DISEASES ARE CLOSELY RELATED TO THE NUTRITION AND FEEDING MANAGEMENT OF YOUR HERD. CAN YOU AFFORD TO IGNORE IT?