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  • In 476 A.D. the church, although it had a civil seat in Rome, Italy, it still did not control the state
  • While Rome fell in 476 A.D., it did not mark the beginning of papal supremacy because it was still subject to the emperors of the east and contending for supremacy amongst the bishops
  • He became a World Ruler – the next power in the line of prophecy “power was given him over all kindreds, and tongues, and nations.”
  • He became a World Ruler – the next power in the line of prophecy “power was given him over all kindreds, and tongues, and nations.”
  • Papacy gained supremacy not just via conquest, but through a legal decree, declaring the pope the head of all churches. This decree, ecclesiastical in nature, did not assert Catholicism, but it asserted the primacy of the Pope.
  • Papacy gained supremacy not just via conquest, but through a legal decree, declaring the pope the head of all churches. This decree, ecclesiastical in nature, did not assert Catholicism, but it asserted the primacy of the Pope.
  • Papacy gained supremacy not just via conquest, but through a legal decree, declaring the pope the head of all churches. This decree, ecclesiastical in nature, did not assert Catholicism, but it asserted the primacy of the Pope.
  • Transcript

    • 1. The 7 TrumpetsPart III
    • 2. And the fourth angel sounded, and thethird part of the sun was smitten, andthe third part of the moon, and thethird part of the stars; so as the thirdpart of them was darkened, and theday shone not for a third part of it, andthe night likewise. (Revelation 8:12).
    • 3. Campaigns of Odoacer, 476-493of Mixed Decent-Heruli/Gothic
    • 4. Striking of the heavenly bodies with darkness signifies judgment and punishment of God, destructionIsaiah 13:9-11; Ezekiel 32:7-9; Joel 2:10-11; Isaiah 5:30
    • 5. Sun, moon, and stars = Ruling Bodies Genesis 1:16-18; Psalm 136:7-9Psalm 136:8, 9 “The sun to rule by day: for hismercy endureth for ever: The moon and stars torule by night: for his mercy endureth for ever.”Genesis 1:16-18 “And God made two great lights;the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser lightto rule the night: he made the stars also.And God set them in the firmament of the heavento give light upon the earth, And to rule over theday and over the night, and to divide the light fromthe darkness: and God saw that it was good.”
    • 6. Sun, moon, and stars = Ruling Bodies“The symbols sun, moon, and stars forthey are undoubtedly here used assymbols evidently denote the greatluminaries of the Roman government,its emperors, senators, and consuls.”(Smith, 1872, p. 192)
    • 7. Odoacer was “…first barbarian king of Italy. The date onwhich he assumed power, 476, is traditionally consideredthe end of the Western Roman Empire.” (EncyclopædiaBritannica, 2009, ¶1)
    • 8. Odoacer was a “Gothic chieftain who received his military training in the Roman army and became the first Germanic ruler of Italy. When RomulusAugustulus became emperor of the Western RomanEmpire in AD 475, Odoacer led an uprising of the Germantroops in the Roman army and deposed the new emperorin 476. This event is usually said to have marked the endof the Roman Empire in the west…” (Microsoft® Encarta®Online Encyclopedia, 2009, ¶1)
    • 9. “…Western Rome fell in AD 476. Still, however, thoughthe Roman sun was extinguished, its subordinateluminaries shone faintly.” (Smith, 1872, p. 192)“With Odoacers appointment as King, the system ofRoman government, first Republic than Imperialceases to exist. After over a century of near constantinvasions and usurpations, the Roman system finallycollapses, permanently” (Roman Timeline, 2009, ¶52)
    • 10. “But, in their prophetic order, the consulship and the senate ofRome met their fate, though they fell not by the hands ofVandals or of Goths…The succession of the consuls finallyceased in the thirteenth year of Justinian…. ‘The third part ofthe sun was smitten, and the third part of the moon, and thethird part of the stars. In the political firmament of the ancientworld, while under the reign of imperial Rome, theemperorship, the consulate, and the senate shone like the sun,the moon, and the stars… and finally, as the fourth trumpetcloses, we see the extinction of that illustrious assembly, theRoman senate. The city that had ruled the world, as if inmockery of human greatness, was conquered by the eunuchNarses, the successor of Belisarius. He … achieved the conquestof Rome, and the fate of the senate was sealed.” (Keith, 1832,p. 280-283 & Smith, 1872, p. 193)
    • 11. “Odoacer in 476 completed the destructionswrought in series by Alaric the Goth (410)Attila the Hun (452) and Genseric the Vandal(455).” (Rogers, 1878, p. 171)
    • 12. Foundation Now Laid for Papal Supremacy in the West “… imperial influence in Italy weakened the papacy…” (Richards, 1979, p. 30)“…papal supremacy arose out of the struggle between popes andemperors…*T+he Imperial seat, when it fell vacant, would beassumed by the papacy and never thereafter returned totemporal control. Armed with Imperial power, the papacy wouldproceed to exact….oaths from princes and feudatories, to imposetaxes and tribute, and to assert appellate jurisdiction over civilsuits, such that no case at law could ever be resolved except byconsent of the pope.” (Coby, 2009, p. 29)
    • 13. Foundation Now Laid for Papal Supremacy in the West“When both bishop and emperor resided as rivalpowers within her walls these were naturally thetwo centres round which this intellectual activitywas grouped. But the emperor passed away thebishop remained and there was no longer anydisturbing cause to prevent its concentrationround a single figure.” (Sheppard, 1861, p. 758)
    • 14. Foundation Now Laid for Papal Supremacy in the West“… the emancipation of Italy and the western provincesfrom direct imperial control which is signalized byOdoacers accession has rightly been regarded asmarking the opening of a new epoch. It made possiblein the West…the growth of new and distinct states andnationalities; finally it gave a new impulse to theinfluence of the Christian Church and laid thefoundations of the power of the bishops of Rome”(Pelham, 1901, p. 576)
    • 15. Foundation Now Laid for Papal Supremacy in the WestThe success of the papacy “continuedthrough seven centuries, [and] wasaudaciously interpreted into a proof of thedivinity of the Papacy. Behold, it has beensaid, that when the throne of Caesar wasoverturned, how the chair of Peter stooderect!...(Wylie, 18??, p. 17)
    • 16. "Christianity…developed an institution which inpart was a rival of the state. It created a societywithin the empire which….threatened the veryexistence of the latter. The conflict was verymarked in the century or more beforeConstantine. . . . When Constantine made hispeace with the faith, however, it long looked asthough the conflict had been resolved by thecontrol of the church by the state. Yet, even in thedays of the seeming subordination of the churchto the government, ecclesiastics sought toinfluence the policies of the latter." (Latourette,1938, p. 273)
    • 17. Now that the Imperial Emperor was out of the way…What Next?“The result was the papacy, a churchthat controlled the power of theState, and employed it to further herown ends, especially for thepunishment of ‘heresy.’”(GC88, p. 443)
    • 18. What Events Mark the ChurchGaining Control Over the State?The Race to 476 A.D.
    • 19. The Race to 476 A.D.1. Papacy Arises As a Civil Power Amidstthe Ruins of Western Rome, the 10 kings2. Clovis the Frank converts to Catholicism3. Three Horns Plucked up to make wayfor the Papacy4. Paganism Gives Its Seat to Papacy
    • 20. 1. Papacy Arises As a Civil Power Amidst the Ruins of Western Rome, the 10 kings“…And so, when the last vestige of theWestern Empire of Rome had vanished,the territory was found partitioned intoexactly ten parts, occupied by exactly tenindependent nations; no more no less.”(Jones, 1901, p. 56)
    • 21. 1. Papacy Arises As a Civil Power Amidst the Ruins of Western Rome, the 10 kings“The history of the little horn …is the Papacy—Yet itcannot be the temporal kingdom of the Papacy; but mustbe that spiritual kingdom of the Bishop of Rome…grew atlength into a catholic spiritual empire, …—It was to ariseduring the period that the Roman empire was dividedinto ten kingdoms… but after the saints had been givenby the secular power into its hand, it was to become anuniversal ecclesiastical tyrant…” (Faber, 1806, p. xxviii)
    • 22. 1. Papacy Arises As a Civil Power Amidst the Ruins of Western Rome, the 10 kings“Medieval Europe and the Byzantine Empire wereunited in a single faith, Christianity. After the fall ofRome, popes gradually emerged as powerful figures inWestern Europe. The popes claimed supreme religiousauthority over all Christians. The emperors andpatriarchs of the east resisted suchclaims.” (The Byzantine Empire, n.d., p. 7)
    • 23. 2. Clovis the Franc converts to Catholicism“The conversion of the Merovingian chieftain, Clovis, to theCatholic faith is an event of primary importance in the historyof the papacy. Starting out with a mere handful of followers,Clovis had by his military prowess attached a number of tribesto himself. As he expected, the Catholics rallied around him asthe only Catholic prince in the West, and assisted him inconquering the Arian princes. The Goths had become luxuriousand disinclined to the hardships of war and were easilyovercome by the Frankish warrior.Victory followed victory until Gaul Burgundy and Bavaria weremore or less firmly united under one government. Thus wasestablished a vigorous Catholic power which found its interestin promoting the papacy and which in turn was zealouslysupported by it.” (Newman, 1906, p. 404)
    • 24. 2. Clovis the Franc converts to Catholicism“… the see of Rome received its chief temporalsupport from the connexion [sic] thus formedwith the monarchy of France” (Miller, 1832, p. 85)Speaking of Clovis, Westermann (1912) writes,“The Frankish king seemed to the orthodoxChristians in Gaul to be their defender and leaderagainst the German tribes of the Arian beliefespecially the Visigoths…He was able to conquerthe Arian rulers of southwestern Gaul, theVisigoths, and add their territory to his Frankishkingdom…” (p. 484)
    • 25. 2. Clovis the Franc converts to Catholicism“…Up to the time of the conversion of Clovis king ofFrance, A.D. 496, the French and other nations of WesternRome were pagan; but subsequently to that event, theefforts to convert idolaters to Romanism were crownedwith great success. The conversion of Clovis is said to havebeen the occasion of bestowing upon the French monarchthe titles of ‘Most Christian Majesty’ and ‘Eldest Son ofthe Church.’ Between that time and A.D. 508, by alliances,capitulations, and conquests, the Arborici, the Romangarrisons in the West, Brittany, the Burgundians, and theVisigoths were brought into subjection. From the timewhen these successes were fully accomplished, namely508, the papacy was triumphant so far as paganism wasconcerned…” (Smith, 1872, p. 320)
    • 26. 2. Clovis the Franc converts to Catholicism"In Europe, one of the major events that year [508A.D.] was the conclusion of the war between Clovis,king of the Franks (later France), and the Visigoths,whom he defeated and pushed into Spain." WilliamH. Shea, Bible Amplifier - Daniel 7-12, p. 220."It is evident, from the language of Gregory of Tours,that this conflict between the Franks and theVisigoths was regarded by the orthodox party of hisown and preceding ages as a religious war, on which,humanly speaking, the prevalence of the Catholic orthe Arian creed in western Europe depended." TheCambridge Medieval History, Vol. I, p. 286.
    • 27. 2. Clovis the Franc converts to CatholicismBy this victory, "it was decided that the Franks, andnot the Goths, were to direct the future destinies ofGaul and Germany, and that the Catholic faith, andnot Arianism, was to be the religion of these greatrealms." Richard W. Church, The Beginning of theMiddle Ages, p. 39."Thus when Clovis and the Franks defeated the ArianVisigoths and drove them into Spain, it was also atheological victory for the bishop of Rome." WilliamH. Shea, Bible Amplifier - Daniel 7-12, p. 220.
    • 28. 3. Three Horns Plucked up to make way for the Papacy“After this I saw in the night visions, and behold afourth beast, dreadful and terrible, and strongexceedingly; and it had great iron teeth: it devouredand brake in pieces, and stamped the residue withthe feet of it: and it was diverse from all the beaststhat were before it; and it had ten horns. Iconsidered the horns, and, behold, there came upamong them another little horn, before whomthere were three of the first horns plucked up bythe roots: and, behold, in this horn were eyes likethe eyes of man, and a mouth speaking greatthings.” Daniel 7:7, 8
    • 29. 3. Three Horns Plucked up to make way for the Papacy Rome divided into 10 nations 1. Alemani (Germans) 2. Anglo-Saxons (English) 3. Bergundians (Swiss) 4. Lombards (Italians) 5. Suevi (Portuguese) 6. Francs (French) 7. Visigoths (Spanish) 8. Heruli (Extinct) 9. Vandals (Extinct) 10. Ostrogoths (Extinct)
    • 30. 3. Three Horns Plucked up to make way for the PapacyHorns = power; kings“And his brightness was as the light; he had hornscoming out of his hand: and there was the hiding of hispower.” Habakkuk 3:4“Thus he said, The fourth beast shall be the fourthkingdom upon earth, which shall be diverse from allkingdoms, and shall devour the whole earth, and shalltread it down, and break it in pieces. And the tenhorns out of this kingdom are ten kings that shallarise: and another shall rise after them; and he shallbe diverse from the first, and he shall subdue threekings.” Daniel 7:23, 24
    • 31. 3. Three Horns Plucked up to make way for the PapacyAccording to Uriah Smith (1907), the Arians were“bitter enemies of the pope and of the Roman CatholicChurch. From these facts it is evident that the spreadof Arianism would check the influence of theCatholics; and the possession of Rome and Italy by apeople of the Arian persuasion, would be fatal to thesupremacy of a Catholic bishop. But the prophecy haddeclared that this horn would rise to supreme power,and that in reaching this position it would subduethree kings.” (p. 165-166).
    • 32. 3. Three Horns Plucked up to make way for the Papacy“…Whereas evidently the prophecy of verses 24-25refers not to his civil power but to his power todomineer over the minds and consciences of men andthe pope reached this position as will hereafter appearin A.D. 538 and the plucking up of the three hornstook place before this and to make way for this veryexaltation to spiritual dominion.” (Smith, 1907, p.169)
    • 33. 3. Three Horns Plucked up to make way for the PapacyArian Kings in Power in Western Rome“…As early as the beginning of the sixth century thebishops of Rome had become powerful enough toexert considerable of that influence at the imperialcourt which ere long exalted them to a station wherethey could command the kings of the earth. There wasonly one hindrance to their supremacy,-- theopposition of the Arian powers to the doctrines ofthe Catholics, especially to that of the Trinity. Theseopposing powers were rooted up, the Heruli in 493,the Vandals in 534, and the Ostrogoths in 538.” (BibleReadings for the Home Circle, 1889, p. 29)
    • 34. 3. Three Horns Plucked up to make way for the PapacyThe Heruli. "The first kingdom established by the barbarians inItaly was that of the Heruli."--Ridpath. The historian gives the date of theoverthrow of the Heruli as 493 A .D . They were overthrown by the Gothsunder Theodoric by what he called a divine commission from Zeno, theemperor of Eastern Rome. The fact that the Heruli and Ostrogoths wereboth Arian in belief did not restrain the scheming pontiff from using theone to destroy the other when the outcome resulted in his advancement inpower. See History of the World, by Ridpath, Vol. 4, chap. 74, and GibbonsRoman Empire, chapters 39 and 40. The destruction of this Arian nationwas complete. "After the middle of the sixth century, however, their namecompletely disappears."--Encyclopedia Britannia, Vol. XIII, p. 403, art."Heruli." "After this their "name disappears from history."--StandardEnyclopedia of World Knowledge Vol. XIII, p. 334. See also the NewStandard Encyclopedia, art. "Heruli." The kingdom was so completelyuprooted that no trace is left, and no modern nation or province bears thename or can be identified with the Heruli (Bunch, 1950, p. 100)
    • 35. 3. Three Horns Plucked up to make way for the PapacyThe Vandals. “There are few instances in historyof a nation disappearing so rapidly and so completelyas the Vandals of Africa."--History of Greece, GeorgeFinlay, Vol. I, p. 232.Vandals …accepted the Arian doctrine and were thereforemarked for destruction...the Vandals became Christians, butthey were Arians, and fiercely persecuted orthodox believersand other heretics. In 533 the Byzantine general, Belisarius,landed in Africa. The Vandals were several times defeated, andCarthage was entered on Sept. 15, 533; …As a nation, theVandals soon ceased to exist."--Nelsons Encyclopedia, Vol. XII,art. "Vandals."
    • 36. 3. Three Horns Plucked up to make way for the Papacy The Goth’s. Speaking of the final defeat of the Goths in [538?] Ridpath says that there was “inflicted on the barbarians a defeat so decisive as to refix the status of Italy. The greater part of the Gothic army perished either by the sword or in attempting to cross the river...As for the Goths, they either retired to their native seats beyond the mountains or were absorbed by the Italians.” (Ridpaths History of the World, Vol. IV, pp. 408- 417)
    • 37. 4. Paganism Gives Its Authority to the Papacy“In 533 A.D. Justinian, emperor of Eastern Rome,issued a decree declaring the bishop of Rome thecorrector of heretics and head over all thechurches. Immediately the work of putting downArianism was begun with new vengeance in orderthat the decree might become effective and thevery next year the Vandals were subjugated thiswork being followed in 538 by the uprooting ofthe Ostrogoths in 538 A.D.” (Taylor, 1922, p. 109)
    • 38. 4. Paganism Gives Its Authority to the Papacy“…Justinian, emperor of Rome, with his capital atConstantinople, espoused the cause of the bishopof Rome; and in 533 A.D. issued a decree whichconstituted that prelate head of all the churches.But the Arian Ostrogoths had possession ofRome, and it was not until they had been rootedup that the city was accessible to the bishop. Thiswas accomplished in 538, by Belisarius,Justinians celebrated general…” (White, 1895, p.39)
    • 39. 4. Paganism Gives Its Authority to the Papacy“While Catholics were thus feeling the restraining power ofan Arian king in Italy, they were suffering violentpersecution from the Arian Vandals in Africa. Elliot says:‘The Vandal kings were not only Arians, but persecutors ofCatholics; in Sardinia and Corsica under the RomanEpiscopate, we may presume, as well as in Africa.“Such was the position of affairs, when, A.D. 533, Justinianentered upon his Vandal and Gothic wars. Wishing toobtain the influence of the pope and the Catholic party, heissued that memorable decree which was to constitute thepope the head of all churches, and from the carrying outof which, A.D. 538, the period of papal supremacy is to bedated…” (Smith, 1944, p. 127)
    • 40. 4. Paganism Gives Its Authority to the Papacy“No decree of this nature could be carried into effect untilthe Arian hordes which stood in its way were overthrown.A turn came, however, in the tide of affairs, for in themilitary campaign in Africa and Italy, the victoriouslegions of Belisarius dealt a crushing blow to Arianism, somuch so that its final supporters were vanquished.”(Smith, 1944, p. 127)
    • 41. 4. Paganism Gives Its Authority to the Papacy“As a comment on Rev 13: 2, 3, in regard to giving the power ofthe empire to the beast, we have found that the last step in thefull establishing of the Catholic Church was taken by Justinian insubjecting to the pope all the churches of the East, andextending the civil powers of the Roman see. The act ofJustinian became effective to accomplish its purpose in A.D.538…” (Waggoner, 1888, p.162)
    • 42. “Yea, he magnified himself even to theprince of the host, and by him the dailysacrifice was taken away, and the placeof his sanctuary was cast down. And anhost was given him against the dailysacrifice by reason of transgression, andit cast down the truth to the ground;and it practiced, and prospered.” Daniel8: 11, 12
    • 43. “Then I saw in relation to the ‘daily’ (Daniel8:12) that the word "sacrifice" was suppliedby mans wisdom, and does not belong to thetext...” (EW, p 74)
    • 44. James White – Sermons on the coming and Kingdom of our LordThe daily sacrifice and the transgression of desolation represent Rome inits pagan and papal forms. Leaving out the supplied words, the textwould read, "The daily, and the transgression of desolation." These aretwo desolating powers; first, Paganism, then, Papacy. Of these, Paul, in2Thess.2:38, says: "Let no man deceive you by any means; for that dayshall not come, except there come a falling away first, and that Man ofSin be revealed, the son of perdition, who opposeth and exalteth himselfabove all that is called God, or that is worshiped; so that he, as God,sitteth in the temple of God, showing himself that he is God. Rememberye not that when I was yet with you I told you these things? And now yeknow what withholdeth that he might be revealed in his time. For themystery of iniquity doth already work; only he who now letteth will let,until he be taken out of the way. And then shall that wicked be revealed,whom the Lord shall consume with the spirit of his mouth, and shalldestroy with the brightness of his coming." That which withheld themanifestation of the Papacy in Pauls day was Paganism. These are thetwo powers which have desolated the people of God, of which the angelspeaks in the vision of Dan.8.
    • 45. (Now Letteth) “…the reference would seem to be someagency or state of things under the control of ….some civilpower, that then operated as a restraint on the naturaltendency of things…The most natural interpretation is thatwhich refers it to civil power, meaning that there wassomething in the form of the existing administration whichwould prevent this development until that restraint shouldbe removed…The belief among primitive Christians was, thatwhat hindered the rise of the man of sin was the Romanempire, and therefore ‘they prayed for its peace and welfare,as knowing that when the Roman empire should bedissolved and broken in pieces, the empire of the man of sinwould be raised on its ruins.’” Bp. Newton ---Barnes, 1859, p.97-99
    • 46. “Yea, he magnified *himself+ even to theprince of the host, and by him the daily[sacrifice] was taken away, and the placeof his sanctuary was cast down. And anhost was given [him] against the daily[sacrifice] by reason of transgression, andit cast down the truth to the ground; andit practiced, and prospered.” Daniel 8:11,12
    • 47. “And arms shall stand on his part, andthey shall pollute the sanctuary ofstrength, and shall take away the daily[sacrifice], and they shall place theabomination that maketh desolate. Andsuch as do wickedly against the covenantshall he corrupt by flatteries: but thepeople that do know their God shall bestrong, and do exploits.” Daniel 11: 31, 32
    • 48. “Then I saw in relation to the ‘daily’ (Daniel8:12) that the word "sacrifice" was suppliedby mans wisdom, and does not belong to thetext, and that the Lord gave the correct viewof it to those who gave the judgment hourcry. When union existed, before 1844, nearlyall were united on the correct view of the"daily"; but in the confusion since 1844,other views have been embraced, anddarkness and confusion have followed. Timehas not been a test since 1844, and it willnever again be a test.” (EW, p 74)
    • 49. “These two phases are elsewhere spoken ofas the "daily" (sacrifice is a supplied word)and the "transgression of desolation;" thedaily (desolation) signifying the pagan form,and the transgression of desolation, thepapal. (See on verse 13.) In the actionsascribed to this power, sometimes one formis spoken of, sometimes the other. "By him"(the papal form) "the daily" (the pagan form)"was taken away." Pagan Rome wasremodeled into papal Rome.” – Uriah Smith,Daniel & The Revelation
    • 50. William Miller - Views Of Prophecy – pg 28-29I have come to this conclusion: that this power, called“daily sacrifice,” is Rome pagan abomination; thesame as Christ has reference to in Matt. xxiv. 15. Lukexxi. 21. Certainly Christ could not have reference topapal abomination that maketh desolate until Christssecond coming; for that was not set up until nearlyfive Views Of Prophecy hundred years afterwards. Ofcourse, it must have been the pagan abominationwhich would be taken away. This agrees with Paul, 2Thes. ii. 3-10: [quoted]. The question then would be,when was Paganism taken out of the way? I answer,it must have been after the ten horns arose out ofwhat is called the Western empire of Rome…”
    • 51. “And the beast which I saw was like unto aleopard, and his feet were as the feet of abear, and his mouth as the mouth of a lion:and the dragon gave him his power, and hisseat, and great authority.” Revelation 13:2
    • 52. “The dragon is said to be Satan; *Revelation 12:9.+ he itwas that moved upon Herod to put the Saviour to death.But the chief agent of Satan in making war upon Christand his people during the first centuries of the Christianera, was the Roman Empire, in which paganism was theprevailing religion. Thus while the dragon, primarily,represents Satan, it is, in a secondary sense, a symbol ofpagan Rome.” (GC88, p. 438)“In chapter 13 *VERSES 1-10.] is described another beast,‘like unto a leopard,’ to which the dragon gave ‘his power,and his seat, and great authority.’ This symbol, as mostProtestants have believed, represents the papacy, whichsucceeded to the power and seat and authority oncepossessed by the ancient Roman Empire.” (GC88, p. 439)
    • 53. “In the sixth century the papacy had become firmlyestablished. Its seat of power was fixed in theimperial city, and the bishop of Rome was declaredto be the head over the entire church. Paganismhad given place to the papacy. The dragon hadgiven to the beast ‘his power, and his seat, andgreat authority.’ [Revelation 13:2; SEE APPENDIX,NOTE 2.] And now began the 1260 years of papaloppression foretold in the prophecies of Daniel andthe Revelation.” (GC88, p. 54)
    • 54. “It was then ‘the belief of Christians in early times’—it is therecorded testimony of the Church Universal assembled in council—that Romes position as the seat of empire was the cause of herecclesiastical preeminence.” (Meyrick, 1857, p. 51)“To the Byzantines, Christianity was more than a religion. It was thevery foundation of their empire. In Byzantine times, the emperorhad supreme authority over the church” …. (The Byzantine Empire,n.d., p. 5)“Paganism represented a system where the State controlled thereligion. The Papacy represents a system where the religion controlsthe State. The visible head of the first was the Emperor of Rome; thevisible head of the latter is the Pope…” (F.C. Gilbert in A ScripturalExposition of H-T-Mid, The Daily, Daniel 8:11-13).
    • 55. Now that the Imperial Emperor was out of the way…What Next?“…The result was thepapacy, a church thatcontrolled the power of theState, and employed it tofurther her own ends,especially for thepunishment of ‘heresy.’”(GC88, p. 443)
    • 56. What Did the Papacy do with its Power?
    • 57. What Did the Papacy do with its Power?“Popes controlled finances across Europe, approved or rejectedclerical appointments, and had a greater reach than any secularlords in Europe. And as Christianity dictated a policy of obedienceto the pontiff in his capacity of vicarius Christi, he was vestedwith unparalleled authority…The papacy by its ‘international’nature, slowly but surely found its way to the forefront of theburgeoning medieval field of international politics. First as apawn of others, the pope later became a controlling piece on thechessboard. By the beginning of the twelfth century, popes dealtwith monarchs not only as a spiritual advisor and authority, butalso as international arbitrators, communicators, anddiplomats.”(Gilbert, 2001, ¶ 6, 7)
    • 58. What Did the Papacy do with its Power?“And there was given unto him a mouth speaking greatthings and blasphemies; and power was given unto himto continue forty and two months. And he opened hismouth in blasphemy against God, to blaspheme hisname, and his tabernacle, and them that dwell inheaven. And it was given unto him to make war withthe saints, and to overcome them: and power was givenhim over all kindreds, and tongues, and nations.”Revelation 13:5-7
    • 59. What Did the Papacy do with its Power?“And they that understand among the people shallinstruct many: yet they shall fall by the sword, andby flame, by captivity, and by spoil, many days.”Daniel 11:33
    • 60. What Did the Papacy do with its Power?“’Power was given unto him to continue forty and two months.’And, says the prophet, ‘I saw one of his heads as it were woundedto death.’ And again: ‘He that leadeth into captivity shall go intocaptivity: he that killeth with the sword must be killed with thesword.’ The forty and two months are the same as the ‘time andtimes and the dividing of time,’ three years and a half, or 1260days, of Daniel 7 -- the time during which the papal power was tooppress Gods people. This period, as stated in preceding chapters,began with the supremacy of the papacy, A.D. 538, and terminatedin 1798.” (GC, p. 439) *Note: The supremacy that she gained in 538A.D. was spiritual authority]
    • 61. What Did the Papacy do with its Power?Referring to the year A.D. 538, Gunner (1851) writes, “inthat year the Ostrogoths were overthrown by Belesarius,the Greek general under Justinian, for the expresspurpose of establishing the Papal church, and of carryinginto effect the ‘Justinian Code of Laws,’ which investedthe Pope with supreme authority, and constituted himhead of the Eastern churches, with power to punish andpardon at will, whomsoever he might choose.” (p. 108)
    • 62. What Did the Papacy do with its Power?“And of the ten horns that were inhis head, and of the other whichcame up, and before whom threefell; even of that horn that had eyes,and a mouth that spake very greatthings, whose look was more stoutthan his fellows. “ Daniel 7:20