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  • Fall of Babylon – Daniel 5Fall of Medo-Persia– Daniel 8Fall of Greece – Daniel 11Fall of Pagan Rome – Daniel 11, Revelation 8, 9, Revelation 13Fall of Papal Rome – Daniel 2, Daniel 11, Revelation 11, 13
  • Far-reaching:comprehensive, expansive, extended, sweeping, universal, unlimited, wide, wide-ranging, widespread
  • What are some examples today?Gay Marriage vs. Civil UnionsDay of RestPrayer in Public SchoolsForced VaccinationsHome Schooling Children
  • Definition of NOMINAL: existing in name onlyHistory suggests that Constantine converted because it benefitted the Empire politically. It was a way to unite the people.
  • The Emperor or State controlled the Church
  • (COMMENT: In the time of the first church, there was a falling away: see Revelation 2:4, 5. Also Paul said in 2 Thessalonians 2:7, 8 “the mystery of iniquity doth already work.” We see an example of this iniquity in 3 John 1:9) After Constantine, Christians could appeal to the emperor against each other
  • Gay Marriage issue = the church asking the state to enforce its religious beliefs.
  • --He’s responsible for the First Council of Nicea, which was the first ecumenical council that sought to establish a unity of faith. There were religious divisions/philosophies developing in the empire—generally split up between the east and the west (e.g., Arius) – Controversies continued throughout the empire
  • Emperor  Consuls Senators  Equestrians  Plebeians / Slaves (mob)􀂄Bishops mediated imperial power in the cities􀂄Often drawn from same social milieu􀂆Patronage made Christian office attractive􀂄No longer carried risk of death􀂄Instead, office could be a source of profit􀂄Even for those who were not corrupt, episcopal authority and the lure of power were far greater5 Cities where the bishops has special prominence: West: Rome East: Constantinople, Jerusalem, Antioch, Alexandria (the Western Bishop wanted prominence, or to be “papa” instead of a Patrician, which signified a brotherhood of equals.
  • The Trumpets are Divided into Two Scenes of ConquestTrumpets 1-4 are a conquest of Western Rome, where the 10 kings lie and the Papacy ruled from RomeTrumpets 5 & 6 are a conquest of Eastern Rome, the capital of which was Constantinople
  • His sons, in the east, were Arian, however, and not of Catholic or Nicene faith…so religious divisions continued, although tolerated. After the death of the last of Constantine’s sons, a pagan came to power and sought to do for paganism what Constantine had done for Catholicism in the Empire. However, the pagan emperor died and Christian divisions continued.3. Constantine Enacts First Sunday Law in 321 AD
  • The sons inherit the parts of the empire which they have already ruled, on behalf of their father, as Caesars. Read more: http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?historyid=ac59#ixzz0m7Q1f0DEConstantius II, though not the eldest, has the lion's share - Greece, Constantinople and the entire eastern empire. His elder brother, Constantine II, has Spain, Gaul and Britain. The youngest, Constans, controls Italy and Spain.Read more: http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?historyid=ac59#ixzz0m7QW66bNThe sons inherit the parts of the empire which they have already ruled, on behalf of their father, as Caesars. Read more: http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?historyid=ac59#ixzz0m7Q1f0DEThe sons inherit the parts of the empire which they have already ruled, on behalf of their father, as CaesarsRead more: http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?historyid=ac59#ixzz0m7QOBvZw
  • Throughout the prophecy of the trumpets, there are references to a “third part” being affected by the different judgments
  • Mark 3:25, 26 “And if a house be divided against itself, that house cannot stand. And if Satan rise up against himself, and be divided, he cannot stand, but hath an end.
  • Theodosius becomes the eastern emperor in AD 379 and rapidly settles the religious splits within the empire by declaring pagan worship and Christian heresies (such as Arianism) to be illegal. A law of 380 orders all citizens to subscribe to the Catholic doctrines agreed under the chairmanship of Constantine the Great at the Council of Nicaea in 325.The religious uplifting of one religion, results in the persecution of all others.
  • Eastern Rome was ruled by the Greeks, Byzantine, became cosmopolitan and ruled by philosophy & Grecian education. Consequently, although they progressed as a civilization, they were constantly divided in their religious thinkingWestern Rome stayed Latinized and remained primarily an agricultural, rural society with little progression in the arts or its civil discourse. However, they remained unified in their religious thinking.
  • Luke 8:10 – to you it is given to know the mysteries of God
  • And He gave us this history so that we can trace the rise and fall of the papal power in our day and age.
  • Revelation 1:3 – The Time is present-tense (for John that was pagan Rome)
  • Numbers 10:9; Jeremiah 4:19-21; Zephaniah 1:15-17; 1 Corinthians 14:8; Ezekiel 33:2, 3Numbers 10:9“And if ye go to war in your land against the enemy that oppresseth you, then ye shall blow an alarm with the trumpets; and ye shall be remembered before the LORD your God, and ye shall be saved from your enemies.”Jeremiah 4:19-21 “My bowels, my bowels! I am pained at my very heart; my heart maketh a noise in me; I cannot hold my peace, because thou hast heard, O my soul, the sound of the trumpet, the alarm of war.Destruction upon destruction is cried; for the whole land is spoiled: suddenly are my tents spoiled, [and] my curtains in a moment.How long shall I see the standard, [and] hear the sound of the trumpet? Zephaniah 1:15-17 “That day [is] a day of wrath, a day of trouble and distress, a day of wasteness and desolation, a day of darkness and gloominess, a day of clouds and thick darkness, A day of the trumpet and alarm against the fenced cities, and against the high towers. And I will bring distress upon men, that they shall walk like blind men, because they have sinned against the LORD: and their blood shall be poured out as dust, and their flesh as the dung. Ezekiel 33:2, 3 “Son of man, speak to the children of thy people, and say unto them, When I bring the sword upon a land, if the people of the land take a man of their coasts, and set him for their watchman: If when he seeth the sword come upon the land, he blow the trumpet, and warn the people;
  • Joshua 6:13 And seven priests bearing seven trumpets of rams' horns before the ark of the LORD went on continually, and blew with the trumpets: and the armed men went before them; but the rereward came after the ark of the LORD, [the priests] going on, and blowing with the trumpets. 6:14 And the second day they compassed the city once, and returned into the camp: so they did six days. 6:15 And it came to pass on the seventh day, that they rose early about the dawning of the day, and compassed the city after the same manner seven times: only on that day they compassed the city seven times. 6:16 And it came to pass at the seventh time, when the priests blew with the trumpets, Joshua said unto the people, Shout; for the LORD hath given you the city. 6:17 And the city shall be accursed, [even] it, and all that [are] therein, to the LORD: only Rahab the harlot shall live, she and all that [are] with her in the house, because she hid the messengers that we sent. 6:18 And ye, in any wise keep [yourselves] from the accursed thing, lest ye make [yourselves] accursed, when ye take of the accursed thing, and make the camp of Israel a curse, and trouble it. 6:19 But all the silver, and gold, and vessels of brass and iron, [are] consecrated unto the LORD: they shall come into the treasury of the LORD. 6:20 So the people shouted when [the priests] blew with the trumpets: and it came to pass, when the people heard the sound of the trumpet, and the people shouted with a great shout, that the wall fell down flat, so that the people went up into the city, every man straight before him, and they took the city.
  • Psalm21:9“Thou shalt make them as a fiery oven in the time of thine anger: the LORD shall swallow them up in his wrath, and the fire shall devour them.”Psalm 148:8“Fire, and hail; snow, and vapours; stormy wind fulfilling his word”Isaiah 4:4“When the Lord shall have washed away the filth of the daughters of Zion, and shall have purged the blood of Jerusalem from the midst thereof by the spirit of judgment, and by the spirit of burning”Isaiah 28:2 “Behold, the Lord hath a mighty and strong one, [which] as a tempest of hail [and] a destroying storm, as a flood of mighty waters overflowing, shall cast down to the earth with the hand.”Isaiah 28:17 “Judgment also will I lay to the line, and righteousness to the plummet: and the hail shall sweep away the refuge of lies, and the waters shall overflow the hiding place.”Isaiah 30:30 “And the LORD shall cause his glorious voice to be heard, and shall show the lighting down of his arm, with the indignation of [his] anger, and [with] the flame of a devouring fire, [with] scattering, and tempest, and hailstones.”
  • 1 Peter 1:24 “For all flesh [is] as grass, and all the glory of man as the flower of grass. The grass withereth, and the flower thereof fallethaway”Isaiah 40:7 “The grass withereth, the flower fadeth: because the spirit of the LORD bloweth upon it: surely the people [is] grass.”Mark 8:24“And he looked up, and said, I see men as trees, walking.”Genesis 1:29 “And God said, Behold, I have given you every herb bearing seed, which [is] upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in the which [is] the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for meat”Deuteronomy 20:19 “When thou shalt besiege a city a long time, in making war against it to take it, thou shalt not destroy the trees thereof by forcing an ax against them: for thou mayest eat of them, and thou shalt not cut them down (for the tree of the field [is] man's [life]) to employ [them] in the siege”

7 trumpets.part 1 7 trumpets.part 1 Presentation Transcript

  • The 7 Trumpets Part I
  • “There are those now living who, instudying the prophecies of Danieland John, received great light fromGod as they passed over the groundwhere special prophecies were inprocess of fulfillment in their order.They bore the message of time tothe people. The truth shone outclearly as the sun at noonday.Historical events, showing thedirect fulfillment of prophecy, wereset before the people, and theprophecy was seen to be a figurativedelineation of events leading downto the close of this earths history.”(Selected Messages, Book 2, p. 102)
  • 1 –> Babylon2 –> Medo-Persia3 –> Greece4 –> Rome (Pagan)5—> Papal Rome6 —> U.S.A.7 —> 10 Kings8 —> Babylon/Papacy
  • “The Roman Church is far-reaching in herplans and modes of operation. She isemploying every device to extend herinfluence and increase her power inpreparation for a fierce and determinedconflict to regain control of the world, tore-establish persecution, and to undo allthat Protestantism has done.” (GC88, p. 565)
  • “…Rome is aiming to re-establish herpower, to recover her lost supremacy.Let history testify of her artfuland persistent efforts to insinuateherself into the affairs of nations; andhaving gained a foothold, to furtherher own aims, even at the ruin ofprinces and people …” (GC, p. 580)
  • “If the reader would understandthe agencies to be employed in thesoon-coming contest, he has but totrace the record of the meanswhich Rome employed for thesame object in ages past…”(GC88, p. 573)
  • The Bible Echo and Signs of the Times, February 1886, Vol. 1, No. 2, pg. 3“To give the Bible to the laity, is to cast pearls before swine.”—Cardinal Hosius “There is no other remedy for the evil but to put heretics (Protestants) to death.”—Belarmine “We hate Protestantism; we detest it with our whole heart and soul.”—Catholic Visitor“We will take this country and build our institutions over the grave of Protestantism.”—Priest Ilecker “Religious liberty is only endured until the opposite can be carried into effect.”—Bishop O’Connor “We are not advocates of religious freedom and we repeat we are not.”—Shepard of the Valley
  • “Let the principle once be establishedin the United States, that the churchmay employ or control the power ofthe State; that religious observancesmay be enforced by secular laws; inshort, that the authority of church andState is to dominate theconscience, and the triumph of Romein this country is assured.” (GC, p. 580)
  • Five Important Pointsin the History of Romeprior to the Trumpets
  • 1. Persecution of Christians Ceases2. Christians Organized Themselves Like the State3. Constantine Builds a New Capital in the Eastern Empire4. Constantine’s Three Sons Become Augusti5. Christianity Made Official Religion of the State & Eastern and Western Rome Make a Permanent Split
  • #1 - Persecution of Christians ceases underConstantine who converted Christianity in 312 AD.The Church now finds herself in a position of beingexalted and there develops an apostasy, union ofchurch and state
  • “The nominal conversion of Constantine, in theearly part of the fourth century, caused greatrejoicing; and the world, cloaked with a formof righteousness, walked into the church. Nowthe work of corruption rapidly progressed.Paganism, while appearing to bevanquished, became the conqueror. Her spiritcontrolled the church. Herdoctrines, ceremonies, and superstitions wereincorporated into the faith andworship of the professedfollowers of Christ.” (GC88, p. 49)
  • “Constantine the Great let the form ororganization of the churchremain, substantially, as it had been; yet heattempted in some respects to improve andextend it. While therefore, he suffered thechurch to continue to be, as before… he assumedto himself the supreme power over this sacredrepublic, and the right of…controlling it in such amanner as would best subserve the public good.Nor did any bishop call in question this power ofthe emperor” (Mosheim, 1871, p. 231).
  • “It was apostasy that led the early church toseek the aid of the civil government, and thisprepared the way for the development of thepapacy,—the beast.”(GC88, p. 443)
  • “When the early church became corrupted bydeparting from the simplicity of thegospel, and accepting heathen rites andcustoms, she lost the Spirit and power ofGod; and in order to control the consciencesof thepeople she sought the support ofthe secular power. The result was thepapacy, a church that controlled thepower of the State…” (GC88, p. 443)
  • “Thus again was demonstrated the evilresults, so often witnessed in the history ofthe church from the days of Constantine tothe present, of attempting to build up thechurch by the aid of the State, of appealingto the secular power in support of thegospel of Him who declared, ‘My kingdomis not of this world.’ *John 18:36.]The union of the church with the State, bethe degree never so slight, while it mayappear to bring the world nearer to thechurch, does in reality but bring the churchnearer to the world.” (GC88, p. 296)
  • #2 - Constantine allows for religious freedom forChristians and all other religious with the Edictof Milan, 313 AD. The corrupted church begins toorganize itself like the Empire.
  • The Edict of Milan was “a proclamation that permanently established religious toleration for Christianity within theRoman Empire… The proclamation… granted all personsfreedom to worship whatever deity theypleased, assured Christians of legal rights (including theright to organize churches), and directed the promptreturn to Christians of confiscated property. Previousedicts of toleration had been as short-lived as theregimes that sanctioned them, but this time the edicteffectively established religious toleration.” (Edict ofMilan, 2009, ¶1)
  • “After the Edict of Milan granted Christianity legalstatus, the church adopted the same governmentalstructure as the Empire: geographical provinces ruled bybishops. … Bishops of important cities therefore rose inpower.”(History and Development of the Papacy, 2009, ¶13)
  • #3 - Constantine builds a new capital inthe Eastern part of the Empire in 330 AD
  • “After his defeat of Licinius in 324 Constantine decided tofound a new capital for the emperor. This was notunusual, since many emperors had founded or re-foundedcities, and the Empire had several capitals in the third andfourth centuries. Thus, Constantine did not ‘move the capitalfrom Rome to Constantinople,’ but the new city soonbecame the primary capital of the empire and the real heartof Byzantine civilization. It soon outstripped every other cityin beauty and prosperity and by the fifth century its fortunehad become identified with that of the empire as a whole…In general, the city was patterned after Rome and its officialtitle was ‘New Rome;’ there were seven churches, and agreat palace, which later became the central part of theGreat Palace.” (The Founding of Constantinople, n.d., ¶1 &11)
  • “*330 CE:+ Emperor Constantine decided to build a ‘NewRome’ on the site of the Greek city of Byzantium (now atIstanbul, Turkey). It was called Constantinople. Itbecame the center of the largely Christian empire. Bythis time, the church had evolved from asmall, scattering of congregations to a geographicallywidespread church under the authority of manybishops.” (Robinson, 2007, ¶12)
  • #4- Constantine’s three sons declaredAugusti after his death in 337 AD
  • According to Uriah Smith (1872) in the bookDaniel & the Revelation, after Constantinedied, Rome was divided into three parts, amonghis sons Constantinus (Possessed the East andresided in Constantinople), Constantine II(Britain, Gaul, & Spain-Western Division), &Constans (Illyricum, Africa, and Italy-WesternDivision).
  • The Trumpets affect a “third part” of the Empire Constantine II Constans Constantinus
  • #5 - Theodosius makes Catholic Christianity theofficial Religion of the state, and, upon his deathin 395 AD, his will officially splits the Empire intoseparate East & West States ruled by hisincapable sons
  • “The Emperor Theodosianissued a series of decrees orrescripts in the years 341, 345,356, 381, 383, 386 and 391CE.The effect of these orders wasto ‘suppress all rival religions,order the closing of the temples, and imposefines, confiscation, imprisonment or death uponany who cling to the older [Pagan] religions.’ Theperiod of relative religious tolerance in the RomanEmpire ended as Pagan temples were seized andconverted to Christian use or destroyed.”(Robinson, 2007, ¶ 13)
  • “At Theodosius death in AD 395, Honorius assumedthe role of emperor of the west, with his brotherArcadius becoming emperor of the east. This divisionof the empire into eastern and western parts was thedecisive one, which sent the two on separate ways…the accession of Arcadius and Honorius is widely seenas the division of the Roman Empire into twocompletely separate parts.” (Flavius Honorius, n.d., ¶3)
  • Important Hosea 12:10 “I have also Principles of spoken by the Prophetic prophets, and I haveInterpretation to multiplied visions, and Keep in Mind used similitudes, by the ministry of the prophets” Ecclesiastes 3:15 “That which hath been is now; and that which is to be hath already been; and God requireth that which is past.”
  • God has revealed to us in propheticsymbols the fall of the Roman Empire
  • “The great leading features of Daniel’s visions werethe four great governments of antiquity, beginningwith the Babylonian, and ending with the Roman, inits papal form. Not so, however, with John; he livedwhen three of those governments had passedaway, and the fourth and last was in being, and in theheight of its glory, as an universal monarchy. Underthat government John was in banishment on the isleof Patmos, ‘for the word of God, and the testimony ofJesus Christ.’ Accordingly, instead of predicting therise and triumph of either of those four greatgovernments, it was his part to give the prophetichistory of the fall of the last of the four, and give usthe various means by which that great persecutingsystem should come to ruin.” (White, 1875, p. 2)
  • “Although it was not the end of the world…thefall of Rome is full of lessons that indicateexactly the things that will be at the end of theworld. For that, with all its terrors, was theconsequence of the evils heaped upon societyby the making and working of the Papacy. Andwhen the world shall really end, that, with theterrors that accompany it, will be but theconsequence of the evil that is heaped upon thesociety of the world at this time by the makingand the working of the Image of the Papacy.”(Jones, 1901, p. 14-15)
  • The Seven Trumpets beingsounded are parallel with theSeven Last Plagues poured outonto the world by the seven angelspouring out the wrath of God inRevelation 16:1-8(earth, sea, fountains ofwaters, sun, darkness, the riverEuphrates, Christ finishing His work
  • “…The number 7 indicatescompleteness, and is symbolic ofthe fact that the messagesextend to the end of time…”(Acts of the Apostles, p. 585
  • The First 4 Trumpets are bound together& cover the entire territories ofcreation: The earth, sea,fountains of waters & the heavens…signifying that the judgments are upon aworld power-at the time of John this worldpower was Pagan RomeRevelation 14:7 “Saying with a loud voice, FearGod, and give glory to him; for the hour of hisjudgment is come: and worship him that madeheaven, and earth, and the sea, and the fountains ofwaters.”
  • These 4 Trumpets tell us about theFall of Western Rome and thefall of the imperial city ofRome, ItalyAccording to James White (1875), the first fourtrumpets refer to the fall of the WesternDivisions of Rome(that of Constantine II Constantine II Constans& Constans) Constantinus
  • It is out of the Western Roman Empire that we have the division of Rome into 10 parts“…when the last vestige of the Western“…when the last vestige of the WesternEmpire of Rome had vanished, theEmpire of Rome had vanished, theterritory was found partitioned intoterritory was found partitioned intoexactly ten parts, occupied by exactlyexactly ten parts, occupied by exactlyten independent nations; no more noten independent nations; no more noless.” (Jones, 1901, p. 56)less.” (Jones, 1901, p. 56)
  • The Last Three Trumpets Deal with… Rise of IslamDemise of Eastern RomanEmpire & Papal Rule & TheFall of IslamAnger of the Nations &the Battle BetweenTwo Mysteries: God vs. Babylon
  • “And the seven angels which had the seven trumpets prepared themselves to sound.” (Revelation 8:6) Trumpets = Alarms, War/Battle, Judgment
  • Trumpets = Signify the Fall of a great city Joshua 6: 13-20
  • Trumpets = Alarms, War/Battle, Judgment “The prophet on Patmos was given a threefold view ofevents which would take place between the time inwhich he lived, and the time when the redeemedgather about the throne… Another phase ofhistory, not wholly national, but having to do withnations, is revealed in the sounding of thetrumpets…The trumpet, or bugle sound, is the call towar; and the history of the trumpets is one long storyof war and bloodshed, but in order that men mightlearn that the hand of God is overruling in everyarmy, and that He guides in every war, the story of thetrumpets is left on record.” (Haskell, 1906, p. 65)
  • “The first angelsounded, and therefollowed hail andfire mingled withblood, and theywere cast upon theearth: and the thirdpart of trees wasburnt up, and allgreen grass wasburnt up.”(Revelation 8:7)
  • The Campaign of Alaric & the Visigoths, 395-419 ADFirst invaded the East and then sacked imperial city of Rome (~410 AD) “In one city the whole world perished.” (Jerome, Comm. In Ezech. 1.praef.)
  • Hail, Fire, Burnt Up =an act of judgment coming from GodPsalm 21:9; Psalm 148:8, Isaiah 4:4; Psalm 21:9; Psalm 148:8, Isaiah 4:4;Isaiah 28:2, 17; Isaiah 30:30 Isaiah 28:2, 17; Isaiah 30:30
  • Mingled with Blood = Mingled with Mercy (Bloodsignifies mercy, See Leviticus 16:14, 15)Signifies that the judgment did not happen world-wide or across all of imperial Rome“...All the judgments upon men, prior to the close ofprobation, have been mingled with mercy. Thepleading blood of Christ has shielded the sinner fromreceiving the full measure of his guilt; but in the finaljudgment, wrath is poured out unmixed with mercy.”(GC, p. 628)
  • UPON THE EARTH = BATTLES ON LANDRevelation 14:7 “Saying with a loud voice, FearGod, and give glory to him; for the hour of hisjudgment is come: and worship him that madeheaven, and earth, and the sea, and thefountains of waters.”
  • Constantine II Constans Constantinus Third Part = The Western Part of the Empire, Centering around Rome, Italy
  • GRASS & TREES = BOTH PEOPLE & FOOD SUPPLY 1 Peter 1:24; Isaiah 40:7; Mark 8:24; Genesis 1:29; Deuteronomy 20:19
  • Alaric’s campaign also signified byfires, slaughter of life, and the burning &cutting off of food supplies in Rome, Italy
  • Alaric’s Campaign Against Rome“We do know that for three days the Goths ransackedthe city, everything of value fromtemples, palaces, and private houses, then burned, thevillas on the Aventine Hill, a fashionable part of[where] many families lived. They broke into theMausoleum, dumped the ashes of the caesars on thefloor, and ran off with burial urns and other tombornaments. The magnificent house and Sallust nearthe Sallarian gate, as well as the Basilica Aemelia inthe Forum, were consumed in a great fire…”
  • Alaric’s Campaign Against Rome“The Visigoths, under Alaric’s command, enteredRome through the Salarian Gate on the night of 24August 410. They remained for three days. Themassacres, fires, and looting especially affected thewealthier quarters—the Caelian and the AventineHills...The marks of the fire that raged in the hall ofthe Senate are perhaps still visible.”(Arnaldi/Shugaar, 2005, p. 4)
  • Alaric’s Campaign Against Rome“…Alaric’s army had advanced, plundering, throughItaly, camped outside Rome, and cut off its supplies fromthe port of Ostia. Famine quickly sapped resistance…”(Friell & Williams, 1999, p. 21)“…Alaric marched on Rome. When the Visigothsblockaded the food supplies at Portus, thesenate, having briefly rejected a request from Alaric thatit join him against Honorius, capitulated and agreed toform a government (late 409).” (Cameron &Garnsey, 1998, p. 126)
  • Alaric’s Campaign Against RomeSaint Jerome wrote: “I hear from the West the terrible news thatRome is besieged, that her citizens have been obliged to purchasetheir salvation in heavy gold, and, already plundered of all theirpossessions, they have been besieged anew because, having losttheir goods, they must now lose their lives. My words strangle inmy throat. Behold, the city that conquered the world has beenconquered in its turn. Rome is dying of hunger before it can die bythe sword. There are but few survivors, who will be led away inchains. The ravenous hunger of the besieged is nourished with anunclean food. The Romans are eating one another.”(Arnaldi/Shugaar, 2005, p. 3-4)
  • Alaric’s Campaign Against Rome“My voice sticks in my throat; and, as Idictate, sobs choke my utterance. The Citywhich had taken the whole world was itselftaken.” Jerome, Letter CXXVII (To Principia)
  • Alaric’s Campaign Against Rome“Alarics capture of Rome was less significant for thecity, which soon recovered physically, than for theMediterranean civilization as a whole. Roman prestigedeclined among the barbarian tribes of the north, whobecame more confident of their strength. The fall of Romeindicated to many the end of law and order andsymbolized the decline of the western Roman Empire.Thereafter Romes prestige was to be based on the papacyrather than on the empire.” (Retrieved June 5, 2012 athttp://wizzley.com/alaric/)
  • Alaric had alliance with the Pope, and the papacy begins to arise as political broker & seizes opportunities to increase its influence“Alaric found the Popes alliance valuable — or atleast the daily assistance given to his generals by theChristian priests…” (Bigelow, 1918, p. 48)“In 407 Alaric entered Italy, surrounded Rome andprepared to attack. Romes Bishop enterednegotiations with Alaric and, after payingsubstantial tribute, bought him off for the timebeing.” (Hines, 2007, ¶20)
  • Alaric had alliance with the Pope, and the papacy begins to arise as political broker & seizes opportunities to increase its influence“The government at Ravenna began to preparefor war…Alaric, however, moderated his demandsand through the bishops of the Italian cities madea new offer for a formal alliance…WhenHonorarius , now committed toconfrontation, rejected this offer, Alaric marchedon Rome.” (Cameron & Garnsey, 1998, p. 126)
  • Alaric had alliance with the Pope, and the papacy begins to arise as political broker & seizes opportunities to increase its influence“…Alaric was a Christian and although his forces causedwidespread destruction throughout the city, he sparedChristian buildings and made an extra effort to attackpagan structures. When [Pope] Innocent returned toRome, he embarked upon extensive charity efforts -thus, although this seemed like the end of the world tothe people of Rome, it became a great opportunity forthe Church to expand its power and influence.”(Cline, 2009, ¶2)