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WNF zoonoses
WNF zoonoses
WNF zoonoses
WNF zoonoses
WNF zoonoses
WNF zoonoses
WNF zoonoses
WNF zoonoses
WNF zoonoses
WNF zoonoses
WNF zoonoses
WNF zoonoses
WNF zoonoses
WNF zoonoses
WNF zoonoses
WNF zoonoses
WNF zoonoses
WNF zoonoses
WNF zoonoses
WNF zoonoses
WNF zoonoses
WNF zoonoses
WNF zoonoses
WNF zoonoses
WNF zoonoses
WNF zoonoses
WNF zoonoses
WNF zoonoses
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WNF zoonoses

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5th year 2nd semester …

5th year 2nd semester
Zoonoses

Published in: Health & Medicine, Technology
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  • 1. Dr. Heba Ahmed Sunday, 17 th , April, 2011
  • 2.  
  • 3. Introduction <ul><li>WNV is a mosquito-borne flavivirus originally isolated from the blood of a febrile woman in the West Nile province in Uganda. </li></ul><ul><li>Neuro-invasiveness is a common feature of flavivirus infections </li></ul>
  • 4. Etiology <ul><li>The virus belongs to Family Flaviridae and genus Flavivirus </li></ul><ul><li>Single stranded positive sense RNA virus </li></ul><ul><li>Phylogenetic studies revealed the existence of two main lineages </li></ul><ul><li>1- Lineage I </li></ul><ul><li>2- Lineage II </li></ul>
  • 5. Animal Reservoir <ul><li>Avian species and wild birds </li></ul><ul><li>Reptiles </li></ul><ul><li>Equines </li></ul><ul><li>Other animals: bats, cats, dogs, camels, rabbits, squirrels and chipmunks </li></ul>
  • 6. Insect vector <ul><li>Mosquitoes: 43 species </li></ul><ul><li>Culex </li></ul><ul><li>Ticks </li></ul>
  • 7. Transmission in humans
  • 8. Transmission in humans <ul><li>Mosquito bites </li></ul><ul><li>Blood transfusion </li></ul><ul><li>Transplantation </li></ul><ul><li>Breast feeding </li></ul><ul><li>Intrauterine transmission </li></ul>
  • 9. Occurrence <ul><li>Before 1994 , outbreaks of West Nile fever were sporadic and occurred primarily in the Mediterranean region, Africa and east Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>Since 1994 , outbreaks have occurred with higher incidence of severe human disease </li></ul><ul><li>Since 1999 , the disease has spread rapidly to the western hemisphere, including USA, Canada, Mexico, Central and South America </li></ul>
  • 10. Occurrence <ul><li>In Egypt: </li></ul><ul><li>WNV was first recognized in Egypt in 1950s where a sero-survey revealed that 22% of children and 61% of adults had antibodies to WNV </li></ul><ul><li>In 1968 , a study in Alexandria showed that 14.6% of children admitted to a hospital with a febrile illness had WNV </li></ul><ul><li>In 1989 , a seroprevalence study in Nile Delta showed only 3% prevalence of WNV in school children </li></ul><ul><li>In 1999 , a study showed that WNV was widely distributed in Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>In 2010 , a study revealed that WNV was actively circulating in different areas in Egypt (humans, birds and mosquitoes) </li></ul>
  • 11. Clinical Picture In Humans <ul><li>Most individuals are asymptomatic </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms may develop in 20-40% of people with West Nile virus infection </li></ul><ul><li>Less than 1% of infected individuals develop severe neuroinvasive syndromes: </li></ul><ul><li>1- West Nile meningitis </li></ul><ul><li>2- West Nile encephalitis </li></ul><ul><li>3- Acute flaccid paralysis </li></ul>
  • 12. Prevention and Control <ul><li>1- Surveillance: </li></ul><ul><li>Importance </li></ul><ul><li>Methods </li></ul><ul><li>2- Vaccination: </li></ul><ul><li>A- An inactivated vaccine </li></ul><ul><li>B- Chimeric vaccines </li></ul><ul><li>C- Kunjin vaccine </li></ul><ul><li>3- Vector Control </li></ul>
  • 13. &nbsp;
  • 14. Introduction <ul><li>Toxoplasmosis is a protozoan disease of warm blooded animals including humans </li></ul><ul><li>Worldwide distributed </li></ul>
  • 15. Etiology <ul><li>Toxoplasma gondii </li></ul><ul><li>Obligate intracellular parasite </li></ul><ul><li>Toxo </li></ul><ul><li>Plasma </li></ul><ul><li>Different strains </li></ul>
  • 16. Etiology <ul><li>Toxoplasma gondii </li></ul><ul><li>Has three forms: </li></ul><ul><li>1- Oocyst </li></ul><ul><li>2- Tachyzoites </li></ul><ul><li>3- Tissue cyst </li></ul>
  • 17. Etiology <ul><li>1- Oocyst </li></ul>
  • 18. Etiology <ul><li>2- Tachyzoites </li></ul>
  • 19. Etiology <ul><li>3- Tissue cyst </li></ul>
  • 20. Reservoir <ul><li>1- Definitive host: Cats </li></ul><ul><li>2- Intermediate host: </li></ul><ul><li>Pigs </li></ul><ul><li>Sheep </li></ul><ul><li>Goats </li></ul><ul><li>Cattle </li></ul><ul><li>Poultry </li></ul><ul><li>Rodents </li></ul><ul><li>Humans </li></ul>
  • 21. Occurrence <ul><li>One-third of the world population is infected </li></ul><ul><li>What are the reasons of the high environmental contamination with the oocysts? </li></ul>
  • 22. Transmission cycle
  • 23. Clinical manifistaion <ul><li>1- Acute infection in immunocompetents </li></ul><ul><li>Mainly asymptomatic </li></ul><ul><li>Signs: </li></ul><ul><li>Localized or generalized lymphadenopathy </li></ul><ul><li>Low grade of fever </li></ul><ul><li>Lethargy </li></ul><ul><li>Headache </li></ul><ul><li>Most symptoms resolve in few weeks </li></ul>
  • 24. Clinical manifistaion <ul><li>2- Occular toxoplasmosis </li></ul><ul><li>Headlight in the fog appearance </li></ul><ul><li>Blurred vision </li></ul><ul><li>Photophobia </li></ul>
  • 25. Clinical manifistaion <ul><li>3- Infection of immunocompromised patients </li></ul><ul><li>Mainly due to recurrence of chronic infection </li></ul><ul><li>Signs: </li></ul><ul><li>CNS abnormalities </li></ul><ul><li>Chorioretinitis </li></ul><ul><li>Dyspenia </li></ul><ul><li>Diarrhea </li></ul>
  • 26. Clinical manifistaion <ul><li>4- Infection during pregnancy and congenital toxoplasmosis </li></ul><ul><li>In pregnancy </li></ul><ul><li>Congenital: </li></ul><ul><li>Manifested directly after birth or many years later </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrocephalus </li></ul><ul><li>Microcephalus </li></ul><ul><li>Chorioretinitis </li></ul><ul><li>Blindness </li></ul><ul><li>Epilepsy </li></ul><ul><li>Mental retardation </li></ul>
  • 27. Prevention and control <ul><li>1- Treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Combination of pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine and folinic acid for 4-6 weeks </li></ul><ul><li>Spiramycin </li></ul><ul><li>2- Vaccination </li></ul><ul><li>Animal vaccine: TOXOVAX ® </li></ul><ul><li>Vaccine candidates (SAG1 antigen) </li></ul><ul><li>3- Hygienic measures </li></ul>
  • 28. &nbsp;

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