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Epilepsy presentation
Epilepsy presentation
Epilepsy presentation
Epilepsy presentation
Epilepsy presentation
Epilepsy presentation
Epilepsy presentation
Epilepsy presentation
Epilepsy presentation
Epilepsy presentation
Epilepsy presentation
Epilepsy presentation
Epilepsy presentation
Epilepsy presentation
Epilepsy presentation
Epilepsy presentation
Epilepsy presentation
Epilepsy presentation
Epilepsy presentation
Epilepsy presentation
Epilepsy presentation
Epilepsy presentation
Epilepsy presentation
Epilepsy presentation
Epilepsy presentation
Epilepsy presentation
Epilepsy presentation
Epilepsy presentation
Epilepsy presentation
Epilepsy presentation
Epilepsy presentation
Epilepsy presentation
Epilepsy presentation
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Epilepsy presentation

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Myeshi Briley I

Myeshi Briley I

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  • 1. Epilepsy &amp; Seizures101<br />Presentation by: Myeshi Briley <br /> Education Presenter for Epilepsy Foundation<br />(2010)<br />
  • 2. What Is the Difference Between Epilepsy &amp; Seizures?<br /><ul><li>Epilepsy is a disorder characterized by recurring seizures (also known as “seizure disorder”)
  • 3. A seizure is a brief, temporary disturbance in the electrical activity of the brain</li></ul>A seizure is a symptom of epilepsy<br />
  • 4. Who Has Epilepsy?<br />About 3 million Americans have epilepsy<br />Roughly 200,000 new cases of seizures and epilepsy occur each year<br />50% of people with epilepsy develop seizures by the age of 25; however, anyone can get epilepsy at any time<br />Now there are as many people with epilepsy who are 60 or older as children aged 10 or younger<br />
  • 5. What Causes Epilepsy?<br />In about 70% of people with epilepsy, the cause is not known<br />In the remaining 30%, the most common causes are:<br /><ul><li> Head trauma
  • 6. Brain tumor and stroke
  • 7. Lead poisoning
  • 8. Infection of brain tissue
  • 9. Heredity
  • 10. Prenatal disturbance of brain development</li></li></ul><li>Groups at Increased Risk for Epilepsy<br /><ul><li>About 1% of the general population develops epilepsy
  • 11. The risk is higher in people with certain medical conditions:
  • 12. Mental retardation
  • 13. Cerebral palsy
  • 14. Alzheimer’s disease
  • 15. Stroke
  • 16. Autism</li></li></ul><li>The Brain Is the Source of Epilepsy<br />All brain functions -- including feeling, seeing, thinking, and moving muscles -- depend on electrical signals passed between nerve cells in the brain<br />A seizure occurs when too many nerve cells in the brain “fire” too quickly causing an “electrical storm” <br />
  • 17. What Happens During a Seizure<br />Generalized seizureInvolves the whole brain and loss of consciousness<br />Absence: characterized by brief loss of consciousness<br />Tonic-Clonic: characterized by rhythmic jerking of muscles<br />Partial seizureInvolves only part of the brain; may or may not include loss of consciousness<br />Symptoms relate to the part of the brain affected<br />
  • 18. Symptoms That May Indicate a Seizure Disorder<br />Periods of blackout or confused memory<br />Occasional “fainting spells”<br />Episodes of blank staring in children<br />Sudden falls for no apparent reason<br />Episodes of blinking or chewing at inappropriate times<br />A convulsion, with or without fever<br />Clusters of swift jerking movements in babies<br />
  • 19. Seizure Triggers<br />Missed medication (#1 reason)<br />Stress/anxiety<br />Hormonal changes<br />Dehydration<br />Lack of sleep/extreme fatigue<br />Photosensitivity<br />Drug/alcohol use; drug interactions<br />
  • 20. First Aid for Seizures<br />Stay calm and track time<br />Do not restrain the person, but help them avoid hazards<br />Protect head, remove glasses, loosen tight neckwear<br />Move anything hard or sharp out of the way<br />Turn person on one side, position mouth to ground<br />Check for epilepsy or seizure disorder ID<br />Understand that verbal instructions may not be obeyed<br />Stay until person is fully aware and help reorient them<br />Call ambulance if seizure lasts more than 5 minutes or if it is unknown whether the person has had prior seizures<br />
  • 21. Potentially Dangerous Responses to Seizure<br />DO NOT<br />Put anything in the person’s mouth<br />Try to hold down or restrain the person<br />Attempt to give oral anti-seizure medication<br />Keep the person on their back face up throughout convulsion<br />
  • 22. When to Call 911 or Emergency Medical Services<br />A convulsive seizure occurs in a person not known to have seizures or lasts more than 5 minutes<br />A complex partial seizure lasts more than 5 minutes BEYOND its usual duration for the individual<br />Another seizure begins before the person regains consciousness<br />Also call if the person:<br />Is injured or pregnant <br />Has diabetes/other medical condition <br />Recovers slowly<br />Does not resume normal breathing<br />
  • 23. How Is Epilepsy Diagnosed?<br />Clinical Assessment<br />Patient history<br />Tests (blood, EEG, CT, MRI or PET scans)<br />Neurologic exam<br />ID of seizure type<br />Clinical evaluation<br /> to look for causes<br />
  • 24. Treatment Goals in Epilepsy<br />Help person with epilepsy lead full and productive life<br />Eliminate seizures without producing side effects<br />
  • 25. What Factors InfluenceDecision to Treat?<br />Treatment may be appropriate:<br />Abnormal EEG<br />Previous seizure<br />Partial seizure<br />Driver<br />Other neurologic impairment<br />Elderly<br />Treatment may NOT be appropriate: <br />Single seizure<br />No history<br />Neurologically normal<br />Young age<br />Side effects<br />
  • 26. Types of Treatment<br /><ul><li>Medication
  • 27. Surgery
  • 28. Non-pharmacologic treatment
  • 29. Ketogenic diet
  • 30. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS)
  • 31. Lifestyle modifications</li></li></ul><li>Factors That Affect theChoice of Drug<br /><ul><li>Seizure type/ Epilepsy syndrome
  • 32. Side effects
  • 33. Patient age
  • 34. Lifestyle
  • 35. Childbearing potential
  • 36. Other medications</li></li></ul><li>Factors That Influence Response to Medication<br /><ul><li>Consistent use
  • 37. Inadequate dosage or ineffective medication
  • 38. Drug factors
  • 39. Disease</li></ul>Seizures do not<br />respond (20%)<br />Seizures eliminated<br />(50% of people)<br />Seizures markedly<br />reduced (30%)<br />
  • 40. Tolerating Medications<br />Most Common Side Effects<br /><ul><li>Rash
  • 41. Clumsiness
  • 42. Drowsiness
  • 43. Irritability
  • 44. Nausea
  • 45. Side effects may be related to dose
  • 46. Care must be taken in discontinuing drug due to risk of seizure recurrence</li></ul>Warning Signs of Possible <br />Serious Side Effects<br /><ul><li>Prolonged fever
  • 47. Rash, nausea/vomiting
  • 48. Severe sore throat
  • 49. Mouth ulcers
  • 50. Easy bruising
  • 51. Pinpoint bleeding
  • 52. Weakness
  • 53. Fatigue
  • 54. Swollen glands
  • 55. Lack of appetite
  • 56. Abdominal pain</li></li></ul><li>Surgery<br />Factors influencing decision<br /><ul><li>Likelihood seizures are due to epilepsy
  • 57. Likelihood surgery will help
  • 58. Ability to identify focus of seizures
  • 59. Other treatments attempted
  • 60. Benefits vs. Risks</li></li></ul><li>Vagus Nerve Stimulation<br /><ul><li>Device is implanted to control seizures by delivering electrical stimulation to the vagus nerve in the neck, which relays impulses to widespread areas of the brain
  • 61. Used to treat partial seizures when medication does not work </li></ul> Courtesy of Cyberonics 2007<br />
  • 62. Ketogenic Diet<br /><ul><li>Based on finding that starvation -- which burns fat for energy -- has an antiepileptic effect
  • 63. Used primarily to treat severe childhood epilepsy, has been effective in some adults &amp; adolescents
  • 64. High fat, low carbohydrate </li></ul> and protein intake<br /><ul><li>Usually started in hospital
  • 65. Requires strong family commitment</li></li></ul><li>Epilepsy in Women<br /><ul><li>Hormonal effects
  • 66. Hormonal changes during puberty, menopause, and the monthly cycle may affect seizure frequency
  • 67. Polycystic ovary syndrome
  • 68. Sexuality &amp; contraception
  • 69. Sexual dysfunction
  • 70. Birth control pills may be less effective
  • 71. Pregnancy &amp; motherhood
  • 72. Need to continue medication
  • 73. Slight increased risk for birth defects</li></li></ul><li>Epilepsy in Older Adults<br /><ul><li>Epilepsy is common in the elderly, and is often unrecognized or misdiagnosed
  • 74. Older people face increased treatment risks
  • 75. Maintaining independence is a challenge after the diagnosis of epilepsy</li></li></ul><li>Groups at Increased Risk for Epilepsy<br /><ul><li>About 1% of the general population develops epilepsy
  • 76. The risk is higher in people with certain medical conditions:
  • 77. Mental retardation
  • 78. Cerebral palsy
  • 79. Alzheimer’s disease
  • 80. Stroke
  • 81. Autism</li></li></ul><li>Classifying Epilepsy and Seizures<br /><ul><li>Classifying epilepsy involves more than just </li></ul> seizure type<br /><ul><li> Seizure types:</li></ul>Partial Generalized<br />Simple Complex Absence Convulsive<br />Consciousness<br />is maintained<br />Consciousness<br />is lost or impaired<br />Altered awareness<br />Characterized by<br />muscle contractions<br />with or without loss<br />of consciousness<br />
  • 82. Tools to Confirm the Diagnosis of Epilepsy<br /><ul><li>EEG
  • 83. Imaging Scans</li></li></ul><li>Epilepsy in Infants &amp; Young Children<br /><ul><li>Balancing normal development and the special concerns of epilepsy
  • 84. Good parenting skills
  • 85. Childcare
  • 86. Effects on brothers and sisters
  • 87. Early childhood intervention </li></ul> services<br />
  • 88. Epilepsy in Children Aged 6-12<br /><ul><li>Handling feelings
  • 89. Family relationships
  • 90. Safety
  • 91. School and childcare
  • 92. Developmental stages</li></li></ul><li>Epilepsy in Teens &amp; Young Adults<br /><ul><li>Assuming responsibility
  • 93. Dealing with feelings
  • 94. Friends and social pressures
  • 95. School
  • 96. Driving
  • 97. Drinking
  • 98. Dating
  • 99. Employment</li></li></ul><li>Other Treatment Approaches<br /><ul><li>Behavioral therapy
  • 100. Biofeedback
  • 101. Relaxation
  • 102. Positive reinforcement
  • 103. Cognitive therapy
  • 104. Aromatherapy</li></li></ul><li>National and Community Resources<br /><ul><li>The Epilepsy Foundation
  • 105. Local affiliates
  • 106. Website: www.epilepsyfoundation.org
  • 107. Medic Alert Foundation
  • 108. Social Security Administration
  • 109. Accreditation Council on Services for People with Disabilities
  • 110. US Dept of Education
  • 111. State Offices
  • 112. Vocational Rehabilitation
  • 113. Protection and Advocacy
  • 114. Division of Developmental Disabilities</li></li></ul><li>Thank You,Myeshi Briley Personal Note: <br />I would like to thank you for your time and support in reading the information to learn more about epilepsy. Please share the information with others. I support a variety of charitable organizations through the world. My passion is research that would one day find a cure for epilepsy. I am also an advocate for helping children/ adults with life skills once diagnosed with epilepsy. <br />

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