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Epilepsy presentation


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Myeshi Briley I

Myeshi Briley I

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  • 1. Epilepsy & Seizures101
    Presentation by: Myeshi Briley
    Education Presenter for Epilepsy Foundation
  • 2. What Is the Difference Between Epilepsy & Seizures?
    • Epilepsy is a disorder characterized by recurring seizures (also known as “seizure disorder”)
    • 3. A seizure is a brief, temporary disturbance in the electrical activity of the brain
    A seizure is a symptom of epilepsy
  • 4. Who Has Epilepsy?
    About 3 million Americans have epilepsy
    Roughly 200,000 new cases of seizures and epilepsy occur each year
    50% of people with epilepsy develop seizures by the age of 25; however, anyone can get epilepsy at any time
    Now there are as many people with epilepsy who are 60 or older as children aged 10 or younger
  • 5. What Causes Epilepsy?
    In about 70% of people with epilepsy, the cause is not known
    In the remaining 30%, the most common causes are:
    • Head trauma
    • 6. Brain tumor and stroke
    • 7. Lead poisoning
    • 8. Infection of brain tissue
    • 9. Heredity
    • 10. Prenatal disturbance of brain development
  • Groups at Increased Risk for Epilepsy
    • About 1% of the general population develops epilepsy
    • 11. The risk is higher in people with certain medical conditions:
    • 12. Mental retardation
    • 13. Cerebral palsy
    • 14. Alzheimer’s disease
    • 15. Stroke
    • 16. Autism
  • The Brain Is the Source of Epilepsy
    All brain functions -- including feeling, seeing, thinking, and moving muscles -- depend on electrical signals passed between nerve cells in the brain
    A seizure occurs when too many nerve cells in the brain “fire” too quickly causing an “electrical storm”
  • 17. What Happens During a Seizure
    Generalized seizureInvolves the whole brain and loss of consciousness
    Absence: characterized by brief loss of consciousness
    Tonic-Clonic: characterized by rhythmic jerking of muscles
    Partial seizureInvolves only part of the brain; may or may not include loss of consciousness
    Symptoms relate to the part of the brain affected
  • 18. Symptoms That May Indicate a Seizure Disorder
    Periods of blackout or confused memory
    Occasional “fainting spells”
    Episodes of blank staring in children
    Sudden falls for no apparent reason
    Episodes of blinking or chewing at inappropriate times
    A convulsion, with or without fever
    Clusters of swift jerking movements in babies
  • 19. Seizure Triggers
    Missed medication (#1 reason)
    Hormonal changes
    Lack of sleep/extreme fatigue
    Drug/alcohol use; drug interactions
  • 20. First Aid for Seizures
    Stay calm and track time
    Do not restrain the person, but help them avoid hazards
    Protect head, remove glasses, loosen tight neckwear
    Move anything hard or sharp out of the way
    Turn person on one side, position mouth to ground
    Check for epilepsy or seizure disorder ID
    Understand that verbal instructions may not be obeyed
    Stay until person is fully aware and help reorient them
    Call ambulance if seizure lasts more than 5 minutes or if it is unknown whether the person has had prior seizures
  • 21. Potentially Dangerous Responses to Seizure
    DO NOT
    Put anything in the person’s mouth
    Try to hold down or restrain the person
    Attempt to give oral anti-seizure medication
    Keep the person on their back face up throughout convulsion
  • 22. When to Call 911 or Emergency Medical Services
    A convulsive seizure occurs in a person not known to have seizures or lasts more than 5 minutes
    A complex partial seizure lasts more than 5 minutes BEYOND its usual duration for the individual
    Another seizure begins before the person regains consciousness
    Also call if the person:
    Is injured or pregnant
    Has diabetes/other medical condition
    Recovers slowly
    Does not resume normal breathing
  • 23. How Is Epilepsy Diagnosed?
    Clinical Assessment
    Patient history
    Tests (blood, EEG, CT, MRI or PET scans)
    Neurologic exam
    ID of seizure type
    Clinical evaluation
    to look for causes
  • 24. Treatment Goals in Epilepsy
    Help person with epilepsy lead full and productive life
    Eliminate seizures without producing side effects
  • 25. What Factors InfluenceDecision to Treat?
    Treatment may be appropriate:
    Abnormal EEG
    Previous seizure
    Partial seizure
    Other neurologic impairment
    Treatment may NOT be appropriate:
    Single seizure
    No history
    Neurologically normal
    Young age
    Side effects
  • 26. Types of Treatment
    • Medication
    • 27. Surgery
    • 28. Non-pharmacologic treatment
    • 29. Ketogenic diet
    • 30. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS)
    • 31. Lifestyle modifications
  • Factors That Affect theChoice of Drug
    • Seizure type/ Epilepsy syndrome
    • 32. Side effects
    • 33. Patient age
    • 34. Lifestyle
    • 35. Childbearing potential
    • 36. Other medications
  • Factors That Influence Response to Medication
    • Consistent use
    • 37. Inadequate dosage or ineffective medication
    • 38. Drug factors
    • 39. Disease
    Seizures do not
    respond (20%)
    Seizures eliminated
    (50% of people)
    Seizures markedly
    reduced (30%)
  • 40. Tolerating Medications
    Most Common Side Effects
    • Rash
    • 41. Clumsiness
    • 42. Drowsiness
    • 43. Irritability
    • 44. Nausea
    • 45. Side effects may be related to dose
    • 46. Care must be taken in discontinuing drug due to risk of seizure recurrence
    Warning Signs of Possible
    Serious Side Effects
  • Surgery
    Factors influencing decision
    • Likelihood seizures are due to epilepsy
    • 57. Likelihood surgery will help
    • 58. Ability to identify focus of seizures
    • 59. Other treatments attempted
    • 60. Benefits vs. Risks
  • Vagus Nerve Stimulation
    • Device is implanted to control seizures by delivering electrical stimulation to the vagus nerve in the neck, which relays impulses to widespread areas of the brain
    • 61. Used to treat partial seizures when medication does not work
     Courtesy of Cyberonics 2007
  • 62. Ketogenic Diet
    • Based on finding that starvation -- which burns fat for energy -- has an antiepileptic effect
    • 63. Used primarily to treat severe childhood epilepsy, has been effective in some adults & adolescents
    • 64. High fat, low carbohydrate
    and protein intake
    • Usually started in hospital
    • 65. Requires strong family commitment
  • Epilepsy in Women
    • Hormonal effects
    • 66. Hormonal changes during puberty, menopause, and the monthly cycle may affect seizure frequency
    • 67. Polycystic ovary syndrome
    • 68. Sexuality & contraception
    • 69. Sexual dysfunction
    • 70. Birth control pills may be less effective
    • 71. Pregnancy & motherhood
    • 72. Need to continue medication
    • 73. Slight increased risk for birth defects
  • Epilepsy in Older Adults
    • Epilepsy is common in the elderly, and is often unrecognized or misdiagnosed
    • 74. Older people face increased treatment risks
    • 75. Maintaining independence is a challenge after the diagnosis of epilepsy
  • Groups at Increased Risk for Epilepsy
    • About 1% of the general population develops epilepsy
    • 76. The risk is higher in people with certain medical conditions:
    • 77. Mental retardation
    • 78. Cerebral palsy
    • 79. Alzheimer’s disease
    • 80. Stroke
    • 81. Autism
  • Classifying Epilepsy and Seizures
    • Classifying epilepsy involves more than just
    seizure type
    • Seizure types:
    Partial Generalized
    Simple Complex Absence Convulsive
    is maintained
    is lost or impaired
    Altered awareness
    Characterized by
    muscle contractions
    with or without loss
    of consciousness
  • 82. Tools to Confirm the Diagnosis of Epilepsy
  • Epilepsy in Infants & Young Children
    • Balancing normal development and the special concerns of epilepsy
    • 84. Good parenting skills
    • 85. Childcare
    • 86. Effects on brothers and sisters
    • 87. Early childhood intervention
  • 88. Epilepsy in Children Aged 6-12
    • Handling feelings
    • 89. Family relationships
    • 90. Safety
    • 91. School and childcare
    • 92. Developmental stages
  • Epilepsy in Teens & Young Adults
  • Other Treatment Approaches
  • National and Community Resources
    • The Epilepsy Foundation
    • 105. Local affiliates
    • 106. Website:
    • 107. Medic Alert Foundation
    • 108. Social Security Administration
    • 109. Accreditation Council on Services for People with Disabilities
    • 110. US Dept of Education
    • 111. State Offices
    • 112. Vocational Rehabilitation
    • 113. Protection and Advocacy
    • 114. Division of Developmental Disabilities
  • Thank You,Myeshi Briley Personal Note:
    I would like to thank you for your time and support in reading the information to learn more about epilepsy. Please share the information with others. I support a variety of charitable organizations through the world. My passion is research that would one day find a cure for epilepsy. I am also an advocate for helping children/ adults with life skills once diagnosed with epilepsy.