Epilepsy In The African American Community


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Epilepsy In The African American Community

  1. 1. Epilepsy & Seizures In The African American Community Presented By: Myeshi Briley 2010
  2. 2. What Is the Difference Between Epilepsy & Seizures? <ul><li>Epilepsy is a disorder characterized by recurring seizures (also known as “seizure disorder”) </li></ul><ul><li>A seizure is a brief, temporary disturbance </li></ul><ul><li>A seizure is a symptom of epilepsy </li></ul><ul><li>in the electrical activity of the brain </li></ul>
  3. 3. Who Has Epilepsy? <ul><li>About 2.3 million Americans have epilepsy </li></ul><ul><li>KNOW THE FACTS </li></ul><ul><li>Facts: For African Americans </li></ul><ul><li>An estimated 350,000 African Americans have epilepsy, and nearly 24,000 new cases are diagnosed each year. </li></ul><ul><li>African Americans are more likely to be diagnosed with epilepsy than Caucasians; they more often experience status continues for 10 minutes or more without stopping; and they are an increased risk for Sudden Unexpected Death from Epilepsy (SUDEP ). </li></ul>
  4. 4. The African Americans Outreach Program at the Epilepsy Foundation focuses on: <ul><li>Educating family and caregivers on seizure recognition and treatment options. </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing the awareness of the prevalence of epilepsy in the African American community. </li></ul>
  5. 5. What Causes Epilepsy? <ul><li>In about 70% of people with epilepsy, the cause is not known </li></ul><ul><li>In the remaining 30%, the most common causes are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Head trauma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infection of brain tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brain tumor and stroke </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Heredity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lead poisoning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Prenatal disturbance of brain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>development </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. The Brain <ul><li>All brain functions -- including feeling, seeing, thinking, and moving muscles -- depend on electrical signals passed between nerve cells in the brain </li></ul><ul><li>A seizure occurs when too many nerve cells in the brain “fire” too quickly causing an “electrical storm” </li></ul>
  7. 7. What Happens During a Seizure? <ul><li>Generalized seizure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involve the whole brain and loss of consciousness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Absence: characterized by brief loss of consciousness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tonic-clonic: characterized by rhythmic jerking of muscles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Partial seizure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involve only part of the brain; may or may not include loss of consciousness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Symptoms relate to the part of the brain affected </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Symptoms That May Indicate a Seizure Disorder <ul><li>Periods of blackout or confused memory </li></ul><ul><li>Occasional “fainting spells” </li></ul><ul><li>Episodes of blank staring in children </li></ul><ul><li>Sudden falls for no apparent reason </li></ul><ul><li>Episodes of blinking or chewing at inappropriate times </li></ul><ul><li>A convulsion, with or without fever </li></ul><ul><li>Clusters of swift jerking movements in babies </li></ul>
  9. 9. Seizure Triggers <ul><li>Missed medication (#1 reason) </li></ul><ul><li>Stress/anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>Hormonal changes </li></ul><ul><li>Dehydration </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of sleep/extreme fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Photosensitivity </li></ul><ul><li>Drug/alcohol use; drug interactions </li></ul>
  10. 10. First Aid for Seizures <ul><li>Stay calm and track time </li></ul><ul><li>Do not restrain person, but help them avoid hazards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect head, remove glasses, loosen tight neckwear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Move anything hard or sharp out of the way </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turn person on one side, position mouth to ground </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Check for epilepsy or seizure disorder ID </li></ul><ul><li>Understand that verbal instructions may not be obeyed </li></ul><ul><li>Stay until person is fully aware and help reorient them </li></ul><ul><li>Call ambulance if seizure lasts more than 5 minutes or if it is unknown whether the person has had prior seizures </li></ul>
  11. 11. Potentially Dangerous Responses to Seizure <ul><li>DO NOT </li></ul><ul><li>Put anything in the person’s mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Try to hold down or restrain the person </li></ul><ul><li>Attempt to give oral antiseizure medication </li></ul><ul><li>Keep the person on their back face up throughout convulsion </li></ul><ul><li>Myth: Epilepsy is contagious. </li></ul><ul><li>Fact: You cannot catch epilepsy from or give it to someone else. </li></ul>
  12. 12. When to Call 911 or Emergency Medical Services <ul><li>A convulsive seizure occurs in a person not known to have seizures or lasts more than 5 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>A complex partial seizure lasts more than 5 minutes BEYOND its usual duration for the individual </li></ul><ul><li>Another seizure begins before the person regains consciousness </li></ul><ul><li>Also call if the person: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is injured or pregnant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has diabetes/other medical condition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recovers slowly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not resume normal breathing </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. How Is Epilepsy Diagnosed? <ul><li>Clinical Assessment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Patient history </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tests (blood, EEG, CT, MRI or PET scans) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neurologic exam </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ID of seizure type </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>to look for causes </li></ul>
  14. 14. What to Tell Your Doctor About Your Seizures? <ul><li>Symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Seizure patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-seizure activity (if any) </li></ul><ul><li>Consider keeping a seizure record </li></ul>
  15. 15. Treatment Goals in Epilepsy <ul><li>Help person with epilepsy lead full and productive life </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate seizures without producing side effects </li></ul>
  16. 16. Types of Treatment <ul><li>Medication </li></ul><ul><li>Surgery </li></ul><ul><li>Nonpharmacologic treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ketogenic diet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vagus nerve stimulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lifestyle modifications </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Factors That Affect the Choice of Drug <ul><li>Seizure type/ </li></ul><ul><li>Epilepsy syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Side effects </li></ul><ul><li>Patient age </li></ul><ul><li>Lifestyle </li></ul><ul><li>Childbearing potential </li></ul><ul><li>Other medications </li></ul>
  18. 18. Factors That Influence Response to Medication <ul><li>Consistent use </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate dosage or ineffective medication </li></ul><ul><li>Drug factors </li></ul><ul><li>Disease </li></ul>Seizures eliminated (50% of people) Seizures markedly reduced (30%) Seizures do not respond (20%)
  19. 19. Tolerating Medications <ul><li>Most Common Side Effects </li></ul><ul><li>Rash </li></ul><ul><li>Clumsiness </li></ul><ul><li>Drowsiness </li></ul><ul><li>Irritability </li></ul><ul><li>Nausea </li></ul><ul><li>Side effects may be related to dose </li></ul><ul><li>Care must be taken in discontinuing drug due to risk of seizure recurrence </li></ul><ul><li>Warning Signs of Possible </li></ul><ul><li>Serious Side Effects </li></ul><ul><li>Prolonged fever </li></ul><ul><li>Rash, nausea/vomiting </li></ul><ul><li>Severe sore throat </li></ul><ul><li>Mouth ulcers </li></ul><ul><li>Easy bruising </li></ul><ul><li>Pinpoint bleeding </li></ul><ul><li>Weakness </li></ul><ul><li>Fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Swollen glands </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of appetite </li></ul><ul><li>Abdominal pain </li></ul>
  20. 20. Surgery <ul><li>Factors influencing decision </li></ul><ul><li>Likelihood seizures are due to epilepsy </li></ul><ul><li>Likelihood surgery will help </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to identify focus of seizures </li></ul><ul><li>Other treatments attempted </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits vs risks </li></ul>
  21. 21. Vagus Nerve Stimulation <ul><li>Device is implanted to control seizures by delivering electrical stimulation to the vagus nerve in the neck, which relays impulses to widespread areas of the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Used to treat partial seizures when medication does not work </li></ul>
  22. 22. Epilepsy in Women <ul><li>Hormonal effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hormonal changes during puberty, menopause, and the monthly cycle may affect seizure frequency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polycystic ovary syndrome </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sexuality & contraception </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual dysfunction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Birth control pills may be less effective </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pregnancy & motherhood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to continue medication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slight increased risk for birth defects </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Epilepsy in Older Adults <ul><li>Epilepsy is common in the elderly, and is often unrecognized or misdiagnosed </li></ul><ul><li>Older people face increased treatment risks </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining independence is a challenge after the diagnosis of epilepsy </li></ul>
  24. 24. Ketogenic Diet <ul><li>Based on finding that starvation -- which burns fat for energy -- has an antiepileptic effect </li></ul><ul><li>Used primarily to treat severe childhood epilepsy, has been effective in some adults & adolescents </li></ul><ul><li>High fat, low carbohydrate </li></ul><ul><li>and protein intake </li></ul><ul><li>Usually started in hospital </li></ul><ul><li>Requires strong family commitment </li></ul>
  25. 25. National and Community Resources <ul><li>The Epilepsy Foundation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Local affiliates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Website: www.epilepsyfoundation.org </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MedicAlert Foundation </li></ul><ul><li>Social Security Administration </li></ul><ul><li>Accreditation Council on Services for People with Disabilities </li></ul><ul><li>US Dept of Education </li></ul><ul><li>State Offices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vocational Rehabilitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection and Advocacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Division of Developmental Disabilities </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Name: Myeshi Briley <ul><li>You can follow me on Facebook for up coming events. </li></ul><ul><li>1-800-332-1000 </li></ul><ul><li>www.epilepsyfoundation.org </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>
  27. 27. Additional Epilepsy Support <ul><li>Epilepsy Foundation of Southeast Texas </li></ul><ul><li>2650 Fountain View Suite 316 </li></ul><ul><li>Houston, TX 77057 </li></ul><ul><li>713-789-6295 </li></ul><ul><li>Dallas Epilepsy Association </li></ul><ul><li>2906 Swiss Avenue </li></ul><ul><li>Dallas, TX 75204 </li></ul><ul><li>214-823-8809 </li></ul>
  28. 28. Any Questions
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