EADACHE
eadache <ul><li>-> Cephalgia  ; one of the most common human complaints. Headache is a symptom rather than a disease. </li...
Subtypes of Primary Headache <ul><li>MIGRAINE  is a complex symptom characterized by periodic and recurrent attacks of sev...
Classifications <ul><li>Tension headache   </li></ul><ul><li>Migraine   </li></ul><ul><li>Idiopathic intracranial hyperten...
Where does the pain exist?
Assessment <ul><li>Detailed history, physical assessment of head and neck. </li></ul><ul><li>Medication history </li></ul>...
Diagnostic Exams <ul><li>CT scan ( Computerized Tomography Scanning ) </li></ul><ul><li>Cerebral Angiography </li></ul><ul...
Causes <ul><li>Organic Factors such as brain tumors or aneurysm </li></ul><ul><li>Fluid and Electrolyte Imbalance (Dehydra...
Pathophysiology
Clinical Manifestations <ul><li>MIGRAINE  – chronic or periodic headache </li></ul><ul><li>Phases:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Clinical Manifestations: <ul><li>TENSION HEADACHE  - Steady feeling of pressure begins on the forehead, temple and back of...
Pharmacology <ul><li>Preventive Medications:   </li></ul><ul><li>Beta Blocking Agents:  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prop...
Pharmacology <ul><li>Abortive Medications: </li></ul><ul><li>-> TRIPTANS </li></ul><ul><li>Sumatriptan ( Imitrex ) </li></...
NURSING MANAGEMENT <ul><li>The goal is to lessen or relieve pain. </li></ul><ul><li>Administer abortive medications if nee...
The End
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Headache

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Headache

  1. 1. EADACHE
  2. 2. eadache <ul><li>-> Cephalgia ; one of the most common human complaints. Headache is a symptom rather than a disease. </li></ul><ul><li>-> It is a condition of pain in the head ; sometimes neck or upper back pain may also be interpreted as a headache. It ranks amongst the most common local pain complaints. </li></ul><ul><li>-> Headache is defined as pain in the head that is located above the eyes or the ears, behind the head (occipital), or in the back of the upper neck. Headache, like chest pain or dizziness , has many causes. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Subtypes of Primary Headache <ul><li>MIGRAINE is a complex symptom characterized by periodic and recurrent attacks of severe headache. It is primarily a vascular disturbance most common in women. </li></ul><ul><li>TENSION HEADACHE tend to be more chronic than severe are probably the most common type. </li></ul><ul><li>CLUSTER HEADACHE are severe form of vascular headaches. They are seen five times more frequently in men. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Classifications <ul><li>Tension headache </li></ul><ul><li>Migraine </li></ul><ul><li>Idiopathic intracranial hypertension intracranial pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Ictal headache </li></ul><ul><li>&quot; Brain freeze &quot; Thunderclap headache </li></ul><ul><li>Coital cephalgia Hemicrania continua </li></ul><ul><li>Rebound headache </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Spinal headache&quot; lumbar puncture </li></ul><ul><li>Hangover </li></ul><ul><li>Vascular headache </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic headache </li></ul>
  5. 5. Where does the pain exist?
  6. 6. Assessment <ul><li>Detailed history, physical assessment of head and neck. </li></ul><ul><li>Medication history </li></ul><ul><li>Stress assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic substance exposure. </li></ul><ul><li>Complete description of headache itself is crucial; frequency, location, duration, type of pain and alleviating factors are obtained </li></ul>
  7. 7. Diagnostic Exams <ul><li>CT scan ( Computerized Tomography Scanning ) </li></ul><ul><li>Cerebral Angiography </li></ul><ul><li>MRI ( Magnetic Resonance Imaging ) </li></ul><ul><li>EMG (Electromyography ) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Causes <ul><li>Organic Factors such as brain tumors or aneurysm </li></ul><ul><li>Fluid and Electrolyte Imbalance (Dehydration, FVE) </li></ul><ul><li>Medications overuse (NSAIDS, Anti-Hypertensive, Diuretics, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional and Physical stress </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic Substance Exposure </li></ul>
  9. 9. Pathophysiology
  10. 10. Clinical Manifestations <ul><li>MIGRAINE – chronic or periodic headache </li></ul><ul><li>Phases: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prodrome – experienced by 60% of patients. Manifested by depression, irritability, feeling cold, food cravings, anorexia, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aura – experienced by 31% of patients. Manifested by visual disturbances ( bright lights or flashes ) tingling sensation in the lips and face. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Headache – Vasodilatation and decline of serum Serotonin. Manifested by photophobia, nausea and vomiting. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recovery Termination and postdrome - Pain gradually subsides. Manifested by localized pain, tenderness and exhaustion. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Clinical Manifestations: <ul><li>TENSION HEADACHE - Steady feeling of pressure begins on the forehead, temple and back of neck. </li></ul><ul><li>CLUSTER HEADACHE – Excruciating pain localized to the eye and the orbit radiating to facial and temporal regions </li></ul>
  12. 12. Pharmacology <ul><li>Preventive Medications: </li></ul><ul><li>Beta Blocking Agents: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proparanolol ( Inderal ) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Metoprolol ( Lopressor ) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Amitryptiline HCL ( Elavil ) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Divalproex ( Valproate ) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flunarizine </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Pharmacology <ul><li>Abortive Medications: </li></ul><ul><li>-> TRIPTANS </li></ul><ul><li>Sumatriptan ( Imitrex ) </li></ul><ul><li>Naratriptan ( Amerge ) </li></ul><ul><li>Rizatriptan ( Maxalt ) </li></ul><ul><li>Zolmitriptan ( Zolmig ) </li></ul><ul><li>Almotriptan </li></ul><ul><li>-> ERGOTAMINE TARTATE – acts on smooth muscle, causing prolonged vasoconstriction of cranial vessels. Can be given orally, sublingually, subcutaneously, intramuscular, rectal or by inhalation </li></ul><ul><li>-> OXYGEN – Administer 100% by face mask in 15 seconds. </li></ul>
  14. 14. NURSING MANAGEMENT <ul><li>The goal is to lessen or relieve pain. </li></ul><ul><li>Administer abortive medications if needed, as soon as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide dark, quiet and peaceful environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Elevate head of the patient by 30º </li></ul><ul><li>May allow cold or hot compress on the forehead. </li></ul><ul><li>May decrease pain by introduction of pressure or massage. </li></ul>
  15. 15. The End
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