Non-­‐Cogni(ve  Factors  in  
College  Admission
BILL  DINGLEDINE,  MS,  CEP,  INDEPENDENT  COUNSELOR,  GREENVILLE,  SC
BL...
Non-­‐Cogni(ve  Assessments
	
   History	
  
	
   Robert	
  Sternberg	
  at	
  Yale	
  funded	
  by	
  College	
  Board	
 ...
Non-­‐Cogni(ve  Factors
	
   Based	
  on	
  research	
  of	
  Sedlacek	
  at	
  U	
  of	
  MD,	
  Oregon	
  State,	
  and	...
Non-­‐cogni(ve  variables
Blake	
  Vawter,	
  Associate	
  Director	
  of	
  Admissions	
  
Overview  of  Oregon  State  University
•  27,000	
  students	
  
•  Oregon’s	
  Premier	
  Research	
  University	
  
•  ...
Why  did  Oregon  State  look  into  non-­‐cogni(ve  
variables?
•  In	
  2000-­‐01,	
  enrollment	
  was	
  increasing	
 ...
•  Enrollment	
  growth	
  à	
  selec<ve	
  admissions	
  
•  Affirma<ve	
  ac<on	
  challenges	
  
•  Limita<ons	
  of	
  ...
 AfAm 	
  APA 	
  Hisp 	
  NatAm 	
  Cauc 	
  Total	
  
	
  
HS 	
  0.08 	
  0.14 	
  0.12 	
  0.18 	
  0.14 	
  0.15	
  
...
Use  of  non-­‐cogni(ve  variables  at  Oregon  State
•  Dr.	
  William	
  Sedlacek	
  
•  30	
  years	
  research	
  dis<...
Insight	
  Ques1ons	
  (100	
  words	
  or	
  less)	
  
	
  	
  
Leadership/Group	
  contribu1ons:	
  Describe	
  examples...
The  Insight  Résumé
Six	
  short-­‐answer	
  ques<ons	
  	
  (<100	
  words)	
  asked	
  as	
  part	
  of	
  admissions	
...
The  Insight  Résumé
• Each	
  ques<on	
  is	
  scored	
  from	
  1(low)	
  to	
  3(high);	
  2	
  readers	
  per	
  IR	
 ...
Oregon  State’s  current  admission  criteria
•  Holis<c	
  review	
  of	
  applica<ons	
  
•  Strength	
  of	
  schedule	...
2009  Analysis  -­‐  Overview
• Measured	
  correla<on	
  of	
  IR	
  scores	
  to	
  reten<on	
  and	
  gradua<on	
  
• L...
2009  Analysis  -­‐  Results
Scores	
  posi<vely	
  correlated	
  with	
  reten<on	
  and	
  gradua<on	
  rates	
  
• 2004...
2009  Analysis  -­‐  Results
Scores	
  posi<vely	
  correlated	
  with	
  reten<on	
  and	
  gradua<on	
  rates	
  
• 2005...
2009  Analysis  -­‐  Conclusions
• “In	
  no	
  case	
  does	
  inclusion	
  of	
  IR	
  scores	
  offer	
  substan<ve	
  
...
Today’s  Applicants:    Who  Gets  Scored?
Scored	
  Twice	
   Scored	
  Once	
   Scored	
  Twice	
  
Admission	
  
Excep1...
The  Future?
• Iden<fying	
  deficiencies	
  in	
  specific	
  non-­‐cogni<ve	
  areas	
  and	
  
providing	
  support	
  an...
The  Future?
• More	
  data,	
  more	
  study	
  
• Impact	
  of	
  competency	
  in	
  individual	
  anributes	
  
• Chan...
·  Some students have a background or story that is so central to their identity that they believe
	

their application w...
Resources
	
   Sedlacek,	
  W.	
  (2004).	
  Beyond	
  the	
  Big	
  Test:	
  noncongni<ve	
  assessment	
  in	
  higher	
...
Bill	
  Dingledine,	
  MS,	
  CEP,	
  Independent	
  Counselor,	
  Greenville,	
  SC	
  
	
  wsdingle@Educdir.com	
  
Blak...
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Trending in College Admissions; Non Cognitive Assessments & More!

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GuidedPath special presenters Bill Dingledine (Clemson) and Blake Vawter (Oregon State) share their experience and insight with non-cognitive college admissions assessments. This presentation is recorded and can be found on GuidedPath's YouTube Channel.

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Trending in College Admissions; Non Cognitive Assessments & More!

  1. 1. Non-­‐Cogni(ve  Factors  in   College  Admission BILL  DINGLEDINE,  MS,  CEP,  INDEPENDENT  COUNSELOR,  GREENVILLE,  SC BLAKE  VAWTER,  M.ED,  OREGON  STATE  UNIVERSITY,  CORVALLIS,  OR
  2. 2. Non-­‐Cogni(ve  Assessments   History     Robert  Sternberg  at  Yale  funded  by  College  Board  in  about  2003     College  Board  dropped  its  support  but  Sternberg  con<nued  at  Tu>s  (and  Choate-­‐Rosemary  Hall)   as  Dean  of  Arts  &  Sciences   ◦  Developed  ques<ons  that  reflected  mo<va<on,  crea<vity,  integrity,  intellectual  curiosity,  -­‐-­‐  “grit”   ◦  As  a  result,  Tu>s  was  first  to  offer  “video”  essay   ◦  Choate  began  using  non-­‐cogni<ve  assessments     Sternberg  moved  to  Oklahoma  State,  Univ.  of  Wyoming,  and  is  currently  at  Cornell  
  3. 3. Non-­‐Cogni(ve  Factors   Based  on  research  of  Sedlacek  at  U  of  MD,  Oregon  State,  and  now  the  Univ  of  Oregon,  “Insight”   ques<ons  were  developed  and  used.     Oregon  State  has  seen  some  posi<ve  results  from  their  using  these  non-­‐cogni<ve  factors.  
  4. 4. Non-­‐cogni(ve  variables Blake  Vawter,  Associate  Director  of  Admissions  
  5. 5. Overview  of  Oregon  State  University •  27,000  students   •  Oregon’s  Premier  Research  University   •  Carnegie  I  Classifica<on  (Doctoral-­‐Very  High  Research  Ac<vity)   •  Public,  land-­‐grant  ins<tu<on   •  12  academic  colleges   •  2013  enrollment   •  Applica<ons:    18,583   •  Admits:    14,510  (78%)   •  Enrolled:    6,090  (42%  of  admits)  
  6. 6. Why  did  Oregon  State  look  into  non-­‐cogni(ve   variables? •  In  2000-­‐01,  enrollment  was  increasing  drama<cally  and  the  university  inves<gated   ways  to  manage  the  enrollment.   •  “They  are  not  being  selec<ve  enough.  They  need  to  control  admissions  and  raise  the  bar.”   •  Land-­‐grant  status   •  Mission  to  serve  State  of  Oregon   •  If  we  raise  the  GPA  where  do  we  stop?   •  University  of  Bri<sh  Columbia  was  facing  a  similar  problem.  It  is  a  very  selec<ve  school   and  their  GPA  requirement  climbed  up  to  a  3.95.  
  7. 7. •  Enrollment  growth  à  selec<ve  admissions   •  Affirma<ve  ac<on  challenges   •  Limita<ons  of  tradi<onal  admission  criteria   •  Data  for  Oregon  State  Students   Why  did  Oregon  State  look  into  non-­‐cogni(ve   variables?
  8. 8.  AfAm  APA  Hisp  NatAm  Cauc  Total     HS  0.08  0.14  0.12  0.18  0.14  0.15   GPA  0.12  0.28  0.15  0.38  0.29  0.28     SAT  0.09  0.15  0.07  0.12  0.10  0.13    0.04  0.23  0.004  0.17  0.15  0.14     GPA+  0.14  0.23  0.19  0.30  0.20  0.23   SAT  0.15  0.37  0.17  0.46  0.33  0.31   College  Board*  /  OSU  Data  (2002)   (Correla(on  with  1st  Yr  OSU  GPA;  R-­‐Squared  Values) * Answers in the Toolbox, 1985
  9. 9. Use  of  non-­‐cogni(ve  variables  at  Oregon  State •  Dr.  William  Sedlacek   •  30  years  research  dis<lled  from  Sternberg’s  theories   •  Gates  Millennium  Scholar  Program   •  With  consulta<on  from  Dr.  Sedlacek,  Oregon  State  created  the  ‘Insight  Resume’  which  uses   the  following  non-­‐cogni<ve  variables  as  part  of  an  evalua<on  for  admission  to  the   university:   •  Self-­‐  Concept   •  Realis1c  Self-­‐  Appraisal   •  Handling  System/Racism   •  Long-­‐  Range  Goals   •  Leadership   •  Strong  Support  Person   •  Community   •  Nontradi1onal  Learning       Dr.  William  Sedlacek,  University  of  Maryland.  
  10. 10. Insight  Ques1ons  (100  words  or  less)       Leadership/Group  contribu1ons:  Describe  examples  of  your  leadership  experience  in  which  you  have  significantly  influenced   others,  helped  resolve  disputes,  or  contributed  to  group  efforts  over  <me.  Consider  responsibili<es  to  ini<a<ves  taken  in  or  out  of   school.       Knowledge  in  a  field/crea1vity:  Describe  any  of  your  special  interests  and  how  you  have  developed  knowledge  in  these  areas.  Give   examples  of  your  crea<vity:  the  ability  to  see  alterna<ves;  take  diverse  perspec<ves;  come  up  with  many,  varied,  or  original  ideas;   or  willingness  to  try  new  things.       Dealing  with  adversity:  Describe  the  most  significant  challenge  you  have  faced  and  the  steps  you  have  taken  to  address  this   challenge.  Include  whether  you  turned  to  anyone  in  facing  that  challenge,  the  role  that  person  played,  and  what  you  learned  about   yourself.       Community  service:  Explain  what  you  have  done  to  make  your  community  a  bener  place  to  live.   Give  examples  of  specific  projects  in  which  you  have  been  involved  over  <me.       Handling  systemic  challenges:  Describe  your  experience  facing  or  witnessing  discrimina<on.  Tell  us  how  you  responded  and  what   you  learned  from  those  experiences  and  how  they  have  prepared  you  to  contribute  to  your  college  community.       Goals/task  commitment:  Ar<culate  the  goals  you  have  established  for  yourself  and  your  efforts  to  accomplish  these.  Give  at  least   one  specific  example  that  demonstrates  your  work  ethic/diligence.  
  11. 11. The  Insight  Résumé Six  short-­‐answer  ques<ons    (<100  words)  asked  as  part  of  admissions  applica<on:   •  Leadership  /  group  contribu<ons   •  Self-­‐concept;  community;  leadership   •  Knowledge  in  a  field  /  crea<vity   •  Non-­‐tradi7onal  learning;  self-­‐concept   •  Dealing  with  adversity   •  Strong  support  person;  realis7c  self-­‐appraisal;  handling  system/racism;  community   •  Community  service   •  Leadership;  community;  self-­‐concept;  long-­‐range  goals   •  Handling  systemic  changes  /  discrimina<on   •  Self-­‐concept;  strong  support  person;  realis7c  self-­‐appraisal;  handling  system/racism;  community   •  Goals  /  task  commitment   •  Realis7c  self-­‐appraisal;  community;  self-­‐concept;  strong  support  person;  non-­‐tradi7onal  learning  
  12. 12. The  Insight  Résumé • Each  ques<on  is  scored  from  1(low)  to  3(high);  2  readers  per  IR   •  6-­‐18  total  ‘points’   • Reading  is  done  blind  of  all  student  informa<on   • Scores  and  responses  are  used  to  inform  some  admission   decisions   • Scores  are  used  in  general  scholarship  selec<on  process   • Occasional  “red  flag”  responses  are  addressed  
  13. 13. Oregon  State’s  current  admission  criteria •  Holis<c  review  of  applica<ons   •  Strength  of  schedule   •  15  minimum  core;  AP  or  IB  courses;  concurrent  credit   •  Academic  performance   •  High  school  GPA;  test  scores;  class  rank  (to  lesser  degree)   •  Insight  Résumé  
  14. 14. 2009  Analysis  -­‐  Overview • Measured  correla<on  of  IR  scores  to  reten<on  and  gradua<on   • Looked  at  ability  use  models  to  accurately  predict  outcomes   • Looked  at  Fall  2004,  2005,  2006  and  2007  new  freshmen   cohorts   • Examined  gender,  ethnicity  and  Pell-­‐status  as  variables  
  15. 15. 2009  Analysis  -­‐  Results Scores  posi<vely  correlated  with  reten<on  and  gradua<on  rates   • 2004  cohort  (pilot):    One  unit  increase  in  IR  score  is  associated   with   • Higher  odds  of  reten<on  (7%-­‐15%),  assuming  all  other   characteris<cs  the  same   • Higher  odds  of  gradua<on  (3%-­‐11%),  assuming  all  other   characteris<cs  the  same    
  16. 16. 2009  Analysis  -­‐  Results Scores  posi<vely  correlated  with  reten<on  and  gradua<on  rates   • 2005  cohort  (pilot):    African  Americans  and  Na<ve  Americans   showed  increased  odds  of  reten<on  rela<ve  to  other   ethnici<es  with  increase  in  IR  score,  assuming  all  other   characteris<cs  the  same   • 2006  and  2007  cohorts:    “no  evidence  of  an  effect  on  reten<on   due  to  IR  scores”*  
  17. 17. 2009  Analysis  -­‐  Conclusions • “In  no  case  does  inclusion  of  IR  scores  offer  substan<ve   improvements  in  predic<ons.”   • “While  some  sta<s<cally  significant  effects  are  observed,  these   effects  are  small  rela<ve  to  the  effects  of  other  factors,   especially  GPA.”   •  While  no  ‘silver  bullet’,  non-­‐cogs  offer  more  nuanced  informa<on  about   applicants  and  allows  for  some  differen<a<on  amongst  homogenous   groups  
  18. 18. Today’s  Applicants:    Who  Gets  Scored? Scored  Twice   Scored  Once   Scored  Twice   Admission   Excep1ons   Iden1fy  “Red  Flags”   Scholarship   Selec1on   3.00   3.75  
  19. 19. The  Future? • Iden<fying  deficiencies  in  specific  non-­‐cogni<ve  areas  and   providing  support  and  programming  to  build  competencies   •  U-­‐Engage  courses   •  Early  alert  monitoring   •  Advisor  flagging  and  training   •  Inten<onal  linking  to  exis<ng  programs,  services   •  Financial  literacy  (would  require  new  ques<on)  
  20. 20. The  Future? • More  data,  more  study   • Impact  of  competency  in  individual  anributes   • Changes  from  2009?   • Predictability  of  enrollment   • Test  effec<veness  of  competency  building  programs  (from   previous  slide)  
  21. 21. ·  Some students have a background or story that is so central to their identity that they believe their application would be incomplete without it. If this sounds like you, then please share your story.     ·  Recount an incident or time when you experienced failure. How did it affect you, and what lessons did you learn?   ·  Reflect on a time when you challenged a belief or idea. What prompted you to act? Would you make the same decision again?   ·  Describe a place or environment where you are perfectly content. What do you do or experience there, and why is it meaningful to you?   ·  Discuss an accomplishment or event, formal or informal, that marked your transition from childhood to adulthood within your culture, community, or family.
  22. 22. Resources   Sedlacek,  W.  (2004).  Beyond  the  Big  Test:  noncongni<ve  assessment  in  higher  educa<on.  (1st   ed.).  San  Francisco:  Jossey-­‐Bass.     (2007).  Retrieved  from   hnp://oregonstate.edu/admissions/sites/default/files/gallerix/insight_resume_worksheet.pdf     Gitelman,  A.  (2009).  Insight  resume  analysis.  Unpublished  raw  data,  Department  of  Sta<s<cs,   Oregon  State  University,  Corvallis,.     Buckley,  N.  (Director)  (2013,  January  16).  Non-­‐cogni<ve  Variables  in  Ac<on:    DePaul  and  Oregon   State.  A=ributes  That  Ma=er:  Beyond  the  Usual  in  College  Admission  and  Success.  Lecture   conducted  from  USC  Center  for  Enrollment  Research,  Policy,  and  Prac<ce  ,  Los  Angeles.  
  23. 23. Bill  Dingledine,  MS,  CEP,  Independent  Counselor,  Greenville,  SC    wsdingle@Educdir.com   Blake  Vawter,  M.  Ed,  Associate  Director  of  Admission,  Oregon  State  University,   Corvallis,  OR    Blake.Vawter@oregonstate.edu    

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