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"Action research on CALL and Web 2.0 technologies: ...

"Action research on CALL and Web 2.0 technologies:
A field study of 'BlogCasting' in WELL (Web Enhanced Language Learning), and CMT (Computer Managed Testing) in university EFL classes"

A paper to read at Foreign Language Section, School of Law & Politics, Kwansei Gakuin Univ., May 12, 2010.

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  • Action research on CALL and Web 2.0 technologies: A field study of 'BlogCasting' in WELL (Web Enhanced Language Learning), and CMT (Computer Managed Testing) in university EFL classes Foreign Language Section, School of Law & Politics, http://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/ Kwansei Gakuin Univ., May 12, 2010. 関西学院大学 法学部 外国語研究室 研究会 「CALL実践報 告」 YASUDA, Masami, Kwansei Gakuin Univ., myasuda@kwansei.ac.jp Foreign Language Section Study E-Learning at KG Univ. Kwansei Gakuin Univ., Nishinomiya, JAPAN
  • 2. Introduction: CAI, CALL, e-Learning, WELL e-Learning: Network Web based Learning http://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/ CAI: CALL: Computer Assisted Computer Assisted Instruction Language Learning http://myasuda2.hp.infoseek.co.jp/public_html/102206.f/ 2
  • 3. Overview of CALL History* A: 1960 - 80 B: 1980 - 90 C: 1990 - 1. 行動主義的 1.認知的 1. 知識構成主義/ Knowledge Behavioristic /Cognitive building http://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/ 2. チューターとしてのコ 2. 道具としてのコンピュー 2. コミュニケーション環境としての ンピューター/ ター Computer コンピューター/ E-mail, chats, Tutorial as tools Synchronic & asynchronic 3. コンピューター上 communication 3. CD-ROM上の学習 の学習教材 / 教材 / CD-ROMs, 3. 試行錯誤する場/ trials and Study ware errors, sandbox, playroom Mac‟s (Computers) (FD‟s) 1. 閉じた課題 / 1. 半分開いた教材 / 1. 開いた課題 / Open ended Standalone Stand-alone half- task isolated tasks リサーチ型学習/ Research based isolated 2. 2. 穴埋め,Cloze, 並び 3. 課題解決型学習/ Task based tasks 替え,テキスト再構 Learning 2. Drill, 成など /Gap-fill, 4. データ駆動学習/ Data driven pattern- Cloze, Unscramble learning „発見学習?“ texts practice *境 一三 Sakai ( 2004) CALLの歴史とその今日的意義について, 「e-learning 公開講座」 , 2004年5月13 日 慶應義塾大学日吉ITC. Available on the web Translation mine 3
  • + 4. Classroom Research: Treatment Treatment & Control http://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/ Action Experimental Research Research - + Control Control Observation Interaction Method (KJ Method, Analysis Mindmap) Adapted from the table in Sano(2000) - 『アクション・リサーチのすすめ』 p. 204 Jump to Questionnaire analysis 4 Treatment
  • 5. Professional Development Plan: Problems to identify, Hypotheses, Observation Explanatory http://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/ (Teacher's, Researcher's) Questions Action Research Questions, Inquiries, Demands for changes, Belief Analysis, systems, etc. Reflection, Data & Note Action Changes, collection, Public Protocols, Reporting, Journals: Publishing (Teachers, students) Return to Teaching Narrative Writing slide Jump to Questionnaire analysis 5
  • 6. Kinds of questions to pose  How can we focus on http://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/ meaning  rather than forms?  Learning English vs.  Learning about English  The place of grammar learning and correction. 6
  • 7. Kinds of further questions to pose (2) Individual and autonomy  How can we create http://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/ “autonomous learning” environment with group work? 7
  • 8. Kinds of questions to pose (3) http://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/ How can we put communicative aspects in classroom - with or without the use of E-mails? Group Dynamics to expect!? Return to KG20100512 8
  • 9. Introduction - L2 writing  Dichotomies/Dilemmas Fluency and accuracy http://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/ Contrastive rhetoric debate Process vs. Product debate Assessment Feedback and error correction Casanave, Christine Pearson. (2004). Controversies in second language writing. Ann Arbor, Michigan: Univ. of Michigan. Cornor, Ulla (2002). New directions in contrastive rhetoric, TESOL Quarterly, 36(4), pp. 494-510. Hyland, Ken, & Hyland, Fiona. (Eds., 2006). Feedback in second language writing: Contexts and issues. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Sachs, Rebecca, & Polio, Charlene. (2007). Learners' uses of two types of written feedback on a L2 writing revision task, Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 29(1), pp 67-100. Zamel, V. (1985). Responding to student writing. TESOL Quarterly, 19, 79-101. 9
  • 10. BlogCasting**: Weblog☆ Projects – 2006 ~ 2008 http://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/ Years Paper A. Pencil B. Word- C. Email D. Blog E. Text to /Spec‟s Processor /ML /RSS Speech* - 2005 ○ △ ◎ × × 2006 - ▼ ◎ ○ ◎ × 2007 - ▼ ○ ○ ○ △ 2008 - ▼ △★ ○ ○ ◎ **BlogCasting = *Text to Speech (Assistive Technology) + ☆Weblog ★Word Processing  ★ Local Thin Client  Web editor  Cloud Computing 10
  • 11. Past and Current Project:  E-mail work  Video - Separate Email Grading video output (OHC) 1) Yahoo site 認証必要  Audio Recording 2) Mirror site (infoseek): some years with index only http://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/ 11
  • 12. Past Projects: Video Narrative Project  Video Narration – http://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/  Student‟s audio in Final Project  Student audio in MP3-shrt  Local: audio file  Web site: VoiceBlog site  Past Presentations:  PPT in SWF  3/5/2007: Local file: KG030507-3.swf  (3/5/2007): Drive HQ published folder http://myasuda-foseek- bbs100106-s.html 12
  • 13.Weblog Projects: since 2006  BlogCasting Weblog Projects: http://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/  http://advcomp.wordpress.com/  Advcomp.wordpress.com/ RSS FEED mixer-project-2007/  Students Weblogs and comments  Privacy protection with PINs  Advcomp.wordpress.com tag=classblog  myasuda - my.land.to /treebbs/tree.php?n=470 Skip to Skip to 2007 2008 13
  • 14. RSS (Rich Site Summary) Readers  RSS Readers http://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/  My Intro of RSS and Podcasting for Students: Web site - Podcasting with RSS & WEB 2.0 Local file: Podcastingrss.html  What is RSS? Video  dotsub.com/films/ - Captioned video site (ENG, FR, GER, JPN, etc.) Skip to 2007 14
  • 15. Weblog Projects – 2006: How to read students‟ Blog threads: via WEB Portal Page http://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/ 15 http://protopage.com/ : SPA (CNET Single Page Aggregators)
  • 16. Additional Benefit: BlogCasting by RSS Mix & Podcasting  Forum BBS in PHP http://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/ attb – myasuda  “Feed2Podcast” – 2006  RSS mixing and audio generation  How to register RSS?  Registering my WordPress blog site  New feed (XML) to be created  But, No Longer Available! - 2007  Out of service! “Feed2Podcast” http://atbb.jp/myasuda/?infoseek Click to browse screen shots 16
  • 17. Text to Speech  Text to Speech http://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/ One of Assistive Technologies Stephen Hawking asks big questions about the universe, at TED Conference TedConference site YouTube Filmed Feb., 2008. 17
  • 18. Text to Speech Online Tools Six Online Tools - Text to Speech tools http://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/ you would not want to miss TechDune - Tech News, Software & Hardware Reviews, Internet, Humor 1. vozMe: vozMe Type or copy-paste the texts to convert to „Create MP3‟ at a click! 2. Expressivo – You can listen to books, messages, RSS feeds, articles or even e-mails. You can easily create audio books on your mp3 player. Purchase needed 3. Cepstral - The text to speech conversion to the text into a WAV file. Purchase needed. Skip to RSS Mixing 18
  • 19. Text to Speech Online Tools (2)  Text to Speech tools you would not want to miss (2) TechDune - Tech News, Software & Hardware http://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/ Reviews, Internet, Humor 4. Ivona Speech Synthesizer – Text to speech conversion tool online 5. SpokenText - SpokenText.net Converts & records to speech automatically: PDF, Word, plain text, PowerPoint files, RSS news feeds, emails and web pages. 6. Talkr – Converts RSS feeds into MP3 files Notes: „MacinTalk‟ on Macintosh – has a longer history Skip to on Text2Speech! RSS Mixing 19
  • 20. BlogCasting: RSS Mixing and Podcasting  “Feed2Podcast”  No Longer Available! 2006 http://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/  Out of service! “Feed2Podcast”  Configuring Widgets: Still images posted at PHP Forum site in 2007  Reactivated but gone again. Feed2Podcast setting images Skip to 2007 20
  • Show time: Join05210700008.avi 21. RSS Mixing (2): Show time: Join05210700005.avi Podcasting with Vocal Fruits http://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/ Next slide 21
  • 22. BlogCasting: (1) Weblog Projects - 2007 http://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/  RSS mixer with Text2Speech “Odiogo.com”   “Talkr” (unstable)  My memos:  PHP Forum site Skip to Back 2008 to 2006 22
  • 23. BlogCasting: (2) Weblog Projects - 2007 WordPress Blogs, via http://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/  Students‟ Odiogo.com  HTML: iTunes and other RSS feeds via Odiogo.com: Podcasts-html.php with Audio JAVA icons  Memos: PHP Forum: thread 313#313  Yes! Not only MP3 but also ----  Jet Audio - Lyrics!! embedded in MP3  Play & view, on Jet Audio, iTunes, and iPods! - Awesome 23
  • 24. BlogCasting: (3) Weblog Projects - 2007  MP3 with Lyrics!! http://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/  Jet Audio - Embedded in ID tags via Jet Audio  Play & view, on Jet Audio, iTunes, and iPods! – Awesome!! 24
  • 25. BlogCasting: (1) Weblog Projects - 2008 RSS mixer with Text2Speech http://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/   “Odiogo.com”  The WordPress plug-in instructions can be found here.  My memos: PHP Forum site Back Back to 2006 to 2007 25 Local image file
  • 26. BlogCasting: (2) Weblog Projects - 2008 http://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/  KGLaw BlogCast 2008  “Odiogo.com”  KGLaw BlogCast: Portal site Back to 2007 Local image file 26
  • 27. Weblog Projects – 2009 & 2008: How to read students‟ Blog threads: via WEB Portal Page http://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/ 27 http://protopage.com/ : SPA (CNET Single Page Aggregators)
  • 28. BlogCasting: (3) Weblog Projects - 2008  KGLaw BlogCast 2008 http://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/  Samples of text2Speech audio  Advcomp – Education course  kglawf81 – Freshmen 1st  kglawf82 – Freshmen 2nd  kglaws81 – Sophomores Next slide AdvComp - Online grading as admin of the server 28 Local image file
  • 29. Feasibility: tasks & class size: Reflections from BlogCasting**: Weblog☆ Projects – 2006 ~ 2008 A. B. C. E. Techno- Paper Word- Email D. Text to http://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/ logies Blog /RSS Pencil Processor /ML Speech* 2006 ~ 2008 ▼ △ ★ ○ ○ ◎ Class < 20 人 > 50人 < 150人 < 30人 > 200人 size Feasibil- ities ▼ ◎ ○ ○ ◎ Writing Tasks/ Writin Writing Writing Writing for Small classes and for for and g Skills Presentation large classes Small classes Presentation for large classes **BlogCasting = *Text to Speech (Assistive Technology) + ☆Weblog ★Word Processing  ★ Local Thin Client  Web editor  Cloud Computing 29
  • 30. Summary: BlogCast with RSS Mixing and Text2Speech Next slide? http://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/ RSS Mixer iPods, with iTunes, Text Presentations, to Other Speech PodCasting sites Playlist, Feed, New XML 30
  • 31. Technology in Language Teaching and Learning http://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/  Figure 1 Range-of-Use Technology Chart  Szecsy, Elsie M. "Technology in Language Teaching and Learning." Encyclopedia of Bilingual Education. 2008. SAGE Publications. 29 Mar. 2009. <http://www.sage-ereference.com/bilingual/Article_n313.html>.  Source: EnGauge. Available from http:/ / www.ncrel.org/ engauge. Broken Link Copyright © 2006 Learning Point Associates. All rights reserved. Reprinted with permission. 31
  • Action Research Slides from: CALL and Possibilities of Action Research: http://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/ A report on a five-year field study of enhancing large university EFL classes with CALL and Internet technology JALT First Annual Joint Tokyo Conference: “Action Research - Influencing Classroom Practice” Oct. 22, 2006. Tokyo YASUDA, Masami, Kwansei Gakuin Univ., October 22, 2006 myasuda@kwansei.ac.jp Temple Univ., Tokyo
  • + 33. Classroom Research: Treatment Treatment & Control http://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/ Action Experimental Research Research - + Control Control Observation Interaction Method (KJ Method, Analysis Mindmap) Adapted from the table in Sano(2000) - 『アクション・リサーチのすすめ』 p. 204 Jump to Questionnaire analysis 33 Treatment
  • 34. Questionnaire – Result 7/2004 - 2004 Spring Freshmen Classes  Excel file: ( n=12) Server: http://myasuda2.hp.infoseek.co.jp/public_html/JALT2005.f/QuestionnaireIZ07310both.xls  Local Excel file : http://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/ 34
  • 35. Questionnaire – Result 7/2004 - 2004 Spring Freshmen Classes – Raw Scale Average  Excel file: ( n=12) Server: http://myasuda2.hp.infoseek.co.jp/public_html/JALT2005.f/QuestionnaireIZ07310both.xls  Local Excel file : Freshm en Eng. S pri ' ng 04- M yasuda This shows what? both periods (N =12) R aw scales 3rd (N =4) & 4th peri (N =8) od http://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/ 5. 0 4. 0 3. 0 2. 0 1. 0 0. 0 まとまり 資料有益 使い方が 抽象的 話し方 内容は興 新しい知 課題( 識や物事 表、レ 発 質問 応 助言を与 理解度 適切に対 よく出席 意欲的に 取り組ん ほかの学 授業に満 英語によ 要約で訓 練するの 模範解答 を暗唱発 効果的 説明 味 答 え相談 生に薦め 足 る講義 表のほう の見方 ポート ) 応 だ が斬新 が アンケート結果_bo th 3. 3333 8 3. 8182 1 3. 5 2 2. 4545 2. 6667 5 6 2. 1667 4. 8333 9 0 3. 8333 3. 1667 5 4 3. 1667 4 2. 5 7 5 4. 5 2 3. 3333 3. 6667 3. 3333 4. 8333 3 1 8 0 2 英語  乙  I 1組 3時限 3. 5 2 3 3. 5 2 2.5 2. 5 7 2.5 3. 5 7 3 3.5 3. 5 2 2. 5 7 5 3. 5 2 3. 5 7 2. 5 7 3. 5 2 3. 5 7 1. 5 7 英語  乙  I 2組 4時限 4. 25 1 3. 8571 2 3. 5 2 2. 7143 5 2. 25 6 3. 25 1 4. 5 2 3. 75 8 3. 75 3 3.5 2. 5 7 5 4. 5 7 3. 25 1 3. 75 3 4. 25 1 4. 5 2 2. 25 1 35
  • 36. Questionnaire – Result 7/2004 - 2004 Spring Freshmen Classes – Weighted Scores  Excel file: ( n=12) Server: http://myasuda2.hp.infoseek.co.jp/public_html/JALT2005.f/QuestionnaireIZ07310both.xls  Local Excel file : http://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/ コメント 評価段階 ( 5 point scale: 1-5, NA ) names weighted scale comments 1 全くそうは思わない Disagree strongly weights_1 -1.0 2 そうは思わない Disagree little weights_2 -0.5 3 どちらともいえない Neutral weights_3 0.0 どちらかというとそ 4 う思う Agree little weights_4 0.5 5 そう思う Agree strongly weights_5 1.0 NA 不明・該当しない Not Applicable weights_9/NA 0.0 36
  • 37. Questionnaire – Result 7/2004 - 2004 Spring Freshmen Classes – Weighted Scores  Excel file: ( n=12) Server: http://myasuda2.hp.infoseek.co.jp/public_html/JALT2005.f/QuestionnaireIZ07310both.xls  Local Excel file : Freshm en Eng. S pri ' ng 04- M yasuda both periods (N =12) http://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/ 3rd (N =4) & 4th peri (N =8) od W ei ghted S cal (-1. -0. 0, +0. +1) e 0, 5, 5, 100.0% 90.0% 80.0% 70.0% 60.0% 50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0% -10.0% -20.0% -30.0% -40.0% -50.0% -60.0% 新しい知 課題( 発 理解度 意欲的に ほかの学 要約で訓 模範解答 まとまり 資料有益 使い方が 抽象的 内容は興 表、 レ 質問 応 助言を与 よく出席 授業に満 英語によ を暗唱発 話し方_W 識や物事 適切に対 取り組ん 生に薦め 練するの _W _W 効果的_W 説明_W 味_W ポート ) 答_W え相談_W _W 足_W る講義_W 表のほう の見方_W 応_W だ_W _W が斬新_W _W が_W アンケート結果_W 41. % 7 9. % 1 12. % 5 -22. % 7 -16. % 7 -4. % 2 54. % 2 29. % 2 20. % 8 20. % 8 -12. % 5 100. % 0 62. % 5 16. % 7 8. % 3 41. % 7 54. % 2 -50. % 0 37
  • 38. New Assignment: VOA – GroundZero2006 平均 Mean 33.93% 標準偏差 SD 24.30 n= 103 Quia Quiz on Ground Zero2006 story http://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/ 度数 /n 割合 / ratio 1-Freshmen 0.74 90 2-Sophomores 0.22 27 3-Adv-Comp 5 0.04 20 合計 / total 122 1.00 15 “x” 910 8 90 100 8 98 10 75 67 7 6 “x” 5 50 3 4 5 233 11 210 27 25 00 0 5 2-Sophomores 3-Adv-Comp 1-Freshmen -10 0 10 2030 4050 6070 8090 110 38
  • 39. VOA – GroundZero2006 (2)  Grades % : Analysis of Variance – by Level 110 http://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/ 100 GroundZeo2006_% 90 80 70 60 ALL - 50 40 30 20 10 0 -10 1-Fres hm en 2-S ophomores ‚ ·‚ׂ Ä‚ ̃yƒA T ukey-Kram er‚ ÌHSDŒŸ ’è 3-A dv-Comp Level 0.05 level n mean SD 要因 自由度 p値 平方和(SS) 平均平方 F値 factors (df) (Prob.>F) 1- Freshmen 71 29.58 2.74 Level 2 7048.904 3524.45 6.627 0.002*** 2- Sophomores 27 39.63 4.44 誤差/ error 100 53183.620 531.84 3- 5 65.00 10.31 全体(修正済み) 102 60232.524 AdvComp 39
  • 40. VOA: Assistive Technology Freshmen and Sophomores, 2010/ April  VOA: Special English Program http://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/  Cloze passage: Online drill  Self-study, self-check  Diagnostic online-quiz  the following week  If failed, take-home quiz  with 20 % scores off  Web search, Topic:  Assistive Technology  Show & Tell  Presentation (1 min.) http://myasuda-web.hp.infoseek.co.jp/public_html/VOA- Technology030407.f/  Weblog thread: text2speech 40
  • 41. Online Quiz – VOA: Assistive Technology Freshmen and Sophomores, 2010/04/29 http://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/ http://www.quia.com/pages/masamisanfrancisco.html http://www.quia.com/pages/myasuda.html 41
  • 6. Descriptive Statistics - ALL-Sub-ONLY - 1年 & 2年 ONLY - 20100429 http://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/ Local JMP folder ShortCut to JMP-20100422.f Local MS-Word doc 42
  • 43. Descriptive Statistics by Class ALL-Sub-ONLY- 1年 & 2年 ONLY - 20100429 45% 29% 26% http://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/ F1 S1 S2 F1 S1 S2 56% 44% 1年 2年 1年 2年 43
  • 44. ANOVA by Class - ALL-Sub-ONLY- 1年 & 2年 ONLY - 20100429 http://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/ 44
  • 45. ANOVA by Class (2) - ALL-Sub-ONLY- 1年 & 2年 ONLY - 20100429 http://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/ 45
  • 46. ANOVA by Year - ALL-Sub-ONLY- 1年 & 2年 ONLY - 20100429 http://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/ 46
  • 47. ANOVA by Year (2) - ALL-Sub-ONLY- 1年 & 2年 ONLY - 20100429 http://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/ 47
  • 48. Curriculum Change Plans: Attainment Tests to install http://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/ 英語の関学 vs. 関学の英語  Attainment Tests in EFL at Law Dept.:  Competency Tests for graduation  Writing PDF 法学部コース  Listening (Stories, Lectures)  Automatic Essay Scoring  My tentative proposal (jump to Yahoo 認証要)   Pilot testing Return to KG20100512 48