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CALL and Possibilities of Action Research:
JALT First Annual Joint Tokyo Conference:
“Action Research - Influencing Classroom Practice”
Oct. 22, 2006.
Temple Univ., Tokyo

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  • CALL and Possibilities of Action Research: A report on a five-year field study of enhancing large university EFL classes with CALL and Internet technologyhttp://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/ JALT First Annual Joint Tokyo Conference: “Action Research - Influencing Classroom Practice” Oct. 22, 2006. Tokyo YASUDA, Masami, Kwansei Gakuin Univ., October 22, 2006 myasuda@kwansei.ac.jp Temple Univ., Tokyo
  • 0. Introduction: Entertainment!?http://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/  Protopage: Web 2.0 panel site  http://www.protopage.com/myasuda  Pandora Music: Web 2.0 music listening station  http://www.pandora.com/people/myasuda  Presentation link and memo site:  http://myasuda2.hp.infoseek.co.jp/public_html/102206.f/ 2
  • 0.1. Introduction: CAI, CALL, e-Learning, WELL e-Learning: Network Web based Learninghttp://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/ CAI: CALL: Computer Assisted Computer Assisted Instruction Language Learning http://myasuda2.hp.infoseek.co.jp/public_html/102206.f/ 3 View slide
  • 0.2 Overview of CALL History* A: 1960 - 80 B: 1980 - 90 C: 1990 - 1. 行動主義的 1. 認知的/Cognitive 1. 知識構成主義/ Knowledge Behavioristic 2. 道具としてのコンピュー buildinghttp://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/ 2. チューターとしてのコ ター Computer 2. コミュニケーション環境としての ンピューター/ as tools コンピューター/ E-mail, chats, Tutorial 3. CD-ROM上の学習 Synchronic & asynchronic 3. コンピューター上 教材 / CD-ROMs, communication の学習教材 / Mac‟s (Computers) 3. 試行錯誤する場/ trials and Study ware errors, sandbox, playroom (FD‟s) 1. 閉じた課題 / 1. 半分開いた教材 / 1. 開いた課題 / Open ended task Standalone Stand-alone half- 2. リサーチ型学習/ Research based isolated tasks isolated tasks 3. 課題解決型学習/ Task based 2. Drill, pattern- 2. 穴埋め,Cloze, 並び Learning 替え,テキスト再構 4. データ駆動学習/ Data driven practice 成など /Gap-fill, learning „発見学習?“ Cloze, Unscramble texts *境 一三 Sakai ( 2004) CALLの歴史とその今日的意義について, 「e-learning 公開講座」 , 2004年5月13 日 慶應義塾大学日吉ITC. Available on the web Translation mine 4 View slide
  • + 0.3 Classroom Research: Treatment Treatment & Controlhttp://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/ Action Experimental Research Research - + Control Control Observation Interaction Method (KJ Method, Analysis Mindmap) Adapted from the table in - Sano(2000), 『アクション・リサーチの Treatment Jump p. 204 すすめ』to Questionnaire analysis 5
  • 0.4 Professional Development Plan: Problems to Hypotheses, identify, Observ Explanatoryhttp://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/ ation Questions (Teachers, Researchers) Action Research Questions, Inq uiries, Demand s for changes, Belief Analysis, systems, etc. Reflection, Data & Note Action Changes, collection, Prot Public ocols, Journals Reporting, : Publishing (Teachers, students) Return to Teaching Narrative Writing slide Jump to Questionnaire analysis 6
  • 1.0 Presentation sub-title: WELL: Web Enhanced Language Learning:http://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/ Technology for teaching writing for large Univ. EFL classes in Japan: http://myasuda2.hp.infoseek.co.jp/public_html/102206.f/ A 5-year field study: videos, a group Mailing List, Groupware on the Internet YASUDA, Masami, Skip Abstracts Kwansei Gakuin Univ., myasuda@kwansei.ac.jp October 22, 2006 Temple Univ., Tokyo http://myasuda-web.hp.infoseek.co.jp/myindex.html 7
  • 2.0 Introduction - L2 writing  Dichotomies/Dilemmas Fluency and accuracyhttp://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/ Contrastive rhetoric debate Process vs. Product debate Assessment Feedback and error correction cf. Casanave, Christine Pearson. (2004) Controversies in second language writing. Ann Arbor, Michigan: Univ. of Michigan June 2-4, 2006 8
  • 2.1 Kinds of questions to pose  How can we focus onhttp://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/ meaning  rather than forms?  Learning English vs.  Learning about English  The place of grammar learning and correction. 9
  • 2.2.1 Kinds of further questions to pose (2) Individual and autonomy  How can we createhttp://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/ “autonomous learning” environment with group work? 10
  • 2.3.1 Kinds of questions to pose (3)http://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/ How can we put communicative aspects in classroom - with or without the use of E-mails? Group Dynamics to expect!? 11
  • 3.0 “Teaching narrative writing in large EFL classes” Jump to Action Research cycle I would like, now, to present myhttp://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/ own experience of “Technology for teaching narrative writing,”  for oral and written communications in "regular" and large  EFL classes on a Japanese university level. 12
  • 3.1 The class needs and purposeshttp://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/  At the Law Dept, at Kwansei Gakuin Univ., we offer two classes each for the two year required English courses.  Semester system since 1987 13
  • 3.2 two kinds of classes for each year  Two: 1) Reading, 2) communication.  credit hours of Englishhttp://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/  total to 8 hours out of 16 hours  in foreign language requirements.  the general regular EFL classes.  “English Otsu” in Japanese,  emphasis on oral and written communication.  Adapted: Video Narrative Writing via E-mail 14
  • 3.3 Video Textbooks  A few years with trials and errorshttp://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/  Adopted a well-received Video textbook entitled: (Oxford University Press) Mystery Tour and  Jericho Conspiracy Skip lesson plan details and jump to Final Project: Video narration 15
  • 4.0 Examples of actual lesson plans - 90 min.  Cycle - 3 classes to cover two chaptershttp://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/  Day 1– Introduction Preview TF Questions - 5 min. Preview with digested video - 5 min. Preview with full version video -10 min. Comprehension checkups (TF) - 5 min. Show and stop with Explanation (Vocabulary, Grammar, Culture) Questions and Answer drills - 60 min. 16
  • 4.1 Examples of actual lesson plans - 90 min. (2)http://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/  Cycle - 3 classes to cover two chapters  Day 2 ( a week after) Preview with digested video - 5 min. E-mail grading – via ML - over the weekend Group presentation for approved work 30 min. 17
  • 4.2 Examples of actual lesson plans - 90 min. (3)  Cycle - 3 classes to cover two chaptershttp://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/  Day 3 ( 2 weeks after) - same as Day 1  Group presentation for approved work 30 min.  Quizzes on each chapter: Who said what? Take home  Final Project  last two weeks –  grading,  recitation,  record 18
  • 4.3 Homework - sample work  Error Correction, feedbackhttp://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/ E-mails – Group work Rewrites until approved Deadline: Each Friday evening 20:00  Final Project – 8 ½ min. digested video Use of stationary file - word processing Group (All chapters except the last one) Individual work (last chapter) 19
  • 4.4 Homework - sample work (2)http://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/  Course grading Group and Individual work Online quizzes Final exam - only 30% 20
  • 4.5 Homework - sample work separate (3)http://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/  Winning the students’ trust that their work is being graded with feedback  E-Mail archives Web-mail (IMAP: Univ. official) Yahoo Group site:  yahoo.co.jp/mygroups  yahoo.co.jp/group/Eng1z_KGLaw/files/Emails.f/ Index: infoseek. - Emails_all.html 21
  • 5.0 Students‟ work:  E-mail work Video narration  Video - Separate video output (OHC)  Audio Recordinghttp://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/ 22
  • 6.0 IT tools -- mostly free! Internet Browser:http://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/ Internet Explorer - both on Windows and Macintosh E-mails Outlook Web Access, Outlook Instructor: Eudora Pro on Macintosh  Mailing List: no campus support  Since2002 - started using  Yahoo Group  E-Mail archives: infoseek. - Emails_all.html 23 Jump to Final Project
  • 7.0 Servers  Personal files: Students and Instructors Virtual Server - mail file and otherhttp://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/ documents – can be accessed to from home, too. https://webmail.kwansei.ac.jp/  Instructors’ notes, homework files Only on campus - intranet  Internet Server - off campus - freeweb provider with FTP - free server space myasuda-web.hp.infoseek.co.jp/myindex.html 24
  •  Mails: 7.1 Outlook Web Access: Web mail (IMAP),  Personal Files: https://webmail.kwansei.ac.jp/ Z drives  BBS: Publichttp://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/ Folders 25
  • 7.2 BBS - Bulletin Boardhttp://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/  On-campus BBS Not quite helpful Not so useful. So, instead of school BBS, FreeBBS service (aaacafe) Yahoo Group 26
  • http://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/ 7.3 Public Folders (BBS)27
  • 7.4 Off-campus BBS - aaacafe and othershttp://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/  URL: myasuda- web.hp.infoseek.co.jp/public_html/bbs_f/b bs100105.html  URL: aaacafe.ne.jp - free  www2.aaacafe.ne.jp/free/myasuda/main.bbs  www2.aaacafe.ne.jp/free/myasuda/eng1z.bbs 28
  • 7.5 On-line quizzes authoring and delivery - QUIA and othershttp://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/  QUIA - (login name: myasuda_kg) http://www.quia.com/ QUIA - stores students logs and grades, but not item answers Class portal page URL:  http://www.quia.com/pages/masamimystery.html  http://www.quia.com/pages/masamijericho.html Instructor mode: http://www.quia.com/servlets/quia.web.QuiaWebManager?tagModuleType=10400 29
  • 7.6 Mailing List - pseudo groupwarehttp://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/  Yahoo eGroup http://groups.yahoo.co.jp/mygroups  Other BBS - Groupware, etc. (Requires PIN)  http://cgi.f11.aaacafe.ne.jp/~myasuda/treebbs/tree.php?mode=root 画像メモ (Requires PIN) http://cgi.f3.aaacafe.ne.jp/~myasuda/gazoubbs/gazou.php 30
  • 7.7 Final Project  in the final class,  Each student will recite and recordhttp://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/ On cassette tapes the narrative recitation work, watching and synchronizing with  an 8 1/2 minute long, Digested and muted video story. photos yahoo /Eng1z_KGLaw/slideshow http://www.voiceblog.jp/myasuda/ Emails_all.html - all the mail exchanges protected at Yahoo Group site Return to Video textbook slides 31
  • 7.8 Final Project: Audio Video Narration – student’shttp://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/ audio  Student audio in MP3-shrt (Local)  http://www.voiceblog.jp/myasuda/139636.html (Web) Jump to Action Research cycle 32
  • 8. Questionnaire – Online form  Online questionnaire (Requires PIN) – hit return if error  https://webinfo.kwansei.ac.jp/active/loginhttp://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/ 33
  • 8.1 Questionnaire – Result 7/2004 - 2004 Spring Freshmen Classes  Excel file: ( n=12) Server: http://myasuda2.hp.infoseek.co.jp/public_html/JALT2005.f/QuestionnaireIZ07310both.xls  Local Excel file :http://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/ 34
  • 8.2 Questionnaire – Result 7/2004 - 2004 Spring Freshmen Classes – Raw Scale Average  Excel file: ( n=12) Server: http://myasuda2.hp.infoseek.co.jp/public_html/JALT2005.f/QuestionnaireIZ07310both.xls  Local Excel file : Freshm en Eng. S pri ng 04- M yasuda This shows what? both periods (N =12) R aw scales 3rd (N =4) & 4th peri (N =8) odhttp://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/ 5. 0 4. 0 3. 0 2. 0 1. 0 0. 0 まとまり 資料有益 使い方が 抽象的 話し方 内容は興 新しい知 課題( 識や物事 表、レ 発 質問 応 助言を与 理解度 適切に対 よく出席 意欲的に 取り組ん ほかの学 授業に満 英語によ 要約で訓 練するの 模範解答 を暗唱発 効果的 説明 味 答 え相談 生に薦め 足 る講義 表のほう の見方 ポート ) 応 だ が斬新 が アンケート結果_bo th 3. 3333 8 3. 8182 1 3. 5 2 2. 4545 2. 6667 5 6 2. 1667 4. 8333 9 0 3. 8333 3. 1667 5 4 3. 1667 4 2. 5 7 5 4. 5 2 3. 3333 3. 6667 3. 3333 4. 8333 3 1 8 0 2 英語  乙  I 1組 3時限 3. 5 2 3 3. 5 2 2.5 2. 5 7 2.5 3. 5 7 3 3.5 3. 5 2 2. 5 7 5 3. 5 2 3. 5 7 2. 5 7 3. 5 2 3. 5 7 1. 5 7 英語  乙  I 2組 4時限 4. 25 1 3. 8571 2 3. 5 2 2. 7143 5 2. 25 6 3. 25 1 4. 5 2 3. 75 8 3. 75 3 3.5 2. 5 7 5 4. 5 7 3. 25 1 3. 75 3 4. 25 1 4. 5 2 2. 25 1 35
  • 8.3 Questionnaire – Result 7/2004 - 2004 Spring Freshmen Classes – Weighted Scores  Excel file: ( n=12) Server: http://myasuda2.hp.infoseek.co.jp/public_html/JALT2005.f/QuestionnaireIZ07310both.xls  Local Excel file :http://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/ コメント 評価段階 ( 5 point scale: 1-5, NA ) names weighted scale comments 1 全くそうは思わない Disagree strongly weights_1 -1.0 2 そうは思わない Disagree little weights_2 -0.5 3 どちらともいえない Neutral weights_3 0.0 どちらかというとそ 4 う思う Agree little weights_4 0.5 5 そう思う Agree strongly weights_5 1.0 NA 不明・該当しない Not Applicable weights_9/NA 0.0 36
  • 8.4 Questionnaire – Result 7/2004 - 2004 Spring Freshmen Classes – Weighted Scores  Excel file: ( n=12) Server: http://myasuda2.hp.infoseek.co.jp/public_html/JALT2005.f/QuestionnaireIZ07310both.xls  Local Excel file : Freshm en Eng. S pri ng 04- M yasuda both periods (N =12)http://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/ 3rd (N =4) & 4th peri (N =8) od W ei ghted S cal (-1. -0. 0, +0. +1) e 0, 5, 5, 100.0% 90.0% 80.0% 70.0% 60.0% 50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0% -10.0% -20.0% -30.0% -40.0% -50.0% -60.0% 新しい知 課題( 発 理解度 意欲的に ほかの学 要約で訓 模範解答 まとまり 資料有益 使い方が 抽象的 内容は興 表、 レ 質問 応 助言を与 よく出席 授業に満 英語によ を暗唱発 話し方_W 識や物事 適切に対 取り組ん 生に薦め 練するの _W _W 効果的_W 説明_W 味_W ポート ) 答_W え相談_W _W 足_W る講義_W 表のほう の見方_W 応_W だ_W _W が斬新_W _W が_W アンケート結果_W 41. % 7 9. % 1 12. % 5 -22. % 7 -16. % 7 -4. % 2 54. % 2 29. % 2 20. % 8 20. % 8 -12. % 5 100. % 0 62. % 5 16. % 7 8. % 3 41. % 7 54. % 2 -50. % 0 37
  • 9.0. Projects in progress  Weblog Projects:http://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/  http://advcomp.wordpress.com/  RSS feeder in Web 2.0:  http://reader.www.infoseek.co.jp/reader/  Composition grading: Online  Slide show stored at:  http://1458462720.slide.com/ 38
  • 9.1. Projects in progress (2) Weblog Projects:http://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/ http://advcomp.wordpress.com/  Students Weblogs and comments Protected privacy with PINs  http://advcomp.wordpress.com/tag/classblog/  http://myasuda.my.land.to/treebbs/tree.php?n=470 39
  • 9.2 Projects in progress (3)  Portfolio: WELL projects:http://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/  http://myasuda2.hp.infoseek.co.jp/p ublic_html/032205.f/  Audio Projects:  http://wiki.livedoor.jp/myasudakg/d /MenuBar2 WELL Project Presentation 2004 and others 40
  • 9.3 Projects in progress (4)  AJAX and Web 2.0http://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/  http://advcomp.wordpress.com/tag/web20/  What it is:  http://www.google.com/search?q=Ajax&q=Web2.0  Netvibes and Protopage, etc.  http://www.netvibes.com/  http://myasuda-web.hp.infoseek.co.jp/public_html/eng2z.f/KG- Netvibes.f/slideshow040906.html  Video on demand  http://myasuda- web.hp.infoseek.co.jp/public_html/eng1z.f/OneCampus.f/ 41
  • 10.1. Projects in progress (A) Wiki pageshttp://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/ BBS links:  http://myasuda-web.hp.infoseek.co.jp/public_html/bbs_f/bbs100105.html Syllabus pages:  http://www.wikihouse.com/myasuda/index.php?Adv-Comp Hyperlink wiki page:  http://f3.aaa.livedoor.jp/~myasuda/tiddlywiki02/ 42
  • 10.2. Projects in progress (B) Wiki pages (cont’d)http://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/ pukiwiki: (Requires PIN)  http://f3.aaa.livedoor.jp/~myasuda/pukiwiki14/pukiwiki.php Wiki*2:  http://wikiwiki.jp/myasuda/?PodcastLinks Wiki Livedoor:  http://wiki.livedoor.jp/myasudakg/d/CALL%2dA302 43
  • 10.3. Projects in progress (C) Wiki Livedoor: audio projectshttp://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/  http://wiki.livedoor.jp/myasudakg/d/Audio CALL Laboratory System  http://myasuda.my.land.to/kglaw-it.f/2006.f/ Video Interview in mpeg4 (LOCAL) 44
  • 11. New Assignment: VOA – GroundZero2006 平均 Mean 33.93% 標準偏差 SD 24.30 n= 103 Quia Quiz on Ground Zero2006 storyhttp://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/ 度数 /n 割合 / ratio 1-Freshmen 0.74 90 2-Sophomores 0.22 27 3-Adv-Comp 5 0.04 20 合計 / total 122 1.00 15 “x” 910 8 90 100 8 98 10 75 67 7 6 “x” 5 50 3 4 5 233 11 210 27 25 00 0 5 2-Sophomores 3-Adv-Comp 1-Freshmen -10 0 10 2030 4050 6070 8090 110 45
  • 11.1. VOA – GroundZero2006 (2)  Grades % : Analysis of Variance – by Level 110http://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/ 100 GroundZeo2006_% 90 80 70 60 ALL - 50 40 30 20 10 0 -10 1-Fres hm en 2-S ophomores ‚ ·‚ׂ Ä‚ ̃yƒA T ukey-Kram er‚ ÌHSDŒŸ ’è 3-A dv-Comp Level 0.05 level n mean SD 要因 自由度 p値 平方和(SS) 平均平方 F値 factors (df) (Prob.>F) 1- Freshmen 71 29.58 2.74 Level 2 7048.904 3524.45 6.627 0.002*** 2- Sophomores 27 39.63 4.44 誤差/ error 100 53183.620 531.84 3- 5 65.00 10.31 全体(修正済み) 102 60232.524 AdvComp 46
  • 11.0 Curriculum Change Plans: Attainment Tests to installhttp://s.phpspot.org/u/myasuda/ 英語の関学 vs. 関学の英語  Attainment Tests in EFL at Law Dept.:  Competency Tests for graduation  Writing PDF 法学部コース  Listening (Stories, Lectures)  Automatic Essay Scoring  My tentative proposal 認証要   Pilot testing 47