Today I am going to talk about ethics in journalism.
Journalism has started to get a bad wrap. With places abounding like TMZ – Enquirer – and images of Paparazzi we may wonder, are there any ethics? I definitely did not get into journalism to chase down celebrities.
While there is definitely a great public demand for pictures of celebrities – there is a greater need for truth. Ethics in journalism entails these guidelines from the SPJ – Society for Professional Journalists.
What does it mean to be honest, fair and courageous? It doesn’t mean that you throw all of your biases or experiences out the window. It means you make a fair assessment of the situation at hand using your best abilities.
Show compassion for people who may be affected by your news story. Treat people as humans. Be especially sensitive to stories about children and juveniles.
Avoid conflict of interests – real or perceived. Hold those in power accountableRefuse gifts
The Telegraph changed the way journalism is reported forever when it was invented in 1840…<br />
CNN TOP STORIES<br />April 2, 2011 -- Updated 1707 GMT (0107 HKT)<br />Fighting continues in Ivory Coast<br />The forces of Ivory Coast president Laurent Gbagbo's have fought back against those of opposition leader AlassaneOuattara in Abidja. Meanwhile reports of bloodshed continue to emerge from other parts of the west African nation. FULL STORY<br />Ivory coast: The Humanitarian Cost<br />Send your ireport stories and video<br />Unrest in Arab world<br />
Janet Cook Hoax<br />Janet Cook and Jimmy’s World (September 1980)<br />An article that appeared in the Washington Post on September 29, 1980 told a heart wrenching tale. It detailed the life of 'Jimmy,' a young boy who had apparently become a victim of the thriving heroin trade that was devastating the low-income neighborhoods of Washington D.C. Caught in a cycle of addiction, violence, and despair, Jimmy had become a heroin addict after being introduced to the drug by his mother's live-in boyfriend. As Janet Cooke, the author of the article, described him, "Jimmy is 8 years old and a third-generation heroin addict, a precocious little boy with sandy hair, velvety brown eyes and needle marks freckling the baby-smooth skin of his thin brown arms." She noted that Jimmy aspired to be a heroin dealer when he grew up.<br />
E. D. Hill of Fox News, speculated: “A fist bump? A pound? A terrorist fist jab? The gesture everyone seems to interpret differently?” <br />
Experts are Reporters biggest and best assets when covering a story. So communication with many experts are vital.<br />
One extreme against another<br />Pro-Choice<br /> vs. <br />Pro-Life<br />
Adversaries<br />Digging for the truth<br />Gotcha Questions<br />
Radio in Journalism<br />Radio today, in the United States hits 94 percent of Population. Americans spend on average 20 hours a week listening, with the way media is today; radio still holds strong as one of the top outlets. <br />Just before WWI, AM radio was developed and because of dependability it was used often during the war. 1920 was the year that broadcasting hit the airwaves, soon radio dominated the next three decades; also known as the “Golden Age of Radio” <br />Attack on Pearl Harbor<br />Battle for Iwo Jima<br /> Funeral of Robert Kennedy<br />
Radio the way it’s evolved<br />1940 was the year FM was developed.<br />By 1978 FM had more followers than AM<br />It changed from just educational and classical music, rock music took over during the sixties. Paving the way for many different genres. <br />You can stream on the internet with a simple connection. Connecting to any station world wide, from sports, news, entertainment etc. <br />Sirius and XM Radio, they merged in 2007 because of debts; but total 18 Million followers today. <br />Subscription based, no commercial interruptions<br />No federal regulations, they can run their show the way they want to.<br />Howard Stern<br />
The rules and habits of American journalism began shifting in the 1950s. In the early days, one the most influential and respected television news program was CBS’s “See It Now.” Regarded as “the first and definitive” news documentary on American television, “See it Now” sought in depth reporting to tell and show its American audience what was happening in the world. This of course helped jump start other investigative models of journalism programs which we still have today; 60 Minutes, 20/20 and Dateline.<br />
Differences Between Print and TV News<br />While print editors cut stories to fit the physical space around ads, TV news directors instead have to cut and time their stories so that they fit between commercials. Even though a much higher percentage of space is devoted to print ads (about 60 percent), TV commercials in a typical 30-minute news program are around 25 percent. TV commercials however seem more intrusive to viewers because they take up viewers’ time rather than space when readers can just ignore the print ads. <br />
TV news receives its credibility from live, on the spot, reporting. Viewers tend to trust the reporters and anchors more because they can see them reporting the news.<br />Since the 1970’s the annual Roper polls have indicated that the majority of viewers find television news a more credible resource than print news. Viewers tend to feel a personal regard for the local and national anchors who appear each evening on TV sets in their living rooms.<br />
The Internet Changes Journalism<br /> From print to TV reporters, online news has added new dimensions to journalism. First both print and TV news can keep updating stories as more and more information becomes available. Also many reporters these days now post their online stories first and then work on the traditional versions. <br /> For readers and viewers this helps tremendously because now they don’t have to wait until the next day for the paper or local newscast to receive information on top stories. To enhance online reports, newspaper reporters are increasingly adding video or audio to their stories. This allows readers and viewers to see the full interviews rather than just the selected print quotes that you would get in the paper. <br />
A problem for journalists ironically, is the vast resources of the internet. This includes access to versions of stories from other paper or broadcast stations. Journalists must be very careful not to copy story ideas or quotes. Access to databases and other informational sites can keep reporters at their computers rather than tracking down information. For instance email interviews. Some may think that it is a good idea so that the interviewees can control and shape really good answers. While some may argue this provides more thoughtful answers, but some journalists say it takes the elements of surprise and spontaneity out of the news interviews.<br />
Are there any ethics?<br />With places like TMZ…Enquirer…paparazzi…<br />
Real journalism still exists<br />Some chase celebrities <br />Others chase truth<br />
Preamble<br />Members of the Society of Professional Journalists believe that public enlightenment is the forerunner of justice and the foundation of democracy. The duty of the journalist is to further those ends by seeking truth and providing a fair and comprehensive account of events and issues. Conscientious journalists from all media and specialties strive to serve the public with thoroughness and honesty. Professional integrity is the cornerstone of a journalist's credibility. Members of the Society share a dedication to ethical behavior and adopt this code to declare the Society's principles and standards of practice.<br />
Code # 1<br />Seek Truth and report it<br />A journalist should be honest, fair and courageous in gathering, reporting and interpreting information.<br />
Democracy and Journalism <br />Journalism is voice of people and maintains the democracy and also significant element of democracy. <br />If no Journalism , there is no democracy. <br />
Journalism role in pursuit of Democracy <br />Democracy and Journalism depend on each other. Journalism contributes to democracy and Democracy gave free press to Journalism. Democratic society requires Journalism. <br />Democracy can’t survive alone without journalism. <br />Journalism supports nations transitioning from dictatorship to democracy such as CNN’s key role in the 1990’s collapse of the Soviet Union and Arab satellite channels Al Jazeera contributing currently to the Middle East uprising for democracy.<br />
Japanese Journalist Kanji Nagai Shoot dead in Rangoon, Burma during people uprising in September 2007 <br />Nagai , who report Burmese protest against military regime news to His Japan NHK news agency before he killed. <br />
Journalist and counter protest (Freelance journalist who reports people uprising in Egypt is under attack. <br />Today, journalism and media are vital role in processing of Democracy. <br />The Newseum, a museum about news media in Washington has reported that 60 journalists have died in Iraq since the war began. That is more than both World Wars, Korea and Vietnam combined.<br />The Committee to Protect Journalists has documented more than 50 attacks on the press in Libya since political trouble began last month. Those include 33 detentions, two attacks on news facilities, the jamming of broadcasts and interruption of the Internet. At least six local journalists are missing, and Libyan authorities are still holding four Al Jazeera journalists. Agence-France Presse has reported two journalists missing in Libya.<br />The BBC reported three of its journalists were beaten, subject to mock executions and forced to witness torture of other Libyans at a military barracks.<br />
Journalism is…<br />CENTRAL<br />WE BECOME SLAVES! : (<br />…to Democracy<br />Citizens must have access to information to make important decisions in their lives, otherwise…<br />
Journalism tells stories we otherwise wouldn’t know about…<br />
It’s not how it used to be…<br />David Broder (Sept. 11, 1929 – March 9, 2011)<br />Wrote for 40+ years for the Washington Post.<br />“Said that national journalists like him - through rising salaries, prestige, and formal education – have distanced themselves ‘from the people that we are writing for and have become much, much closer to the people we are writing about.’”<br />
At the same time…<br />“The job of the press is to encourage debate, not supply the public with information.”<br />-Christopher Lasch, Historian, Author<br />
“Lasch connected the gradual decline in voter participation, which began in the 1920s, to more professionalized conduct on the part of journalists. With a modern “objective” press, he contended, the public increasingly began to defer to the “more professional” news media to watch over civic life on its behalf.” (p. 463) While this was happening journalism has slowly aligned itself with corporations…<br />The public’s interest and engagement with their democracy.<br />Very interested <br />and engaged.<br />Professionalization of journalism<br />Uninterested <br />and unengaged. <br />1920 Present<br />Time<br />
Corporate “shepherd”<br />“People have grown used to letting their representatives think and act for them. More community-oriented journalism and other civic projects offer citizens an opportunity to deliberate and to influence their leaders.” (p. 463)<br />We the shee-people<br />Media sheepdog<br />
“News scholar Jay Rosen notes: ‘To be adversarial, critical, to ask tough questions, to expose scandal and wrongdoing… these are necessary (journalistic) tasks, but they are negative tasks…’ He suggests, journalism should assert itself as a positive force, not merely as a watchdog or as a neutral information conduit to readers but as ‘a support system for public life.’”<br />