Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
အစၥလာမ့္ေဘာင္တြင္းမွ လူ႔အခြင့္အေရး
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Introducing the official SlideShare app

Stunning, full-screen experience for iPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

အစၥလာမ့္ေဘာင္တြင္းမွ လူ႔အခြင့္အေရး

1,506
views

Published on

Published in: Technology

0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,506
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
27
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. 1
  • 2. 2
  • 3. B.A (Geo,), B.Ed, M.Ed, Ph.D (Pedagogy) University of Tsukuba, Japan 3
  • 4. txl; cGifhjyKcsuf þjrefrmbmomjyefpmwrf;tm; rl&if;rysuf rnfolrqdk? rnfonfhtoif;tzGJYrqdk? rnfonfh vlrsKd;rqdk? rnfonfhbmom0ifrqdk? rnfonfhEdkifiHurqdk vGwfvyfpGmjzifh ykHESdyfxkwfa0a&mif;cscGifhay;ygonf/ bmomjyefqdkol? wnf;jzwfol? xkwfa0olrsm;xHrS cGifhjyKcsuf awmif;cH&efrvdkyg/ pm½Iolrsm;tm; tpOfav;pm;vQuf a'gufwm,mprD;efAif;efaohtAÁ'kv’m[f 4
  • 5. þpmtkyfjzifh &&SdrnfhtusKd;p0g;Afukokdvfaumif;rIrsm;udk tv’m[ft&SifjrwftrdefYawmfcH,loGm;&SmNyDjzpfaom zcifBuD; tAÁ'kv’m[f? rdcifBuD;&mbD,mESifh tm&f0gtaygif;tay: tdqGmavp0g;Af ydkYoyg/ a'gufwm,mprD;ef Aif;efaoh tAÁ'kv’m[f 5
  • 6. rmwdum                               6
  • 7.                         7
  • 8. jrefrmbmomjyefqoltrSmpm dk tvGefw&moem;Muifem n§mwmawmfrlaom? teEÅ*½kPm&Sifjzpfawmfrlaom? tv’m[ft&Sifjrwf emrawmfjzifh tpjyKyg/ cspfvSpGmaom pm½Iol --------- jrefrmrGwfpvifrfavmuwGif?acwfESifhtnDpmayrsm;xGufay:vmaeonfhtwGufaumif;aomtvm;t vm jzpfygonf/ þacwf? þavmuBuD;udk vlwdkYrS IT acwf? Knolwledge Age acwfponfjzifh trnfrsm;wwfí trsKd;rsKd;ac:a0:Muaomfvnf;? rajymif;vJaomtajccHoabmt&ajym&rnfqdkvQif þacwfudk pumwifacwf (Screening Age)[kac:oifhygonf/ rnfonfht&mudk pumwif ygoenf;/ ar;p&mar;cGef;jzpfygonf/ rnfonfht&mudk pumwifoenf;qdkvQif vlom;onf vlom;yDoygavm[laom vlom;t&nftaoG;rsm;teufrS vlom;yDojcif;(Humanity)[laom t&nftaoG;udk pumwifMunfhaomacwf[k ac:oifhygonf/ pm½Ioltm;vkH;odxm;NyD;onhftwdkif;? urÇmhEdkifiHtoD;oD;touudk taMumif;trsKd;rsKd;ESifh ajcqefY oGm;vmMuonfh a½Tjrefrmrsm;tm;vkH;owdjyKrdMuonfhtcsufrSm ,aeYwdk;wufxGef;um;vSygonf[l aomEdkifiHrsm;wGif ½kyf0wÅKypönf;rsm;xl;jcm;qef;jym;vmrI? vlrIpD;yGm;a&;tajctaersm; wdk;wuf zGYHNzdK;rIrsm; taMumif;t&if;cHrSm todynmzGYHNzdK;vmjcif;aMumifh[laomtcsufjzpfonf/ rSefygonf/ tjrifhydkif;rSvlrsm;(Highly Educated) ajymqdkaeMuonfrSm todynmESifhqdkifaom zGYHNzdK;wdk;wufrI qdkif&mpHEIef;wpfckrSm Culture [laom ,Ofaus;rIyif jzpfygonf/ bmomjyefqdkoltaeESifh EdkifiH&yfjcm;a'owpfcsKdUwGifaexdkifbl;jcif;aMumifh owdjyKvmrdaomtcsufrSm ,aeYtcsdefwGif wdk;wufcsrf;omaomEdkifiHol? EdkifiHom;rsm;,Ofaus;rIonf jrifhrm;oa,mifjzpfoGm;jcif; jzpf ygonf/ þurÇmajrwGif rajymif;vJaomtajccHoabmw&m;BuD;wpf&yfrSm aiGaMu;&wwf csrf;om aomoludk vl,Ofaus;tjzpfcH,lusifhokH;Mujcif;jzpfygonf/ tvG,fqkH;Oyrmav;wpf&yfay;ygu urÇmhukvor*¾BuD;udk pDrHcs,fvS,faeonfh vkHNcKHa&;aumifpD(Security Council)wGif pDrH jc,fvS,faeonfh tNrJwrf;tzGJY0if[kac:qdkaeMuaom BuD;ig;BuD;[lonfhEdkifiHrsm;rSm aiGaMu;csrf;om aom? tiftm;tzufzufrS awmifhwif;aomEdkifiHBuD;rsm;jzpfNyD;? 4if;EdkifiHrsm;MoZmtmPmtwdkif; vdkufemaqmif½GufaeMu&ayonf/ jyefícsKyf&rnfqdkaomf ,aeYvltzGJUtpnf;wpfckcsif;wGifomru EdkifiHtoD;oD;wGifrqdk urÇmBuD;wpfckvkH;udk todynmtm;jzifh a½SUwef;a&mufaom? Opöm"e<u,f0 csrf;omaom? tzufzufrS tiftm;awmifhwif;aom vlwpfpkrSu BudK;udkif cs,fvS,faeMujcif;om jzpfygonf/ xdktcgwGif trSefwu,f todynmacwfa&mufaeygNyD? tdkifwDacwfa&mufaeygNyD[k ajymEdkifyg onf/ txufyg vlwpfpkwGif tdkifwDESifh ynm½SdMuygonf/ odkYaomfjim;vnf; xdkuJhodkY ynm jynfhpkHolrsm;? tvGef ,Ofaus;ygonfqdkaomvlrsm;uyif urÇmha'otoD;oD;wGif pdk;rdk;tEdkifusifh AdkvfusrIrsm;udk OD;aqmifaecJhMuygonf/ Oyrm- tar&duef-tD&wfppfyGJ? tar&duef-tmz*ef 8
  • 9. epöwefppfyGJ? ½k½S-a*smf*sD,mppfyGJ? tpöa&;-ygvpöwdkif;ppfyGJrsm;wGif awGY½SdEkdifygonf/ urÇmh ukvor*¾BuD;rSvnf; emrnfomusefawmhNyD;? bmrS pGrf;aqmifay;Edkifjcif; r&Sdawmhacs/ xdkYaMumifh ynmwwf,Ofaus;Muygonfqdkaomvlrsm;uyif vlrqefaom? t½kdif;qefaom? t½kdif; 0g'(barbarism)tm; usifhokH;aeMuonfudk awGYjrifMu&ygonf/ vlYobm0t& rdrdu vl½kdif;jzpf onfudk tajzaumif;ay;&ef OmPfeD? OmPfeufokH;MuonfrSm obm0yif jzpfonf/ xdkYaMumifh xdk vl½kdif;BuD;rsm;uyif tjcm;aomvlrsm;udk vl½dkif;emrnfwwfí vufn§dK;xdk;wwfMuonfrSm "r®wm yif/ vl½kdif;rsm;u tkyfpkzGJYMuonf/ ulnDMuonf/ ½kdif;yif;Muonf/ pnf;vkH;Muonf/ nDnmMu onf/ igESifhrwl igh&efolvkyfwwfvmMuonfponfhjyoemrsm;tusKd;qufwpfckrSm tjypfrJholrsm; tm; trnftrsKd;rsKd;ay;? acgif;pOftrsKd;rsKd;wwfí tEdkifusifh pdk;rdk;Adkvfusjcif;omjzpfonf/ urÇmESifht0Srf; xdkuJhodkY tEdkifhusifh pdk;rdk;AdkvfusrIrsm;udk ykHo@meftrsKd;rsKd;ESifh ae&mtrsKd;rsKd;wGif awGYEdkifygonf/ 4if;wdkYrSm EdkifiHa&;t& ppfyGJqifETJjcif;? pD;yGm;a&;qufEG,frI jzwfawmufjcif;? vlrIa&;t& ypfy,fjcif;--- ponfhponfh ykHo@mefrsKd;pkH½Sdygonf/ 4if;wdkY &vm'fwpfckrSmum; vlYtcGifhta&;ac: vlYtcGifhtvrf;rsm;udk csKd;azmufjcif;yifjzpfonf/ urÇmhukvor*¾ vlYtcGifhta&;aMujimpmwrf; (Universal Human Rights) wGif trsm;ESifhqdkifaom vlYtcGifhta&;rsm; udk pdefpDaompum;&yfrsm;ESifh urÇmodatmifaMujimxm;aomfvnf; trSefwu,f vlYtcGifhta&; csKd;azmufcHae&onfhudp&yfrsm;udkrl tqdkyg,Ofaus;odrfarGY ynmwwfvSygonfqdkaom? wuúEdkvdk*sD ö enf;ynm&yfrsm;zGHYNzdK;ygonfqdkaomvlrsKd;BuD;rsm;u ESmap;aeMuygonf/ rsufpdrIefaeMuygonf/ em;yif;aeMuygonf/ tqdk;0g;qkH;jypfrSwfrSmum; uREkfyfwdkY cspfvSpGmaomtjypfrJhrGwfpvifrfrsm;om jzpfMuygonf/ taemufwdkif;rD'D,mrsm; xdk;ESufcsufwpfckrSm tpövmrftm; vlYtcGifhta&;csKd;azmufaombmom? rGwfpvifrfrsm;tm; vlYtcGifhta&;uif;rJhaeaom? qkH;½IH;aeaomvlom;rsm;[k ykHazmfaeMujcif;yif jzpfonf/ þonfrSm tvGef 0rf;enf; aMuuGJzG,f&maumif;aom? &ifemp&maumif;aomjzpf&yfrsm; yif jzpfonf/ vludk vlvkd rjrifwwfMuaomolrsm;u vlom;tqefqkH;? vludkvlvdkjrifaom? vlYtcGifhta&; tjynfht0ay;aom tpövmrfESifh vlYtcGifhta&; tjynfht0&½Sdaeaom rGwfpvifrfrsm; udk udk,fxdvufa&mufESdyfpufolu ESdyfpuf? wzef tdkif'D,mtm;jzifh wdkufcdkufMuollrsm;u wdkufckduf jyKvkyfae Muygonf/ þpmwrf;udk a&;om;xkwfa0aom 'gtf0[ftu,f'rD (ygupöwefEdkifiH) &nf½G,fcsufrSm rGwfpvifrfrsm;twGufomru? rGwfpvifrfr[kwfaom tjcm;bmom0ifnDaemifrsm;twGufyg &nfpl;í tpövmrfomoemESifhywfoufonfh owif;tcsuftvufrsm;udk ckdifrmaom taxmuf txm;rsm;jzifh t&Sdudk t&Sdtwdkif;? trSefudk trSeftwkdif; wifjyxm;aompmwrf;wpfapmif jzpfyg onf/ tvf-[rf;'kvdv’m[f? csD;rGrf;jcif; axmyem[l[lorQonf tv’m[ft&SifjrwftzdkYom jzpfawmfrlonf/ þodkY &nf½G,fcsufaumif;xm;&Sdaom 'gtf0[ftu,f'rDonf t"GefY&Snf wnfNrJygapaomf0f/ 4if;vkyfief;rsm;tay: t&Sifjrwf tvkdwlrI&Sdygapaomf/ uREkfyf tawGYtBuKHt& vlom;wdkYbmombm0t& vlom;onf ta0;&Sd tjcm;vlom;rsm; pm;? 0wf? aerI "avhp½kdufrsm;udk pdwf0ifpm;Mu? pyfpkwwfMuaomfvnf;? twlwuG aexdkifMuol tcsif;csif;? Oyrm- rdrd rdwfaqG,kHMunfrI? ,Ofaus;rIESifh vlrIa&;ausmaxmufaemufcH tajctaet&yf&yfudk avhvm oif,l&ef tm;xkwfBudK;yrf;rIr½Sd? pdwf0ifpm;rIr&SdMuacs/ wenf;tm; jzifhqdk&aomf twlwuG ,SOfwGJaexdkif Muolrsm;tcsif;csif; wpfOD;taMumif;udk wpfOD;wpfOD;od&ef BudK;pm;rIr&Sd/ em;vnf&efBudK;pm;rI uif;rJhjcif;rsm;aMumifh em;vnfrIvGJrSm;jcif;? 'Gd[oHo,rsm; 9
  • 10. rMumcPjzpfay:avh&SdNyD;? ,if;tao;trTm; 'dG[oHo, rsm;rS vlrsKd;a&;y#dyu© (Racial Conflicts) txdBuD;xGm;NyD;? rsKd;wkef;owfjzwfjcif;? jynfwGif;ppfjzpfyGm;jcif;ponfhtajctaetxd BuD;xGm; us,fjyefY vmwwfMuonfrSm urÇmwvTm;wGif Oyrmtajrmuftrsm; &Sdaeygonf/ þtrSmpmtpwGifqdkcJhaom pumwifacwf (Screening Age)qdkonfrSm vlESifh vlYwd&dpämefudk pumwifppf aeaomumv[k qdkvdkcsifygonf/ wenf;qdk&aomf urÇmhaemufqkH; w&m;pD&ifrnfhaeYwGif tNyHK;ESifh &Sifjyef xajrmuf&rnfh vlqefaomvlESifh xdkaeYwGif nK§d;csKH;NyD; pdwftm;i,fpGmxajrmuf&rnfh vlrqefaomvludk pumwifppfaeaomumvvnf;jzpfygonf/ uREkfyfwdkY rGwfpvifrfrsm;onf tpövmrfhenf;usb0wnfaqmufa&;wGif tcsif;csif; wpfOD;ESifhwpfOD; taqGcifyGef;rsm;jzpfMuaomaMumifh wpfOD;ESifhwpfOD; az;rulnD oGefoifvrf;nTefMu&ayrnf/ usrf;jrwfuk&ftmefwGif tv’m[ft&Sifjrwf rdefYawmfrlxm;onfrSm rGwfpvifrfrsm;ESifh rGwfpvifrfr[kwfolrsm;twGuf 'gtf0[ftu,f'rDrS xkwfa0onfh ]]tpövmrfhabmifwGif;rSvlYtcGifhta&;}}[laom (Human Rights in Islam)[laompmwrf;udk bmomjyefqdk jrefrmrIjyK a&;om;vdkufjcif;jzpfonf/ þpmwrf;udk zwf½Iavhvm okH;oyfjcif;tm;jzifh jynfh0 pkHvifvSaom tpövmrfomoemtvSw&m;udk av;pm;tyfaomzwf½Ioludk,fwdkif em;vnf cHpm;EdkifNyD;? tjcm;aomrdwfaqGrsm;udk 'gtf0[fjyK&mwGifvnf; tvGefyif tokH;0ifayvdrfhrnf/ pumwifppfaq;aomumvwGif tv’m[ft&Sifjrwf pdppfvdkufaom pumxJwGif nyfusef? wifusefvdkygu vlyDoaom? rGwfpvifrfyDoaomoljzpfatmif BudK;pm;tm;xkwfMuygpdkY/ 10
  • 11. rSwfcsuf/ / þpmwrf;yg taMumif;t&mrsm;udk rlvpmwrf;&Sif a&;om;wifjyrIrsm;twdkif; tpövmrf vlYtcGifhta&;udk wduspGmbmomjyefqdk jrefrmrIjyKjcif;rSty rnfolwpfOD;wpfa,muf? rnfonfh tzGJYtpnf;wpfckudkrQ &nf½G,fíapmif;ajrmif; jypfwif? a0zef½IHUcsxm;jcif; r&SdygaMumif; 0efcHtyfygonf/ pm½Iolrsm;tm; tpOfxm0&av;pm;vQuf a'gufwm,mprD;ef Aif;efaoh tAÁ'kv’m[f 27 - 12 - 2007 11
  • 12. jrefrmbmomjyefqdkrItm; wnf;jzwfol trSmpm tv’m[ft&Sifjrwf u½kPmawmfrS ESifxkwfjcif;cHcJh&aom ½IdifoGmefrm&fewfaESmuf,Suf zsufpD; jcif;[lorQrS uif;vGwfyg&ef tv’m[ft&SifjrwfxHawmfyg;ü cdkvIHyg/ tvGefw&moem;Muifemn§mwmawmfrlaom? txl;oem;awmfrlaomtv’m[ft&Sifjrwfemrawmf jzifh tpjyKyg/ cspfcifav;pm;&wJhpm½Iol ,ckrdwfaqGvufxJwGif a&muf&SdaompmtkyfrSm ygupöwefEdkifiHrS ygupöwefEdkifiHvkH;qdkif&m tpövmrfh tzGJYcsKyftm; pwifwnfaxmifol? xdktzGJUcsKyf yxrOD;qkH;trD;&fOuúXBuD;jzpfcJhol armfvmem tAlttfvmarmf'l'DocifjyKpkcJhonfh ]Human Rights in Islam} qdkonfhusrf;i,ftm; jrefrm rGwfpvifrftrsKd;orD; ynm&SifwpfOD;jzpfaom q&mrBuD;a'gufwm,mprD;ef Aifefaoh tAÁ'kv’m[frS jrefrmrIjyKxm;onfh ]tpövmrfhabmifwGif;rS vlYtcGifhta&;}[lonfh usrf;i,fav;yif jzpfygonf/ rl&if;jyKpkol pma&;q&mBuD;onf jrefrmjynf&Sd rGwfpvifrfavmuwGifru rGwfpvifrfurÇmwcGifwGif vnf; tvGefyif ausmfMum;xif&Sm;vSygonf/ eADwrefawmfrsm;rSty vlom;wdkif;wGif trSm;udk,fpD &SdMuouJhodkY? tjypfudk,fpD&SdMuayonf/ odkYaomfqG[mAm[fom0uBuD;rsm;? qG[mADom0dumrBuD; rsm;onfum; r[fzl;Zf[kac:onfh tv’m[ft&Sifjrwfxdef;odrf;apmifha&Smufjcif;cH&aomolrsm;jzpf onfomru xdkolrsm;ESifhywfoufí tv’m[ft&Sifjrwfonf auseyfESpfNrdKUawmfrlcJhNyD; jzpfaMumif;udk vnf; usrf;jrwfuk&ftmefwGif tv’m[ft&Sifudk,fawmfwdkif rdefYawmfrlxm;NyD;jzpfayonf/ ynm&Sif BuD;rsm;onfvnf; vlom;rsm;yifjzpfMuay&m rrSm;aoma&SUae? raoaomaq;orm;r&SdouJhodkY &Hzef &HcgwGif rSm;wwfMuayonf/ odkYaomf ,if;trSm;rsm;onf tpövmrfhaomif[D;'fw&m;ESifhqefYusif aom trSm;rsm; rjzpf&efrSm tvGefyifta&;BuD;vSayonf/ useftrSm;rsm;udkum; tv’m[ft&Sifjrwf tvdkawmfwlygvQif xdkynm&Sifrsm;onf cGifhvTwfjcif;cHMu&ayrnf/ uRefawmfwdkYtaeESifh xkdynm&Sif BuD;rsm;twGuf t&SifjrwfxHawmfyg;wGif vGwfNidrf;csrf;omcGifh yefMum;Mu&ayrnf/ ,aeYrsufarSmufumvwGif ynm&Sifrsm;tm; raumif;ajymqdka&;om;rIrsm; aygrsm;vmaeayonf/ uRefawmfwdkYonf ynm&SifBuD;rsm;trSm;rsm;udk &SmazGjcif;bufü tm;oefaeMuaomfvnf; xdk ynm&Sifrsm; jyKpka&;om;cJhaom ynm&yfrsm;rS tusKd;cHpm;&efudkrlum; arhavsmhaeMuayonf/ uRefawmfwdkYtaeESifh jyKvkyfoifhonfhudprSm xkdynm&SifBuD;rsm; jyKpkcJhaomusrf;*efrsm;udk ö aoaocsmcsm avhvmíokawoevkyfoifhayonf/ rSm;aeonfhtcsufrsm;udk rSefatmif xyfrHjyifqif í rsufarSmufavmuESifh o[Zmwjzpfatmif vkyfMu&rnfum; uRefawmfwdkY rsufarSmufumv&Sd tmvifrfynm&Sifrsm; wm0efyifjzpfayonf/ yk*d¾Kvfa&;rkef;wD;rIaMumifh omoemudk ckwkH;vkyfí ykyfxD;? ykyfrwyfjcif;rsm;udk a&SmifMuOfoifhayonf/ uRefawmfwdkYonf rdrdudk,fwdkif avhvmqef;ppf okawoevkyf&rnfhtpm;? wqifhpum;? wqifhMum;íajymqdkaeMujcif;jzpfayonf/ þed'gef;udk uRefawmf tb,faMumifha&;ae&ygoenf;/ tcsKdUpma&;q&mrsm;onf tAlttfvmarmf'l'DtrSm; tcsKdUudk xkwfjyvQuf tAlttfvmarmf'l'Dtm; tpövmrfhynm&Sifrsm; pmrsufESmrS z,f&Sm;jypfvdkaeMu ayonf/ uRefawmftxufwGif qdkcJhovdk ynm&Sifrsm;wGif csKdU,Gif;csufrsm;? rSm;,Gif;cRwfacsmfrIrsm; &SdwwfMuygonf/ urÇmhtmvifrfynm&Siftausmftarmfrsm;rS taumif;qkH;aomozfpD;&f (uk&ftmef tvif;jyusrf;)[k owfrSwfxm;onfh ausmfMum;vSaom ozfpD;&f tdAfaeYudqD;&fwGifyif trSm;t,Gif; tcsKdY yg&SdcJhayonf/ xdktrSm;t,Gif;rsm;udk z,f&Sm;jcif; okawoetm; ½IdifcfqGzD;tk&f&[rmefESifh 12
  • 13. ynm&Sifwpfpk pkaygif;um ]rdqGfbm;[kvfrkeD;&f zD;o[fZD;Af tdAfeduqD;&f}[laomtrnfjzifh aqmf'D tma&;AD;,m;EdkifiH? &d,m;'fNrdKU&Sd 'g½kvfpvmrfykHESdyfwdkufrS &dkufESdyfxkwfa0cJhonf/ ,if;pmtkyfudkyif 'g½kvfpvmrfykHESdyfwdkufrS t*Fvdyfbmomjzifh jyefqdkí twGJq,fwGJcGJum xkwfa0cJhaMumif; od& ayonf/ xdkYjyif tl&f'lbmomjyefvnf; &SdaeNyD[kodMu&ayonf/ ynm&SiftAlttfvmarmf'l'Da&;om; jyKpkcJhonfh pmtkyf? pmwrf;tcsKdUudkvnf; aqmf'Dtma&;AD;,m;EdkifiHwGif ½dkufESdyfxkwfa0jzefYcsdaeyg onf/ aqmf'Dtma&;AD;,m;EdkifiHwGif tpövmrfhw&m;awmfESifh qefYusifaom? rudkufnDaompmtkyf? pmwrf;? usrf;*efrsm;udk &dkufESdyfxkwfa0avh r&Sdyg/ ,if;taMumif;ESifh ywfoufNyD; uRefawmfonf uRefawmfq&mwpfOD;tm; ar;jref;cJhbl;ygonf/ q&mcifAsm... tdE´d,jynfESifh jrefrmjynfrS tdkvrm ynm&SiftcsKdUonf tAlttfvmarmf'l'Dtm; vrf;rSm;aeaomoltjzpf owfrSwfxm;Muygonf/ xdkYjyif olwdkYonf armf'l'Dqyf pmtkyf? pmwrf;rsm;udk rdrdwdkYudk,fwdkif rzwf½IMuouJhodkY ¤if;wdkYESifh eD;pyfaomolrsm;udkvnf; rzwf½IMu&ef wdkufwGef;vQuf &Sdygonf/ odkYaomfvnf; aqmf'D tma&;AD;,m;EdkifiH&Sd cdkifrm pdwfcs&aom ykHESdyfwdkufrsm;rS pdkif,'ftAlttfvm armf'l'D ozfpD;&f (uk&ftmeftvif;jyusrf;)ESifh tjcm; pmtkyfpmwrf;rsm;? aqmif;yg;rsm;udk xkwfa0 jzefYjzL;aeygonf/ xdktcg q&mrS ]pdkif,'ftAlttfvmarmf'l'Donf rdrda&;om;pD&ifcJhonfh ozfpD;&f (uk&ftmeftvif;jy usrf;) jzpfonfh ozf[D;rkvfuk&ftmefwGif trSm;tcsKdUyg&SdcJhonfrSm rSefuefygonf/ Oyrm – eADwrefawmfrsm;onf tjypfuif;pifaomvlom;rsm;(rtfpGef)rsm;r[kwfMu[k olrSa&;om;cJhygonf/ ,if;uJhodkY tcsKdUtrSm;rsm;udk remvdk0efwdkpdwf&Sdaomolrsm;u ykHBuD;csJUum armf'l'Dqyfa&;om;cJhonfh usrf;rsm;? pmtkyf? pmwrf;rsm;tm;vkH;udk yifv,fxJwGif vTwfypfvdkuf&awmhrvdkvdk? rD;bJ ykH½IdUvdkuf& awmhrvdkvdk ajymqdkaeMuonfudk uRefawmfodygonf/ ,if;tdE´d,ESifhjrefrmjynfrS tdkvrmomoemY ynm&Sifrsm; pdk;&drfjcif;uvnf; twdkif;twmwpfcktxd rSefuefygonf/ tb,faMumifhqdkaomf rsufarSmufacwfwGif "r®EÅ&m,frsm;onf pmayrsm;? pmtkyf? pmwrf;rsm;udk tajrmuftrsm; a&;om; xkwfa0vQuf&Sdygonf/ omoemhtdvifrftajccHynmrwwfuRrf;aomolrsm;onf trSm;ESifh trSefudk a0zef ydkif;jcm;EdkifpGrf;r&Sdojzifh tawG;tac:? t,ltqcRwfacsmfwdrf;yg;rIrsm;jzpfay:vmEdkifygonf/ ,ck aqmf'Dtma&;AD;,m;EdkifiHwGif ykHESdyf xkwfa0aeonfhpmtkyfrsm;rSm vdktyfvQifvdktyfovdk jyefvnf pDppfwnf;jzwfxm;ygonf/ tawG;tac:? t,ltqcRwfacsmfwdrf;yg;rnfhtEÅ&m,fr&Sdyg/ t&m&mwGif w&m;rQwrI&SdMu&rnf/ trSm;udk trSm;vdkY azmfxkwf0HhouJhodkY trSefudkvnf; trSef[k csD;usL;&J&jcif;onf vlolawmfaumif;wdkY]xkH;}yifjzpfayonf}[k ajzMum;cJhygonf/ vlawmf vlaumif;wdkYxkH;udk ESvkH;rlí uRefawmfwdkYtaeESifh vdkufemusifhokH;tyfay‫ ‏‬nf/}o ,ck pm½Iolvuf0,fwGif a&muf&Sdaeaom ]tpövmrfhabmifwGif;rS vlYtcGifhta&;}qdkonfh bmomjyefusrf;i,fonf tpövmrfhtajccHtaxmuftxm;rsm;jzpfaom usrf;jrwfuk&ftmef? pGefem[f? td*sfrm[fESifh ud,m;pfwdkYESifh udkufnDaom usrf;i,fjzpfygonf/ pm½IoltaeESifh ,kHMunfpdwfcspGm zwf½Iavhvm jzefYcsdydkYcsEdkifygonf/ bmomjyefqdk&mwGifvnf; bmomjyefqdkolq&mrBuD;onf twwfEdkifqkH;BudK;pm;í bmomjyefqdkxm;ouJhodkY uRefawmfonfvnf; tpGrf;ukef pdppfwnf;jzwf xm;ygonf/ odkYaomf vlom;rsm;jzpfonfhtm;avQmfpGm tarhtrSm;yg&SdEdkifayonf/ xdkodkY yg&SdcJhyg vQif pm½IoltaeESifh rdrda&;om;xm;onfh pmtkyfozG,foabmxm;um jyifqifzwf½Iay;Muyg&ef arwÅm&yfcHygonf/ tBuHjyKpmrsm; ay;ydkYvdkyguvnf; m.m.yasinn@hotmail.com odkY ay;ydkYEdkifyg onf/ tdk - tv’m[ft&Sifjrwf? þusrf;i,ftm; a&;om;jyKpkcJhol q&mBuD;tAlttfvmarmf'l'Dociftm; vnf;aumif;? bmomjyefqdkol q&mrBuD;a'gufwm,mprD;eftm;vnf;aumif;? jrefrmbmomjyeftm; wnf;jzwfol uRefawmfhtm;vnfaumif; ESpfb0? ESpfXmewGif aumif;jrwfvSonfhtpm; csD;jr§ifh ay;oem;awmfrlyg/ uRefawmfwdkY uG,fvGefoGm;NyDjzpfaom rdb? q&morm;? aqGrsKd;om;csif;rsm;? 13
  • 14. rdwfaqGrsm;tm;vnf;aumif; vGwfNidrf;csrf;omcGifhay;oem;awmfrlyg/ &SifoefvQuf&Sdaom rdbrsm;? q&morm;rsm;? aqGrsKd;om;jcif;rsm;? rdwfaqGo*F[rsm;udk tDrmefcdkifrmrI? Nidrf;csrf;rI? csrf;omrI? usef;rmrI? *kPfodu©m&SdrIponfh ponfh aumif;csD;tajrmuftrsm; csD;jr§ifhay;oem;awmfrlyg/ rGwfpvifrftrsKd;om;? trsKd;orD;rsm;tm; þusrf;i,fjzifh tusKd;cHpm;EdkifpGrf; csD;jr§ifhay;oem; awmfrlyg/ þusrf;i,fudk taMumif;jyKí uRefawmfwdkYtm; *s[Eémrfi&JrD;ab;rS u,fwifawmfrlí *sEéofokcbkHodkY ydkYaqmifay;awmfrlyg/ tmrD;ef tv’m[ft&Sifjrwfaus;uRef armfv0Drk[r®'f,mpD;ef ‫‏‬ 14
  • 15. usrf;OD;pum; uREkfyfwkdY touf&SifaexkdifMuaom acwfumvBuD;tm; owif;tcsuftvufaygif; ajrmufjrm; pGmukd r,kHMunfEkdifavmufatmif vsifjrefvSaomtjrefEIef;jzifh o,faqmifay;aeonfh qufoG,fa&; acwfumvBuD;[k ac:qkdEkdifygonf/ owif;ESifhenf;ynmrsm; rnfrQyifrsm;jym; wkd;wufvifhupm; rdrdwkdY ywf0ef;usif&Sd vlom;rsm;tm; xkd;azmufausmfvTm; em;vnfEkdifaom pGrf;tm;&Sdrnfr[kwfyg/ uREkfyfwkdYonf vlom;rsm;tm; vlrsKd;pk? tom;ta&mif? bmompum;? ukd;uG,f,kHMunfrI? ,Ofaus;rIponfwkdYjzifh cGJjcm; ½Ijrifavh&Sdygonf/ bmomaygif;pkH? ,Ofaus;rIaygif;pkH twlwuGaexkdifMuaom vlUtzGJUtpnf;BuD;rsm;üyif &mpkESpfaygif;rsm;pGm twlwuG ,SOfwGJaexkdifMuaomfvnf; uREkfyfwkdYonf rdrdwkdUESifhtwlaexkdifMuolrsm; ukd;uG,f,kHMunfrI? ,Ofaus;rIESifhvlrIa&; ausmaxmufaemufcHtajctaersm;ukd b,faomtcgurQ wkduf½kduf avhvmoif,l&ef tm;rxkwfcJhbl;yg/ þokdY twlwuG ,SOfwGJaexkdifMuolrsm; tcsif;csif; wpfOD;taMumif;wpfOD;od&ef BudK;pm;rIr&Sdjcif;? em;vnf&ef BudK;pm;rI uif;rJhcJhrIrsm;aMumifh em;vnfrIvGJrSm;jcif;? 'Gd[oHo,rsm; rMumcP jzpfay: avh&Sdonf/ taemufwkdif;wGif rGwfpvifrfrsm;ESifhywfoufaom vwfwavmaqG;aEG;rIrsm;rSm wpfrsKd;wnf; aomyHkpHESifh OD;wnfyHkazmfaeMuonf/ wpfcgu *sL;vlrsKd;qdkvQif uyfap;ESJaumfw&mrsm;? pD;yGm;a&;udk BudK;udkifjc,fvS,folrsm;tjzpf qdkprSwfjyKcJhaom umv&SdcJhygonf/ ,cktcgwGifrl rGwfpvifrf[kqdkvQifyif tpGef;a&muform;? tMurf;zuf0g'D? tajccH0g'D[ktrnfwyfcH&aomumv jzpfaeayonf/ trSefpifppf rGwfpvifrfrsm;tm; ¤if;wdkY ,HkMunfudk;uG,frI? vkdufemusifhoHk;rIrsm;ESifhywfoufí wdkuf&dkufavhvm pl;prf;rI? ar;jref; pHkprf;rIrsm;rSm tvGefyifenfyg;aeayonf/ 'tf0[ftu,f'rDtaejzifh rGwfpvifrfrsm;twGufomru tjcm;bmom0ifrsm;twGufyg tpövmrf ESifhywfoufonfh owif;tcsuftvufrsm;udk ½kdk;½Sif;aom?wdusaomyHkpHjzifh wdkuf½dkufwifjyay;&ef[laom tcsuf udk&nf&G,fcsuftjzpfcsrSwfcJhygonf/ tpövmrfESifhoufqdkifaom okawoevkyfief;rsm;udkvnf; pmtkyfpmwrf; txlBuD;rsm;tjzpf xkwfa0rnfhtpm; pmtkyfi,frsm;? pmpDpmuHk;rsm; ESifh vkyfief;aqmif&GufrI pmwrf;rsm; tpD&ifcHpmrsm;yHkpHjzifhxkwfa0oGm;&ef rl0g'wpf&yfcsrSwfcJhygonf/ ,ckwifjyrnfhpmwrf;rSm rGwfpvifrfxktwGufomru wpfurÇmvHk;twdkif;twmESifh &ifqdkifae&aom vlYtcGifhta&;qdkif&mjyóemudk wifjyxm;ygonf/ uREkfyfwdkYtaeESifh rGwfpvifrfrsm;xHrS&&Sdaom owif;tcsuftvufrsm;ESifh acwfNydKif jzpfay:aeaom jyóemtrsdK;rsdK;ay:ütajccHí tpövmrfhtaMumif;udk pDppfwifjyxm;jcif;aMumifh tpövmrfh taMumif;odvdk olrsm;twGuf taxmuftuljzpfrnf[k arQmfvifhygonf/ uREkfyfwdkYonf ,ckxkwfa0jcif;ESifhywfoufí tBuHay;csuf? a0zefcsufESifh pHkprf;ar;jref;rIrsm; tm;vHk;udk BudKqdkyg/ pm½IoltaeESifh tpövmrfqdkif&mokawoevkyfief;rsm;twGufvdktyfrnfh rnfonfh pmtkyfpmwrf; ESifh rSwfwrf;rSwf&mrsm;udkrqdkay;jcif;jzifh oifokawoeaqmif&GufrIudk ulnDvdkygonf/ taxGaxGñTefMum;a&;rSL; 'tf0[f tu,f'rD 15
  • 16. usrf;jyKol tAlttfvmarmf'l'D udk,fa&;&mZ0iftusOf;  c&pfouú&mZf 1903 ckESpf? pufwifbmv (25)&uf ([d*s&Douú&mZf 1321 ckESpf? &*sAfv (3)&ufaeYwGif tdE´d,wdkufi,f? [kduf'&mbwfjynfe,f (,aeYtac: - r[m&m&SfMwm; jynfe,f? tl&ef*gbwfNrdKUü arG;zGm;cJhonf/  c&pfouú&mZf 1918 wGif bD*sEdk;&ftl&f'lowif;pmü *sme,fvpftjzpf trIxrf;aqmifonf/  c&pfouú&mZf 1920 wGif *smygyl;&fNrdKUü xkwfa0jzefYcsdaeaom wm*sfaeYpOfowif;pmwGif t,f'Dwmtjzpf cefYtyfjcif;cH&onf/  c&pfouú&mZf 1925 wGif tdE´d,EdkifiHvkH;qdkif&mtdkvrmomoemhynm&Sifrsm;toif;BuD;rS xkwfa0jzefYcsdaeaom rGwfpvifrfaeYpOfowif;pm (aemifwGif - tvf-*srDtofowif;pm[k trnfajymif;cJh) wGif t,f'DwmtjzpfcefYtyfjcif;cH&onf/  c&pfouú&mZf 1927 wGif tvf-*sd[m'fzdvftpövmrf (tpövmrfhabmifwGif;rS *sd[m'f) qdkonfh pmwrf;tm; a&;om;xkwfa0cJhonf/  c&pfouú&mZf 1930 wGif q&mBuD;ausmfMum;aompmtkyfjzpfonfh 'D;efed,m;ofqdkonfh pmtkyftm; a&;om;xkwfa0cJhonf/  c&pfouú&mZf 1932 wGif o&f*sKrmEkvfuk&ftmef (uk&ftmefbmomjyef)tm; [kduf'&mbwf jynfe,fü bmomjyefqdkrIudk tpjyKcJhonf/  c&pfouú&mZf 1938 wGif tv’mr[fa'gufwmtdufAg;vfqGm[dAf tBuHay;csuft& edtm;ZftvDcef;rS rdrdydkifqdkifaom yoefukwfNrdKUtaemufbuf (5)uDvdkrDwmtuGmwGif wnf&Sdaom *srmyl;&fNrdKUü&Sdonfh (66){uus,fjyefYonfhajrtus,ft0ef;ay:wGif wnf aqmufxm;aom 'g½kvfpvmrfb@ma&;XmeodkY ajymif;a½TUcJhonf/  c&pfouú&mZf 1941 wGif tdE´d,EdkifiHvkH;qdkif&m tpövmrfhtzGJUcsKyf (*srmtofaohtpövmrD [if;'f) udk zGJUpnf;wnfaxmifí ,if;tzGJUcsKyfwGif trD;&f (OuúX)tjzpf a½G;aumuf wifajr§mufjcif;cHcJh&onf/ 16
  • 17.  c&pfouú&mZf 1942 wGif *srmtoftzGJUcsKyf XmecsKyftm; yoefukwfNrdKUodkY ajymif;a½TUcJh onf/  c&pfouú&mZf 1943 wGif ozf[D;rkvfuk&ftmef (usrf;jrwfuk&ftmeftm; odem;vnfjcif;) trnfjzifh ausmfMum;aomozfpD;&f(uk&ftmeftvif;jyusrf;)tm; pwifa&;om;cJhonf/  c&pfouú&mZf 1947 wGif ygupöwef *smrmtofaohtpövmrD(ygupöwefEdkifiHvkH;qdkif&m tpövmrfhtzGJUcsKyf) XmecsKyftm; vm[kd&fNrdKUodkY a&TUajymif;cJhonf/  c&pfouú&mZf 1948 wGif tpövmrfhnDvmcHESifh tpdk;&tzGJYtwGuf wuf<upGmyg0if vIyf&Sm;cJh onf/  c&pfouú&mZf 1948 wGif “um'D,meDjyoem”[kac:qdkonfh pmtkyfi,ftm; a&;om;cJh onf/  c&pfouú&mZf 1948 wGif tpdk;&rS axmifoGif;tusOf;csxm;cJhonf/  c&pfouú&mZf 1949 wGif tpdk;&rS tzGJUcsKyf tpövmrfhnDvmcHtwGuf BuKHawGUae&aom jyoemrsm;udk jyefvnfajz&Sif;ay;jcif;tm; vufcHcJhonf/  c&pfouú&mZf 1953 wGif um'D,meDrsm;tm; twdkufcHjyKonfhtwGuf ppfckH½kH;rS q&mBuD; tm; ao'PfcsrSwfcJhonf/  c&pfouú&mZf 1953 wGifyif q&mBuD;tm; ao'PfcsrSwfcJhjcif;tm; wpfoufvkH; axmifoGif;tusOf;csxm;jcif;trdefYESifh tpm;xkd;cJhonf/ aemufydkif;wGif ,if;trdefYtm;vnf; y,fzsufcJhonf/  c&pfouú&mZf 1955 wGif q&mBuD;onf rw&m;axmifoGif;tusOf;csxm;jcif;rS vGwfajrmuf cJhonf/  c&pfouú&mZf 1958 wGif tkyfcsKyfa&;tmPmydkiftdkif,lAfcef;onf rm&Sm,favmOya'jzifh q&mBuD; wnfaxmifcJhonfh tpövmrfhtzGJUcsKyf(*srmtofaohtpövmrD)tm; zsufodrf;cJhonf/  c&pfouú&mZf 1964 wGif q&mBuD;tm; wzefxyfrHí rw&m;zrf;qD; axmifoGif;tusOf;cs xm;jcif;cH&jyefonf/  c&pfouú&mZf 1964 wGif q&mBuD;onf rw&m;zrf;qD;tusOf;csxm;jcif;rS vGwfajrmufcJh onf/  c&pfouú&mZf 1971 wGif q&mBuD;onf rdrdaemufvdkuftzGJU0iftoif;om;wdkYtm; yghuf wyfrawmfESifhvufwGJí ygupöwefjynfaxmifpktwGuf wdkufyGJ0if&ef trdefYay;cJhonf/  c&pfouú&mZf 1972 wGif q&mBuD; pDrHa&;om;onfhozf[Drkvfuk&ftmef(usrf;jrwfuk&ftmef tm; odem;vnfjcif;)trnf&Sd ozfpD;&f(uk&ftmeftvif;jyusrf;)rSm atmifjrifpGm NyD;pD;cJhonf/  c&pfouú&mZf 1972 wGif q&mBuD;onf tpövmrfhtzGJUcsKyftrD;&f(OuúX)&mxl;rS EIwfxGuf ay;cJhonf/  c&pfouú&mZf 1979 wGif q&mBuD;onf aq;uko&eftwGuf tar&duefjynfaxmifpkodkY xGufcGmcJhonf/  c&pfouú&mZf 1979 wGif q&mBuD;onf tar&duefjynfaxmifpküyif tv’m[ft&Sifjrwf trdefYawmfudk cH,lcJhavonf/ (tifemvdv’m[d 0tifemtdvdkif;[d &m*sdtl;ef)  c&pfouú&mZf 1979 wGif q&mBuD;&kyfuvyftm; ygupöwefEdkifiH? vm[kd&fNrdKUwGif 'zef tpövmrfhenf;usoN*dKvfjr§yfESHcJhonf/ 17
  • 18. rSwfcsuf / / q&mBuD;"gwfykHtm; rjrifbl;onfhpm½Iolrsm;jrifbl;ap&ef &nf½G,fí azmfjy xm;jcif;om jzpfygonf/ 18
  • 19. tpövmrf EdifiHa&;qdif&muefYowfcsufrsm; k k tpövmrfEdkifiHa&;pepfonf tajccHoabmw&m;oHk;cktay:wGif tajccHxm;onf/ ,if;wdkYrSm- (1) aomif[D;'f[laom tajccHoabmw&m; (Oneness of God -udk;uG,f&mt&Sif wpfyg;wnf; wnf&Sdjcif;)? (2) &Dpmvof[laom tajccHoabmw&m; (wrefawmfjzpfjcif;)? (3) cdvmzof[laom tajccH oabmw&m; (udk,fpm;vS,fqufcHrI)wdkYjzpfonf/ aomif[D;'f[lonfrSm udk;uG,f&mt&Sifwpfyg;wnf;uom zefqif;jyKpkysdK;axmifol? xdef;odrf; apmifha&SmufolESifh pMu0VmtwGif;&Sd ouf&SdoufrJht&mcyfodrf;wdkYudkpdk;ydkifawmfrlol[k t"dyÜg,f&onf/ xdkt&Sif wpfyg;wnf;üom trdefYay;ydkifcGifh? wm;jrpfydkifcGifh&Sdonf/ c0yfudk;uG,fjcif;? emcHwnfaqmufjcif; tm;vHk;wdkYonf xdkt&Sifwpfyg;wnf;ESifhom xdkufwefonf/ trsdK;rsdK;taxGaxG txl;xl;tjym;jym;jzpfaom ouf&Sdrsm;? uREkfyfwdkY cE¨mudk,ftpdwftydkif;rsm;? twGif;uvDpmrsm;? ½kyfydkif;qdkif&m vIyf&Sm;rIrsm;tay: oufa&mufaeaom vTrf;rdk;jc,fvS,frIrsm;? tvdktavsmuf jzpfay:wnf&SdaeMuaom ½kyfw&m;rsm;tm;vHk; onf uREkfyfwdkYbmom pDrHzefwD;xm;rI[lí wpfpHkwpf&mrQr&Sdacs/ þtcsif;t&mtm;vHk;onf tEdIif;rJh xm0& udk;uG,f&mt&Sif (tv’m[f)u uREkfyfwdkYtay:tyfESif;xm;onfh tvGef&ufa&mvSonfh axmufyHh ay;urf;jcif;rsm;omjzpfayonf/ txufygtaMumif;w&m;rsm;aMumifh uREkfyfwdkYjzpfwnfaejcif; &nf&G,fcsuf? &nfrSef;csufrsm;udk qHk;jzwfowfrSwfjcif;? uREkfyfwdkYavmuDqdkif&mtcGifhtmPmESifh vkyfydkifcGifhrsm;uefYowfcsufrsm;udk uREkfyfwdkY bmomqHk;jzwf&efrSm tcGifhr&Sdacs/ xdkYtwl rnfolwpfOD;wpfa,mufurSvnf; qHk;jzwfay;Edkif aomtcGifhta&; r&Sdacs/ xdktcGifhta&;rSm udk;uG,f&mt&Siftv’m[fwpfyg;wnf;ESifhom oufqdkifaom tcGifhta&;jzpfonf/ udk;uG,f&mt&Sif wpfyg;wnf;&Sdjcif;[laom tajccHoabmw&m;aMumifh vlom; Oya'a&;&mowfrSwfjy|mef;rIESifh EdkifiHa&;t& tcsKyftjcmtmPmydkifpdk;rI[laom todonmrsm;udk t"dyÜg,f rJhaponf/ rnfonfhyk*¾dKvf wpfOD;wpfa,muf? rdom;pkwpfpk? vlwef;pm;wpf&yfESifh vlrsdK;EG,fpkwpfpkurQ xm0&udk;uG,f&mt&Sif (tv’m[f) txufrS ae&mr,lEdkifacs/ udk;uG,f&mt&Sifwpfyg;wnf;onfomvQif tcsKyftjcmtmPmydkifol? pdk;rdk; tkyfcsKyfoljzpfonf/ olynwfawmfrsm;onfomvQif tpövmrf w&m; Oya'tjzpf jzpfwnfaejcif;jzpfonf/ &dpmvof[lonfrSm udk;uG,f&mt&Sif(tv’m[f) Oya'orsm;udk uREkfyfwdkYvlom;rsm; vufcH&&Sd&m Mum;cHudkac:onf/ &dpmvof[laom wrefawmfjzpfjcif;rS uREkfyfwdkY vufcH&&Sdaomt&mESpfck &Sdygonf/ ,if;wdkY teufwpfrsdK;rSm usrf;jrwfuk&ftmefjzpfNyD; þusrf;wGif xm0&udk;uG,f&mt&Sif (tv’m[f)u ol Oya'orsm; udk tao;pdwf &Sif;vif;azmfjyxm;ygonf/ tjcm;wpfrsdK;rSm wrefawmfjrwfrk[r®'f ()onf tv’m[ft&Sif apvTwfcH&oltjzpf ,if;uk&ftmefusrf;udk pum;ESifhvkyf&yftm;jzifh t"dyÜg,fzGifhqdkjyjcif; ESifh vufawGUpHerlem usifhokH;jycsufwdkYjzpfygonf/ usrf;jrwfuk&ftmefrS vlYb0wnfaqmufa&;ESifh ywfoufNyD; us,f0ef;aom tajccHoabm w&m;rsm;udk csrSwfay;onf/ þodkY uk&ftmefrScsrSwfay;aom tajccHoabmw&m;rsm;t& tpövmrfenf;usb0wnfaqmufa&;pepfudk tv’m[fwrefawmfu pHerlem tjzpf xif&Sm;aponf/ usrf;jrwfuk&ftmefESifh wrefawmfb0wnfaqmufrI pHerlemESpfckudkaygif;pnf;í &S&Dt[fac: tpövmrfhw&m;Oya' jzpfvm&onf/ 19
  • 20. cdvmzofqdkonfrSm udk,fpm;jyKjcif;(odkYr[kwf) udk,fpm;vS,fjzpfjcif;[k t"dyÜg,f&onf/ tpövmrf omoemwGif vlom;onf udk;uG,f&mt&Sifu urÇmN*dK[ftwGuf cefYtyfaomudk,fpm;vS,fjzpfonf/ xdkY tjyif t&Sifjrwf wm0efay;tyfjcif;cH&olvnf;jzpfonf/ qdkvdkonfrSm udk;uG,f&mt&SifrSay;tyfaom vkyfydkifcGifhrsm;udk&&SdaomaMumifh xdktmPmESifhvkyfydkifcGifhrsm;udk owfrSwfjy|mef;csufabmiftwGif;üom usifhoHk;ydkifcGifh&Sdayonf/ txufazmfjyyg ]]udk,fpm;vS,fjzpfjcif;}} oabmw&m;udkxif&Sm;ap&ef Oyrmjy&vQif toifydkifqdkif aom ajr,mwpfuGuftwGuf toifhudk,fpm; pDrHtkyfcsKyfrnfholwpfOD;udk cefYxm;rnfqdkMuygpdkY/ toifhtae ESifh tNrJwrf;vkyfaqmifcdkif;Edkifaom tajctaersm;rSm- yxrOD;pGm ajruGuftrSefwu,fydkifqdkifrIonf toifhvuf0,füom&Sdí pDrHtkyfcsKyfolrSm toifudk,fwdkifrjzpfEdkifacs/ 'kwd,taeESifh oifudk,fpm;vS,frS oifydkifqdkifrIrsm;udk oifñTefMum;csufrsm;t&om wdkuf½kdufpDrHtkyfcsKyfapjcif;jzpfonf/ wwd,taeESifh oifhudk,fpm;vS,fu oifuefYowfcsufrsm;udkvdkufemvsuf olYukd,fydkif tcGifhtmPmudk toHk;jyKí pDrH tkyfcsKyfjcif; jzpfonf/ pwkwtaejzifh olutoif,HkMunfrIudk&,lNyD; oifhqE´rsm;udkudk,fpm;jyKí oifh ¦ &nf&G,fcsufrsm; jynfh0atmif taumiftxnfazmfay;jcif;[laom yHkpHav;rsdK;jzifh vkyfaqmifapEdkifygonf/ udk,fpm;vS,fwpfOD; wpfa,muftaeESifh txufazmfjyyg tajctaeav;&yfudk rjznfhpGrf;EdkifcJhaomf xdkol onf tv’m[ft&Sifjrwf tyfESif;xm;aom vkyfydkifcGifhtmPmudk tvGJoHk;pm;jyKjcif;jzpfonf/ olu udk,fpm;jyKcJhaom udk,fpm;vS,f (odkYr[kwf) udk,fpm;jyKjcif;[laom y#dnmOftm; csdK;azmuf&mrnf/ þonfrSm tpövmrfrSzGifhqdkaom vlom;onfurÇmN*dK[ftwGuf xm0&udk;uG,f&mt&Sif udk,fpm;vS,fawmfjzpfonf[laomoabmudk qdkvdkjcif;jzpfonf/ txufazmfjyyg tajctaeav;&yfpvHk; onf udk,fpm;vS,f (cvDz[f)[laom todynmudk twdtusazmfñTef;aeayonf/ þodkYaom EdkifiHa&; oabmw&m;udk vdkufemusifhoHk;aom EdkifiHawmfonf udk;uG,f&mt&Sif tcsKyftjcmtmPmatmuf0,f udk;uG,f&mt&Sifudk udk,fpm;jyKí tkyfcsKyfaejcif;rnf/ txufyg&Sif;vif;zGifhqdkcsufrsm;t& (cvDz[f)[lonf rnfonhfyk*¾dKvfwpfpHkwpfa,muf (0g) rif;qufwpfck (0g) vlwef;pm;wpfckrS jzpf&rnf[laom owfrSwfcsufr&SdaMumif; odomxif&Sm;onf/ cvDz[ftcGifhtmPm[lonf aomif[D;'fESifh &dpmvof[laom tajccHoabmw&m;rsm;udk todtrSwf jyKvufcHNyD;onfhaemuf udk,fpm;jyKjcif;tajctaet&yf&yfudk jznfhpGrf;ay;Edkif&eftoifh&Sdaom rnfonfh vlYtpkta0;udkrqdk tyfESif;xm;aomvkyfydkifcGifhtmPmjzpfonf/ þodkYcvDz[fwm0ef,lxm;aom vlY tpkta0;taeESifh vlYtzGJUtpnf;BuD;wpfckvHk;tay:ü wm0ef&Sdonfomru tpktzGJU0if vlwpfOD;csif;tay: üvnf; wm0ef&Sdonf/ þtcsufrSm tpövmrfwGif 'Drdkua&pDudk pwiftajcjyKapaomtcsufjzpfonf/ tpövmrfvlYabmif twGif;yg0ifaom vlyk*¾dKvfwpfOD;csif;pDonf udk;uG,f&mt&Sifudk,fpm;vS,f[laom tcGifhta&;rsm;ESifh vkyfydkifcGifhrsm;udk yg0iftusdK;cHpm;EdkifcGifh&Sdojzifh vlwpfOD;csif;pDwGif nDrQaomtcGifhta&;&Sdonf/ rnfol wpfOD;wpfa,mufurQ vlyk*¾dKvfwpfOD;tcGifhta&;rsm;ESifh vkyfydkifcGifhrsm;udk z,f&Sm;ydkifcGifhr&Sd/ EdkifiHawmf ta&;udpöt00udk wm0ef,laqmif&Gufaeaom at*sifpD[lonf vlwpfOD;csif;pD oabmwlnDcsufESifh zGJUpnf;&rnfjzpfonf/ xdkYjyif EdkifiHawmf[lonf txufygat*sifpDwGifyg0ifonfh udk,fpm;vS,f wpfOD;csif;pD tcGifhtmPmudk wdk;csJUxm;jcif;omjzpf&rnf/ þudk,fpm;vS,frsm; oabmxm;rsm;onf 20
  • 21. tpdk;&tzGJUtpnf; aemufqHk;tqHk;tjzwf jzpfap&rnf/ tpdk;&tzGJUwpfckvHk;onf udk,fpm;vS,frsm; tBuHay;csufrsm;? olwdkYqE´oabmxm;rsm;t&om pDrHaqmif&Guf&rnf/ xdkYaMumifh at*sifpDwGifyg0ifolwpfOD;csif; ,HkMunfpdwfcsrIcH&ol rnfolrqdk tpdk;&tzGJU udk,fpm;wm0efESifh 0wÅ&m;rsm;udk ]]udk,fpm;vS,f}}tjzpf aqmif&GufEdkifcGifh&Sdonf/ at*sifpDtwGif;yg0ifol rsm; ,HkMunfpdwfcsrIuif;rJhoGm;aomtcsdefwGifrl xdkolonf ]]udk,fpm;vS,f}}tjzpfrS qif;ay;&ef vdktyfonf/ þtcsufaMumifh tpövmrfEdkifiHa&;pepfrSm jynfh0aom'Drdkua&pDtoGifaqmifaeayonf/ tpövmrfh'Drdkua&pDESifh taemufwkdif;'Drdkua&pDudk rnfonfht&mu cGJjcm;ay;ygoenf;/ taemuf wdkif;'Drdkua&pDonf trsm;uvufcHaom tcsKyftjcmtmPm[laom todonmay:wGif tajccHxm;jcif; jzpfí tpövmrfh'Drdkua&pDrSm trsm;uvufcHaom cvDz[f ]]udk,fpm;vS,f}}[laomoabmw&m;tay: tajccHxm;jcif;jzpfonf/ taemufwdkif;'Drdkua&pDwGif jynfolvlxku tcsKyftjcmtmPmudkydkifqdkifNyD;? tpövmrfwGifrl tcsKyftjcmtmPmydkifolrSm udk;uG,f&mt&SifjzpfNyD; vlom;rsm;tm;vHk;onf udk;uG,f&m t&Sif cvDz[f (odkY)udk,fpm;vS,fawmfrsm;jzpfMuonf/ taemufwdkif;'Drdkua&pDwGif Oya'udk vlxkrS rdrdwdkYbmomjy|mef;NyD; tpövmrfwGif udk;uG,f&mt&Sif u wrefawmfjrwf()rSwpfqifhcsrSwfay;aom &S&Dt[fac:tpövmrfhw&m;Oya'udk vdkufemusifhokH; Mu&onf/ taemufwdkif; 'Drdkua&pDpepfwGif tpdk;&rS jynfolvlxkqE´udk vdkufavsmjznfhqnf;ay;&ef wm0ef&Sdonf/ tpövmrfwGifrl tpdk;&ESifhjynfolu udk;uG,f&mt&Siftvdkawmftwdkif; vdkufemusifhokH;&ef vdktyfonf/ (rSwfcsuf- xdkudk;uG,f&mt&Sif tvdkawmfwdkif;rSm vlom;rsm;aumif;usdK;twGufom jzpfNyD; udk;uG,f&mt&Sifonf vdkvm; awmifhwcsufrsm;rS uif;vGwfawmfrlaomt&Sifjzpfawmfrlyg/ bmomjyefol) ,cktcg uREfkyfwdkYonf aomif[D;'f? &dpmvofESifh cdvmz[f[laom tajccHoabmw&m;rsm;udk tajccHíwnfaqmufxm;aom EdkifiHawmfyHkpHrsdK;udk ydkrdkoabmaygufEdkifap&ef avhvmqef;ppf&rnfhtqifhodkY a&muf&Sdaeygonf/ usrf;jrwfuk&ftmefrS &Sif;vif;pGmzGifhqdkxm;onfrSm ]]tpövmrhfEdkifiHawmf &nf&G,fcsuf ESifh &nfrSef;csufyef;wdkif[lonf vlom;tusdK;twGuf zefqif;&Sifu jzpfapvdkaomtvdkawmfrsm;ESifh vlom; tm;vHk; qHk;½IH;epfemysufpD;aprnfh pufqkyf&GH&SmzG,fudpörsm;rS umuG,fwm;qD;tjrpfjzwf acsrIef; okwfoifypf&efqE´&Sdaom opömw&m;rsm;udktajccHí wnfaxmifxm;aom? opömw&m;rsm;udk xdef;odrf; xm;aom? opömw&m;rsm;udk zGHUNzdK;wdk;wufapaom EdkifiHawmfrsdK;jzpfonf/}} xdkYaMumifh tpövmrfhEdkifiHawmf [lonf EdkifiHa&;t& pDrHtkyfcsKyfrItwGufom toHk;jyKonfhud&d,mwpfckr[kwf/ vlwpfpk oabmxm; qE´rsm;jynfhpHkatmif aqmif&Gufay;onfh tzGJUtpnf;wpfckvnf;r[kwf/ tpövmrftaeESifh EdkifiHawmf txufwGif taumif;wumhtaumif;qHk; pHwpfckcsrSwfxm;onf/ xdkpHEIef;odkYa&muf&SdzdkYta&; enf;vrf;rsdK;pHk udk toHk;jyK&rnfjzpfNyD; taESmifht,Suf twm;tqD;rsm;udkvnf; pHEIef;t& z,f&Sm;&Sif;vif;&rnfjzpfonf/ tpövmrfEdkifiHawmf pHEIef;qdkonfrSm tjypfuif;pifjcif;? tvSw&m;? aumif;jrwfjcif;? pifMu,f aomtusifhoDv? atmifjrifjcif;? <u,f0csrf;omjcif;rsm;jzpfonf/ ,if;wkdYrSm udk;uG,f&mt&Sifu vlom; b0&SifoefrItwGuf zGHUNzdK;wdk;wufjzpfay:apvdkaom pHEIef;rsm;jzpfonf/ wpfzufwGifrl tm;vHk;aom acgif;yHkjzwf tjrwfxkwfjcif;? w&m;rQwrIuif;rJhjcif;wdkYonf udk;uG,f&mt&Sif rsufarSmufwGif azmufjyefrIrsm;jzpfonf/ urÇmN*dK[fudkzsufqD;olrsm;rSm zefqif;cHrsm;b0udk xdcdkufepfemapolrsm;jzpfonf/ 21
  • 22. ¤if;wdkYudk tzsufvkyfief;rsm;rS xdef;csKyfumuG,f&rnf/ tpövmrfrSwdus&Sif;vif;aom udk,fusifhw&m; qdkif&m tESpfcsKyfoabmw&m;udk vdkufemaqmif&GufapvdkonfhtusifhoDvESifh a&SmifMuOfapvdkonfh tusifhoDvrsm;tjzpf rD;armif;xdk;azmfjyxm;ayonf/ þtESpfcsKyfyHkMurf;oabmudk xdef;odrf;vdkufem usifhaqmifjcif;tm;jzifh tpövmrfhEdkifiHawmftaeESifh ,if; om,m0ajyma&;tpDtpOfrsm;udk acwfwdkif; ywf0ef;usifwkdif;ü pDrHaqmif&GufEdkifayonf/ tpövmrfrS tajymif;tvJr&Sd awmif;qdkaeaomt&mrSm tusifhoDvqdkif&m tajccHoabmw&m;rsm; jzpfí ¤if;wdkYudk vlom;wpfOD; b0c&D;vrf;wpfavQmufvHk;ü pGefYvTwfrIrsm;ESifh tepfemcH&rnf[laom tcsuf jzpfonf/ xdkYaMumifh tpövmrfrS rajymif;vJEdkifaomrl0g'wpfckcsrSwfay;onf/ EdkifiHawmftaeESifh xdkrl0g'tay:wGif tajccHNyD; w&m;rQwrI?trSefw&m;ESifh ajzmifhrwfrSefuefjcif;[laom oabmw&m;rsm;? rl0g'rsm; wnfaqmuf&rnf/ rnfodkYaomtajctae? tcsdeftcgrsdK;wGifürqdk EdkifiHa&;? pDrHtkyfcsKyfa&;ESifh trsdK;om;a&;twGuf twkta,mifaqmifrkom;xGufqdkjcif;? w&m;rQwrIr&Sdjcif;wdkYudk oifhovdk vkyfaqmifrIrsdK; rjyKvkyfap&/ EdkifiHawmfESifhEdkifiHom;rsm;Mum;wGifjzpfap? EdkifiHawmfESifh tjcm;EdkifiHrsm;Mum; wGifjzpfap rSefuefrI? ½dk;om;ajzmifhrwfrIESifh w&m;rQwrIudkom a&SUwef;wifrIjyK&ayonf/ tpövmrfrS EdkifiHawmfESifh vlwpfOD;csif;pDtay:ü qifwlaomwm0ef0wå&m;rsm; owfrSwfay;xm;yg onf/ ,if;owfrSwfjy|mef;csufrsm;rSm tm;vHk;aomoabmwlpmcsKyfrsm;udk rjzpfrae jynfh0atmif aqmif&Gufjcif;? qufqHa&;wGifwlnDaom pHEIef;rsm;&Sdapjcif;? tcGifhta&;ESifhtwl wm0ef0wå&m;rsm; vkyfaqmifay;&mwGif tjcm;olrsm;tm; ¤if;wdkYwm0efrsm; xrf;aqmifap&mwGif olwdkY&ydkifcGifhrsm;udk rarhavsmhapjcif;? w&m;rQwrIudk xlaxmifa&;twGuf tmPmESifhvkyfydkifcGifhrsm;udktoHk;jyKjcif;? jypfrI usL;vGefjcif;ESifh w&m;rQwrI r&Sdjcif;twGuf tmPmESifhvkyfydkifcGifhrsm;udk tvGJoHk;pm;rjyK&jcif;? wm0efudk tav;tjrwfxm;p&m 0wå&m;[k owfrSwfjcif;? wm0efudkaphpyfaocsmpGm vpf[if;rIr&SdbJ xrf;aqmif apjcif;? tmPmudk udk;uG,f&mt&Sif ,HkMunftyfESHrI[kowfrSwfí wpfpHkwpfa,mufrS þtmPmudk tvGJoHk;pm;jyKygu tmac&ofaemifwrvGefb0 wGif jyefvnfay;qyf&rnf[k ,HkMunfjcif;wdkYjzpfonf/ tpövmrfEdkifiHawmfwpfckudk urÇmN*dK[f&Sdrnfonfhae&mwGifrqdk wnfaxmifEdkifaomfvnf; EdkifiHawmf e,fedrdwftwGif; vlYtcGifhta&;ESifh txl;tcGifhta&;rsm;udk uefYowfcsKyfcs,f wm;qD;ydkifcGifhr&Sd/ tpövmrfrS tajctaet&yf&yfwGif tcsdefra&G; vdkufemusifhoHk;Edkifonfh trsm;ESifhqdkifaom tajccH vlYtcGifhta&;rsm;udk csrSwfay;onf/ Oyrm- vlaoG;onf tav;tjrwfwefzdk;xm;oifhaomaMumifh cdkifvHkaomusdK;aMumif;jycsufr&SdbJ aoG;xGufoH,kdrI rjzpfap&/ xdkYtjyif trsdK;orD;rsm;? uav;oli,frsm;? touft&G,fBuD;&ifholrsm;? rusef;rrmolrsm;? 'Pf&m temw&jzpfaeolrsm;udk zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fcGifhr&Sd? trsdK;orD;rsm; *kPfodu©mESifh tdajE´udkav;pm;&rnf/ qmavmifrGwfodyfaeolrsm;udk auR;arG;&rnf/ t0wftpm;uif;rJhaeolrsm;udk t0wf tpm;qifay;&rnf/ 'Pf&m&aeolrsm;? a&m*ga0'em&Sifrsm;tm; rGwfpvifrfjzpfap? rGwfpvifrf &efoltkyfpkrsm;rSyifjzpfap aq;0g;ukoay;&rnf/ þodkY jyKrl qufqHjcif;rsm;ESifh tjcm;axmufyHhjcif;rsm;udk vlom;wpfOD;twGuf vlom;*kPfodu©m? vlYtqifhtwef;ESifh tnDay;xm;aom tajccHvlYtcGifhta&;rsm;jzpfonf/ tpövmrfwGif EkdifiHom;rsm;tcGifhta&;udk owfrSwfay;&mwGif owfrSwfxm;aom EdkifiHwpfEdkifiH twGif; arG;zGm;olrsm;twGufom uefYowfxm;rIr&Sday/ xdkYaMumifhyif rGwfpvifrfwpfOD;onf tpövmrfEdkifiH 22
  • 23. wpfcktwGif;odkY tajccsaexdkifoGm;&ef&nf&G,fcsufjzifh tajccsvdkufonfESifhwpfNydKifwnf; xdkEdkifiHwGif arG;uwnf;u tajccsaexdkifolrsm;ESifh wef;wltcGifhta&;rsm;udk wef;wlcHpm;cGifh&Sdonf/ rGwfpvifrfwdkif; taeESifh olvlrsdK;EG,f? tom;ta&mifESifh vlwef;pm;rsm;udk cGJjcm;jcif;r&SdbJ tpövmrhfEdkifiHtwGif; tjrifhrm;qHk; tqifhtwef;wGifxm;í *kPfjyKumuG,f&avonf/ tpövmrfwGif tpövmrfhEdkifiHawmfe,fedrdwftwGif; aexdkifonfh rGwfpvifrfr[kwfonfholrsm; twGufvnf; wdusaomtcGifhta&;rsm; owfrSwfay;xm;onf/ ,if;wdkYtm; tpövmrfzGJUpnf;yHk tajccHOya' tcef;u@wpfcktjzpfvnf; jy|mef;&efvdktyfonf/ tpövmrfha0g[m&ü þuJhodkYaom rGwfpvifrfr[kwfonfh EdkifiHom;rsm;tm; ]]ZifrD}}tapmifha&SmufcH[kac:onf/ tpövmrfh EdkifiHwpfckodkY rdrdwdkYoabmjzifh 0ifa&muf aexdkifMuNyD; tpövmrfhEdkifiHawmfrS ¤if;wdkYtm;umuG,fapmifha&Smuf&ef ¤if;wdkYESifh y#dnmOfjyKMuolrsm; jzpfMuygonf/ ZifrDwpfOD; touf?ydkifqdkifrIOpöm ypönf;rsm;ESifh *kPfodu©mwdkYudk rGwfpvifrfEdkifiHom;wpfOD;ESifh wef;wltav;xm; umuG,fay;&onf/ xdkYaMumifhw&m;rOya'ESifh jypfrI qdkif&mOya'ESpf&yfvHk;wGif rGwfpvifrf ESifh rGwfpvifrfr[kwfaom EdkifiHom;rsm;tMum; cGJjcm;rIvHk;0r&Sdyg/ tpövmrfhEdkifiHawmftaeESifh rGwfpvifrfr[kwfolrsm; yk*¾dKvfa&;qdkif&m tcGifhta&;rsm;udk aESmifh,Suf [efYwm;rIrsm;jyKrnfr[kwf/ ZifrDrsm;taeESifh pdwf"mwfydkif;qdkif&mESifh ,if;wdkY,HkMunfrIrsm; twGuf jynfh0aom vGwfvyfrI&Sdap&rnfjzpfonf/ olwdkY bmoma&;qdkif&m "avhxHk;pHrsm;? tcrf;tem; rsm;udk olwdkY BudKufESpfoufonfhyHkpHrsm;jzifh usifhoHk;ydkifcGifh&Sd,HkrQru ,if;wdkYoabmw&m;rsm;udkvnf; vGwfvyfpGm0g'jzefYydkifcGifh &Sdonf/ xdkrQru ,if;wdkYrS tpövmrfudk a0zefrIjyKvkdyguvnf; csrSwfxm;aom Oya'ESifh vlrIa&;usifh0wfqdkif&m uefYowfcsufrsm;twGif;ü a0zefydkifcGifh&Sdonf/ txufazmfjyyg rGwfpvifrfr[kwfolrsm;ESifh oufqdkifaomtcGifhta&;rsm;onf jyKjyifajymif;vJí r&aom tcGifhta&;rsm;jzpfonf/ ,if;wdkYudk EdkifiHom;rsm;tjzpf tmrcHcsufay;xm;onf/ rSDcdk&mEdkifiHrS ¤if;wdkY udk,fwdkifrpGefYcGmoa&GU rnfolwpfOD;wpfa,mufurQ rGwfpvifrfr[kwfol EdkifiHom;rsm; tcGifhta&;udk ydwfyifwm;qD;EdkifcGifhr&Sd/ rGwfpvifrfr[kwfaomEdkifiHwpfcku ,if;EdkifiHrS rGwfpvifrf EdkifiHom;rsm;tm; zdESdyfcsKyfcs,f ESdyfpufaumif;ESdyfpufrnfjzpfaomfvnf; tpövmrfhEdkifiHawmftaeESifh ,if;EdkifiH rGwfpvifrfr[kwfol EdkifiHom;rsm;tm; vufwHkYjyef n§if;yef;ESdyfpuf&efcGifhrjyKay/ tu,fí tpövmrfhEdkifiHawmfjyify&Sd rGwfpvifrfrsm;tm; tpkvdkuftNyHKvdkuf owfjzwfrIjzpfcJhvQifawmif rS tpövmrfhEdkifiHawmfonf rdrdEdkifiHawmftwGif; rSDwif;aexdkifMuukefaom tumtuG,fcHrGwfpvifrfr[kwfol EkdifiHom;wpfOD;aoG;udkrQ EdkifiHawmftwGif; rusqif;ap&/ tpövmrfhEdkifiHawmfwpfcktwGif; tpdk;& pDrHtkyfcsKyfa&;wm0efudk trD;&f-acgif;aqmifxH tyfESHxm; onf/ EdIif;,SOfjy&vQif taemufwdkif;'Drdkua&pDEdkifiHrsm; or®w(odkYr[kwf)0efBuD;csKyfESifh tqifhtwef; csif; wlnDonf/ zGJUpnf;yHktajccHOya' owfrSwfjy|mef;csufESifhtusHK;0ifaom t&G,fa&mufol usm;rtm;vHk; onf trD;&fa&G;cs,faoma&G;aumufyGJwGif rJay;ydkifcGifh&Sdonf/ trD;&fjzpf&ef vdktyfaomt&nftcsif;rsm;rsm ynm? tpövmrfhpdwf"mwfESifhywfoufí vltrsm;pk ,HkMunfav;pm; axmufcHrI&&Sdxm;oljzpf&rnf/ tpövmrfhpdwf"mwf&Sdonf[kqdk&mwGif ouú0g[fac: udk;uG,f&mt&Siftm; aMumuf&GHU½dkaocefYNim;aomol jzpf&rnf/ xdkuJhodkYaomolomvQif EdkifiHawmf 23
  • 24. tBuD;tuJjzpf&ef xdkufwefol jzpf&rnf/ twdkcsKyfqdk&aomf trD;&f[lonf t&nftcsif;&SdouJhodkY pifMu,faomtusifhoDvESifhvnf; jynfhpkHoljzpf&rnf/ ½SL&m[kac:aom tBuHay;aumifpDudkvnf; jynfolvlxk a&G;cs,fwifajr§mufrIjzifh zGJUpnf;xm; onf/ ,if;wm0efrSm trD;&facgif;aqmiftm; ulnDrIESifhvrf;ñTefrIjyK&ayrnf/ trD;&f acgif;aqmif taeESifh rdrdwdkif;jynfudk½SL&mtzGJU tBuHÓmPfjzifhom pDrHcefYcGJ&efwm0ef&Sdonf/ trD;&ftaeESifh jynfol vlxk pdwfcs,HkMunfrI&Sdaeoa&GU tkyfcsKyfa&;tmPmESifh ½kH;awmfudk xdef;odrf;xm;EdkifcGifh&Sdonf/ jynfol vlxk ,HkMunfudk;pm;rI qHk;½IH;oGm;aomtcgwGifrl tkyfcsKyfEdkifrItcGifhta&;ESifh ½kH;awmfudk pGeYfvTwf &rnfjzpfonf/ EdkifiHom;wdkif;taeESifh trD;&facgif;aqmifESifh ol tpdk;&udk a0zefydkifcGifh&Sdonf/ jynfolrsm;oabmxm;udk yGifhvif;pGm zGifh[aqG;aEG;Edkif&ef oifhwifhavsmufywfaomenf;vrf;rsm;jzifh jzpfajrmufatmif aqmif&Gufay;&onf/ tpövmrfhEdkifiHawmf Oya'jyKjcif;rSm &S&Dt[fac: tpövmrfhw&m;Oya'abmiftwGif; uefYowf xm;csufrsm;t& Oya'jyKydkifcGifh &Sdonf/ udk;uG,f&mt&Siftv’m[fESifh wrefawmf w&m;0iftrdefYrsm;udk vdkufemvufcHusifhoHk;&rnf jzpfonf/ rnfonfhOya'jyKtzGJUtpnf;urS xdktrdefYrsm;udk ajymif;vJcGifh? jyKjyifcGifh? qefYusifcGifh? y,fzsufcGifhr&Sd/ xdktrdefYynwfcsufrsm;teuf teuft"dyÜg,fESpfck (odkYr[kwf)ESpfckxuf ydkEdkifzG,f&Sdygu tpövmrfha&;&m tpövmrfhOya'uRrf;usifwwfajrmufolrsm; yg0ifzGJYpnf;xm;aom tBuHay;aumifpD qyfaumfrDwDESifh aqG;aEG;wdkifyif qHk;jzwf&rnfjzpfonf/ &S&Dt[f Oya'rS txl;trdefYrsm;ESifh jyóem&yfrsm;udk vTrf;NcHKajz&Sif;EdkifpGrf;r&Sdawmhonfh e,fy,frsm;twGuf Oya'jyKa&;rSm tBuHay;aumifpD(odkYr[kwf)Oya'jyKtzGJUrS jyKvkyfydkifcGifh&Sdonf/ ,if;udpö&yfrsm;ESifhywfouf í vGwfvyfpGm pD&ifqHk;jzwfydkifcGifhvnf;&Sdonf/ tpövmrfwGif w&m;olBuD;tzGJUonf tkyfcsKyfa&;(tpdk;&tzGJU)vufatmufwGifr&Sdyg/ w&m;olBuD; tzGJUonf ,if;tmPmudk &S&Dt[fac:tpövmrfhw&m;Oya'rS wdkuf½dkuf&&SdNyD; udk;uG,f&mt&SifodkY tajzay;&ef wm0ef&SdaomtzGJUvnf; jzpfonf/ w&m; olBuD;rsm;udk tpdk;&tzGJUrS cefYtyfxm;onf/ w&m;olBuD;tjzpf a&G;cs,fcH&onfESifh udk;uG,f&mt&Sif owfrSwfjy|mef;xm;aom Oya't& pD&if&rnf jzpfonf/ rsufESmrvdkuf&? ormorwfusus qHk;jzwf&rnfjzpfonf/ tpdk;&,EÅ&m;rsm;ESifh 0efxrf;t&mxrf;rsm;tm;vHk;onf ol w&m;0ifw&m;pD&ifcGifh jyifyür&Sdap&/ xdkYaMumifh tpdk;& tjrifhqHk;w&m;pD&ifa&;tzGJUonfyifvQifw&m; ½kH;awmfrSqifhac:vQif w&m;vdktjzpfvnf;aumif;? w&m;cHtjzpfvnf;aumif; ½kH;awmfa&SUvm&yfMu&rnf/ tkyfcsKyfolESifhtkyfcsKyfcH ESpfOD;pvHk;onf Oya' atmufwGifom&Sd&rnf/ &mxl;tmPmESifh tcGifhxl;cHponfjzifh tqifhtwef;rcGJbJ Oya'a&SUarSmufwGif wpfajy;nDjzpf&rnf/ tpövmrfhaemufvdkufrsm;onf Oya'pnf;rsOf; pnf;urf;rsm;udk nDrQrIESifh ½dk;om; ajzmifhrwfpGm vdkufem&onfomjzpfonf/ vlrIa&;? pD;yGm;a&;? EdkifiHa&; tm;vHk;aom e,fy,frsm;udkvnf; nDrQjcif;? wpfoa0rwdrf;vdkufemjcif;jzifh taumiftxnfazmf&yfwnf&rnf jzpfonf/ 24
  • 25. vltcGifhta&;? taemufwdkif;ESiftpövmrf Y h taemufwdkif;om;rsm;wGif urÇmüjzpfxGef;cJhaom vlom;tm; tusdK;jyKaponfh zGHUNzdK;wdk;wufrI tm;vHk;onf ,if;wdkYaMumifhjzpfonf[k rSwf,lwwfaomtusifh&Sdonf/ Oyrmjy&vQif vlYtcGifhta&;oabm w&m;udk NAdwdefEdkifiH r*¾emumwm Magna Carta yxrqHk; pGJ,loHk;pGJcJhonf[k qlnHpGm a<u;aMumfaecJhMuonf/ ,if;rSm tpövmrfay:xGef;NyD; ESpfaygif;(600)MumrS a&;qGJcJhjcif;jzpfonf/ xdkYtjyif trSefpifppf r*¾emumwmwGif cHktzGJUtjzpf ppfaq;pD&ifjcif;wnf;[laomoabmw&m;yg&Sdjcif;? tcGefpnf; Muyfjcif;[laom tcGifhtvrf;udk ygvDrefrSxdef;csKyfEdkifonf[laom oabmw&m;yg&Sdjcif;udk 17-&mpk wdkifatmif tusdK;taMumif;jyazmfxkwf&ef tdyfrufyifrrufcJhyg/ tu,fí r*¾emumwmrlMurf;udk a&;qGJcJh onfhyk*¾dKvfrsm;om ,aeYwdkif touf&Sifaeao;rnfqdkygu olwdkYa&;om;csufonf þtaumif;qHk; oabmw&m;rsm;udk tjrwfwEkd; xdef;odrf;xm;Muonfudkodygu tvGefyiftHhMooGm;Murnfjzpfonf/ pma&;ol taumif;qkH;A[kokwt& pOf;pm;MunfhvQif 17-&mpkESpfrwdkifrD taemufwdkif;wGif vlYtcGifh ta&;? EdkifiHom;wdkYtcGifhta&;[laom todonmrsm;r&SdcJhay/ 18-&mpkESpftxdvnf; xdktcGifh ta&;rsm;udk oabmaygufem;vnfusifhoHk;rI r&SdcJhay/ odkYaomf 18-&mpktqHk;ydkif;ESpfrsm;wGifom tar&duef ESifh jyifopfEdkifiHwkdYtajccHOya'rsm;wGif vlYtcGifhta&;ESifh EdkifiHom;wdkYtcGifhta&;[laom todynm rsm;udk ,if;wdkYrl&if; teuft"dyÜg,ftwdkif; ouf0ifusifhoHk;cJhonfudk awGU&onf/ þtjzpftysufrsm;aemufydkif;wGif EdkifiHrsm;pGm tajccHOya'rsm;wGif tajccHvlYtcGifhta&;ESifh ywfoufí &nfñTef;csufrsm; ay:aygufvmonf/ txufygtcGifhta&;rsm;rSm vufawGU toHk;0ifrIxuf pm&Gufay:wGif&Sdaom tcGifhta&;rsm;tjzpfom &SdcJhonf/ 20-&mpktv,fydkif;ESpfwGif urÇmhukvor*¾ (United Nations) ,cktcg ydkíqDavsmfaomtrnfjzifhac:&vQif urÇmhEdkifiHrsm;cGJjcm;a&;toif;BuD; (Divided Nations)rSm trsm;ESifhqdkifaom vlYtcGifhta&;aMunmpmwrf;BuD;udk xkwfjyefcJhonf/ xdkokdY xkwfjyef&jcif; &nf&G,fcsufrSm rsdK;jzKwfowfjzwfjcif;rsm;udk jypfwifa0zefvsuf ,if;jyóemrsm; ajyvnfatmif ajz&Sif;ay;onhftaeESifh jyóemrsm;xyfrHray:ayguf&ef xdef;odrf;vdkonfh &nf&G,fcsuf jzpfcJhonf/ okdYaomf EdkifiHwpfEdkifiHrS rsdK;jzKwfowfjzwfjcif;udk [efYwm;vdkaomtcg urÇmhukvor*¾ tzGJUBuD;udk zdtm;ay;awmif;qdkaomfjim;vnf; rnfonfh ajz&Sif;xdef;odrf;ay;jcif;rsdK;rS r&SdcJhyg/ urÇmh ukvor*¾rSm &nf&G,fcsufaumif;aomfvnf; jzpfEdkifajcr&Sdaom arQmfvifhcsufrsm;om azmfjyrI&SdcJhonf/ urÇmhukvor*¾taeESifh þodkYajymqdkcsufrsm;aemufuG,fwGif rnfonfh cGifhjyKrdefYrS rxkwfjyefyg/ xdkokdY rsdK;jzKwfowfjzwfaeolrsm;tm; rnfonfh ½kyfydkif;qdkif&m? udk,fusifhw&m;qdkif&m zdtm;ay;rIrsdK;rS rjyKvkyfyg/ xdkodkYtrSefwu,fjzpfysufaeonfh tajccHvlYtcGifhta&; csdK;azmufcH&rIrsdK;udk ajz&Sif;ay;rnfhtpm; urÇmh ukvor*¾ qlnHaom ajz&Sif;rIrsm;? qHk;jzwfcsufrsm;aMumifh vlYtcGifhta&;rSm qufvuf csdK;azmuf eif;acsapmfum;cHae&rIrsm;om qufvufjzpfay:aeqJ jzpfonf/ 25
  • 26. tpövmrfwGif uREfkyfwdkYajymqdkaeaom vlYtcGifhta&;[lonf udk;uG,f&mt&Sifu tmrcHcsuf ay;xm;aomtcGifhta&;rsm;udk qdkvdkonf/ tkyfcsKyfolbk&ifrsm;ESifh Oya'jyKtzGJUtpnf;rsm;u ay;aomtcGifh ta&;[lonf rdrdwdkYESpfoufovdk tcGifhta&;rsm;udk jyefvnf½kyfodrf;Edkifonf/ odkYaomf udk;uG,f&m t&Sifu ay;tyfxm;aom tcGifhta&;rsm;udkrl rnfolwpfOD;wpfa,muf(odkY) rnfonfh tzGJUtpnf; wpfckurQ ½kyfodrf;Edkifaom tcGifhtmPmr&Sdacs/ ukvor*¾ y#dnmOfpmwrf;aMunmcsufrsm;ESifh qHk;jzwfcsufrsm;ponfwdkYudk udk;uG,f&mt&SifrS cGifhjyKcsufay;xm;onfh tcGifhta&;rsm;ESifh EIdif;,SOfjcif;rjyKEdkif/ y#dnmOfpmwrf;aMunmjcif;ESifh qHk;jzwfcsuf wdkYrSm vlwpfOD;twGufrjyKrae& wm0efr[kwfaomfvnf; udk;uG,f&mt&SifrS ay;xm;aomtcGifhta&;? cGifhjyKcsufrsm;rSmrl tpövmrhf,HkMunfrI tpdwftydkif;jzpfaomaMumifh rGwfpvifrftm;vHk;ESifh rdrdudk,fudkrdrd rGwfpvifrf[kzGifh[aMunmol pDrHtkyfcsKyfa&;orm;wpfOD;taeESifh udk;uG,f&mt&Sifu cGifhjyKxm;onfh tcGifh ta&;rsm;udk vufcH&rnf/ todtrSwfjyK&rnf/ tusdK;oufa&mufrI&Sdap&rnf/ tu,fí xdkolrS ,if;tcGifh ta&;rsm;udk tusdK;oufa&mufrIr&SdapcJhvQif (odkYr[kwf) xdktcGifhta&;rsm;udk EIwfjzifhomajymaeNyD; tcGifh ta&;rsm;udk csdK;azmufcJhvQif olwdkYESifhywfoufí usrf;jrwfuk&ftmef qHk;jzwfcsufrsm;rSm jywfom;wdus vSayonf/ atmufazmfjyygusrf;ydk'fwGif tvm;wlñTef;qdkonfrSm- ]]¤if;tjyif rnfolrqdk tv’m[ft&Sifjrwf csrSwfawmfrlonfh w&m;pD&ifqHk;jzwfjcif;rjyKcJhygvQif xdkuJhodkYaomolrsm;yif trSm;usL;vGefaomolrsm; jzpfMuukefownf;/}} xdkYjyif cJbG,fabmZOfu@wGifyif wwd,usrf;ydk'ftaejzifh wpfenf;tm;jzifhqdk&aomf ,m,DtmPmydkifrsm;taejzifh rdrdwdkYudk,fydkifpum;rsm;? qHk;jzwfcsuf rsm;uom rSefuefNyD; tv’m[ft&SifjrwfcsrSwfay;aomtrdefYrsm;tm; rSm;,Gif;onf[k ,lqMuaomolrsm; onf umzd&fr,HkMunfolrsm;jzpfMuonf/ wpfzufwGif tmPmydkifrsm;taeESifh tv’m[ft&Sifjrwf trdefYynwfcsufrsm;rSm rSefuefonf[k vufcHaomfjim;vnf; ,if;wdkYqHk;jzwfcsuf rsm;udkom tom;ay; vdkojzifh tv’m[ft&Sif trdefYawmfrsm;udk wrif&nf&G,fí jiif;y,fcJhonf&SdcJhaomf xdkolwdkYonf trSm; 26
  • 27. usL;vGefolrsm;jzpfonf[k qdkvdkonf/ Oya'csdK;azmufolrsm;rSm EdkifiHawmfopömudk Oayu©mjyKjcif;om jzpfí trsdK;om;a&;udk opömrJholrsm; jzpfMuonf/ 27
  • 28. tajccHvlYtcGifhta&;rsm; vlwpfOD;wpfa,mufonf þEdkifiHrSjzpfonf (odkYr[kwf) xdkEdkifiHrSjzpfonf/ xdkolonf ,HkMunfol wpfOD;jzpfonf (odkYr[kwf) r,HkMunfolwpfOD;jzpfonf/ olonfopfawmxJwGif tajccs aexdkifoljzpfonf (odkYr[kwf) oJuEåm&twGif; touf&Sifaexdkifoljzpfonf ponfjzifh rnfodkYyifjzpfapumrl olonfvlom; wpfOD;jzpfjcif;wnf;[laom taMumif;w&m;aMumifh olYrSm tajccHvlYtcGifhta&;rsm;&SdaeaMumif;udk uREfkyfwdkY odjrifEdkifNyD;jzpfonf/ xdkYtjyif rGwfpvifrfwdkif;taeESifh þtajccHvlYtcGifhta&;rsm;udk tav;xm;í todtrSwfjyK&rnf[laomtcsufudkvnf; uREfkyfwdkY em;vnfcJhonf/ ,if;tajccHvlYtcGifhta&;rsm;rSm- touf&SifaexdkifcGifh&&SdrIonf tajccHvlYtcGifhta&;rsm;teuf yxrOD;qHk;ESifht"dutusqHk; tcGifh ta&;jzpfonf/ usrf;jrwfuk&ftmefwGif ,if;tcGifhta&;ESifhywfoufí zGifhqdk&Sif;vif;xm;onfrSm- vlowform;wpfa,muftm; vufwkHYjyefonfhtaeESifh toufowfjcif;(odkYr[kwf) urÇmN*dK[f ay:wGif ysufpD;jcif;udkjzpfapaomudpö&yfrsm;wGif rSefuefpGmqHk;jzwfrIudk tcGifhtmPm&Sdaomw&m;½kH;rSom qHk;jzwfydkifcGihf&Sdonf/ txl;ojzifh ppftwGif;umvjzpfvQif þodkYaomqHk;jzwfrIrsdK;udk rSefuefoifhavsmfpGm zGJYpnf;xm;onfhtpdk;&tzGJUuom qHk;jzwfydkifcGifh&Sdonf/ rnfonfh jzpf&yfwGifrqdk rnfolwpfOD;wpfa,muf urQ txufygjyóem (vlom;toufudkowfjcif;)rsm;twGuf olYbmomqHk;jzwfydkifcGifh r&Sdacs/ þtcsufudk usrf;jrwfuk&ftmefrS &Sif;vif;pGm axmufjyonfrSm- 28
  • 29. þonfrSm vlowfrIudk w&m;Oya't& touf0dnmOfowfjcif;rS cGJjcm;xm;jcif;jzpfonf/ wref awmfjrwfrk[r®'f()rS twdtvif;rdefYMum;xm;awmfrlaom wpfyg;ruaom ewfbk&m;rsm;udkudk;uG,fjcif; (tv’m[fESifhudk;uG,f&mt&Sifrsm;udk wkyEdIif;,SOfudk;uG,fjcif;)[laomvkyf&yfaemuf tjypftBuD;qHk;trIrSm vlowfrIomjzpfonf/ wrefawmf"avhawmfrsm;wGif ]]tBuD;qHk;tukodkvf tjypfrsm;rSm udk;uG,f&mt&Sif tv’m[ftm; tjcm;udk;uG,f&m wpfpHkwpf&mESifh wkzufEdIif;,SOf udk;uG,fjcif;ESifh vlom;tm; owfjzwfjcif; jzpfonf}} [k a&;om;wifjyxm;onf/ txufazmfjyyg usrf;jrwfuk&ftmef usrf;ydk'frsm;? wrefawmfjrwfMo0g'awmf? "avhawmfrsm;rS em;vnfEdkifonfrSm ezfhpf-0dÓmOf[laom a0g[m&udk a,bk,spum;vHk;tjzpfom oHk;xm;onfudk awGU&onf/ touf0dÓmOf[kqdk&mwGif rnfonfh EdkifiHwpfckrS EdkifiHom;jzpf&rnf/ (odkYr[kwf) rnfonfh vlrsdK;? rnfonfh bmom0ifjzpf&rnf[k ñTef;qdkxm;jcif;r&Sd/ þw&m;0iftrdefYonf vlom;tm;vHk;twGuf oHk;xm;aom a0g[m&jzpfonf/ vlom;xkwpf&yfvHk; touf&SifaexdkifcGifh[laom tcGifhta&;udkay;xm;onfrSm tpövmrfbmom wpfckwnf;üom&Sdonf/ EdkifiHrsm;tajccHOya'rsm;rS vlUtcGifhta&;rsm;(odkYr[kwf) vlUtcGifhta&;qdkif&m w&m;0if aMujimpmwrf;rsm;udk &nfñTef; avhvmMunfhygu xdktcGifhta&;rsm;onf oufqdkif&mEdkifiHrsm; EdkifiHom;rsm;? vljzLrsdK;EG,frsm;twGufomjzpfaMumif;awGU&ayonf/ Oyrm-Mopaw;vsm;EdkifiHwGif vlom;rsm;tm; wd&pämefrsm;tm; trJvdkufouJhodkY vdkufzrf;onf/ xdkYjyif ajr,mrsm;udk vljzLrsm; tajccsaexdkif&ef a'ocH a&S;vlrsdK;rsm;u ckwfxGif&Sif;vif;ay;&onf/ tvm;wl tar&duwdkuf a'ocH wdkif;&if;om;rsm; vlOD;a&udk pepfwus zsufqD;avQmhcsjcif;cHcJh&ayonf/ tdE´d,ef;vleDrsm;tm; rsdK;jzKwf owfjzwfrIrsm;jyKcJhaomaMumifh touf &Sifoef usef&pfaeaom rsdK;EG,frsm;tm; xdef;odrf;&ef uefYowf xm;onf/ tmz&duwdkufwGifvnf; vlom;rsm;onf wd&pämefrsm;uJhodkY trJvdkufowfjzwfjcif; cH&onfudk awGUEdkifonf/ txufazmfjyyg vlwpfpktwGuf&nf&G,fonfh vlYtcGifhta&;[laom wpfpdwfwpfydkif; todonmrsm;ESifhqefYusifvsuf tpövmrfrS þtcGifhta&;rsm;tm;vHk;udk vlom;tm;vHk;twGuf tav;teufxm;onf/ touf&SifoefaexdkifrIESifhqdkifaom vlom;tcGifhta&;taMumif; wifjyNyD;NyD;csif; qufvufí udk;uG,f&mt&SifrSrdefYawmfrlonfrSm vlom;toufudk aojcif;w&m;rS u,fwifyHku,fwifenf;rsm;pGm&Sdonf/ tu,fí vlyk*¾dKvf wpfOD;onfzsm;emjcif;? rusef;rmjcif;jzpfonf(okdYr[kwf) 'Pf&mtemw&&ygu olYtm; aq;0g;ukorI 29
  • 30. qdkif&m tultnD&&Sdap&ef ydkYaqmifay;&rnfrSm oifwm0efyifjzpfonf/ tu,fíolYtaeESifh tpm iwfrGwfí aovkarsmyg;jzpfaeygu olYtm; auR;arG;&rnfrSm toifhwm0efyif/ tu,fí vlwpfOD;a&epfae rnfqdkygu olYudka&xJrS u,fwifay;&rnf/ uREkfyfwdkYtaeESifh usrf;jrwfuk&ftmeftwdkif; vkdufemusifhoHk; onf[kqdkvQif vlom;toufudk u,fwifrIonf uREkfyfwdkYwm0ef[k rSwf,l&ayrnf/ tpövmrfuay;xm;aom vlYtcGifhta&; wwd,ta&;tBuD;qHk;u@rSm trsdK;orD;xkumtdajE´? *kPfodu©mESifh ywfoufaeonf/ uREkfyfwdkYtaejzifh trsdK;orD;wpfODtm; olronf uREkfyfwdkYEdkifiHol [kwfonfjzpfap (0g) &efolEdkifiHrS trsdK;orD;yifjzpfap? uREkfyfwdkYtaeESifh olrtm; a0;uGmaom opfawm wpfcktwGif;ü&Sdonfjzpfap (0g) ppfEdkifxm;aomNrdKUüawGUonfjzpfap? olronf uREkfyfwdkYESifh bmomw&m; wloljzpfap? tjcm;bmom0ifjzpfap? bmomrJhwpfOD;jzpfap olrumtdajE´udkav;pm;&rnf/ tcsdefumv tm;vHk;twGuf tumtuG,fjyK&rnf/ rGwfpvifrfwpfOD;taeESifh tm;vHk;aomtajctaersdK;wGif olrtm; um,tMurf;zufrIrsdK; jyKvkyfrnfr[kwf/ rGwfpvifrftrsdK;om;wpfOD;twGuf trsdK;orD;wpfOD;rS qE´jyif;jy aom tazmftjzpfawmifhwaeapumrl ¤if;ESifhqufqHjcif;rjyK&ef wm;jrpfxm;onf/ trsdK;orD;u rnfonfh tqifhtwef; (odkYr[kwf) rnfonfhtajctaewGifrqdk trsm;ESifhaomif;ajymif;vdifqufqHrIrsdK; rjyKvkyf&/ þvdifrIudpörsdK;udk a&SmifMuOf&eftvdkYiSm usrf;jrwfuk&ftmefwGif rdefYqdkxm;onfrSm- vdifazmufjyefrIESifhywfoufí BuD;av;aomtjypf'Pfudk owfrSwfxm;onf/ xdktjypf'PfrS avsmhyg;oufomapEdkifaomenf;vrf;udkrl ñTefjyrxm;acs/ tpövmrfwGiftrsdK;orD;umtdajE´udk csdK;azmuf usL;vGefrIudk wm;jrpfxm;onf/ xdkYaMumifh jypfrIusL;vGefaom rGwfpvifrfwpfa,mufonf ,if;tjypf'Pf udk cH&rnfjzpfonf/ xdktjypf'Pfonf vuf&SdavmuwGifaomfvnf;aumif;? aemifwrvGefb0wGif vnf;aumif; ajy;rvGwfwrf;cH&rnfrSm taotcsmyif jzpfonf/ umtdajE´qdkif&m rGefjrwfoefY&Sif;rI todonmESifh trsdK;orD;rsm;tm; umuG,fay;jcif;udk tpövmrfomoemwGifrSvGJí rnfonfhae&mwGifrQ rawGUEdkif/ taemufwdkif;tmPm wefcdk;xGm;pOfu ppfwyfrsm;onf ¤if;wdkYEdkifiHrsm;orD;ysdKrsm;udk ppfom;rsm; umrqE´jznfhqnf;&ef toHk;jyKcJhonf/ tu,fí ¤if;wdkYtaeESifh tjcm;wdkif;EdkifiHrsm;udk odrf;ydkufrnfqdkvQif xdkEdkifiHrsm;rS rdef;rom;rsm;uHMur®monf a&;om;azmfjyonfxufyif ydkrdkqdk;&Gm;aom tajctaeESifh BuHKawGU&rnfudk pdwful;ESifh rSef;qMunfhEdkifygonf/ odkYaomfrGwfpvifrfrsm;ordkif;aMumif;wGifrl wpfOD;csif; owdvpf[if;rIaMumifhjzpfcJhaom jyóemrsdK;rSvGJí trsdK;orD;xktm; usL;vGefapmfum;cJhonfjypfrIrsdK;r&Sdacs/ rGwfpvifrfppfwyfwpfckrS tjcm; EdkifiHrsm;tm; rk'drf;usifhonfhtrIudpörsdK;eSifh ppfatmifEdkifaomEdkifiHrStpdk;&taeESifh ppfEdkifaomppfwyftm; vdifqufqH&ef Zdrfr,frsm;pDpOfí qE´jznfhay;&onf[laomudpörsdK; tpövmrfhordkif;wGif wpfcgbl;rQ r&SdcJhay/ 30
  • 31. pD;yGm;a&;qdkif&mtcGifhta&;rsm;ESifhywfoufí usrf;jrwfuk&ftmefrS rGwfpvifrfvdkufemusifhoHk;ol rsm;tm; vrf;ñTefxm;onfrSm- ]]xdkYtjyif xdkolwdkY<u,f0csrf;omrIwGif qif;&JEGrf;yg;í aiGaMu;Opöm vdktyfaeolrsm;ESifh cdkudk;&mrJhMuolrsm;twGufyg cHpm;cGifh&Sdonf/}} txufyg w&m;0iftrdefYay;csuf azmfjycsufrsm;u ñTefjyaeonfrSm þtrdefYonf t<uif;rJh jzpfaom jywfom;wdusonfhtrdefYjzpfaMumif; xif&Sm;onf/ xdkYtjyif txufygtrdefYudk ñTefay;jcif; cH&aomae&ma'orSm xdktcgu rGwfpvifrfvlYtzGJUtpnf;r&Sdao;onfh ruúm[fNrdKUwGif jzpfonf/ rGwfpvifrfrsm; 0ifvmcsdefwGifvnf; r,HkMunfolrsm;ESifhqufqHae&aom tcsdefumvjzpfonf/ txufazmfjyygusrf;pmydk'f &Sif;vif;aomt"dyÜg,frSm tultnDvdktyfí awmif;cHae&aomolESifh csdKUwJhqif;&Jjcif;udk cHpm;ae&olwpfOD;rS rGwfpvifrfwpfOD;ydkifqdkifrIESifh <u,f0csrf;omrIudk rQa0cHpm;ydkif cGifh &Sdonfudkqdkvdkonf/ þae&mwGif xdkqif;&JEGrf;yg;ol? cdkukd;&mrJholtaeESifh rnfonfhEdkifiHom;jzpf&rnf rnfonfh vlrsdK;EG,fpkrSjzpf&rnf[laom uefYowfcsufr&Sday/ vlwpfOD;wpfa,muftaeESifh ulnDEdkifonfh taetxm;wGif&SdNyD; csdKUwJhaeolwpfOD;u tultnDawmif;cHvmcJhvQif (odkYr[kwf) wpfpHkwpfa,mufu xdkolwpfOD;onf trSefwu,fvdktyfaeaMumif;od&Sd&ygu xdkyk*¾dKvftm; rjzpfraeulnD&rnfrSm ulnDEdkif onfh taetxm;wGif&Sdonfh vlyk*¾dKvfrsm;wm0efomjzpfonf/ tpövmrfwGif vGwfvyfaomvlwpfOD;udkzrf;qD;í uRefjyKjcif;(odkYr[kwf) aus;uReftjzpf a&mif;csjcif;[laom a&S;OD;usonfhvlzrf;wwfonfhtavhtusifhudk jywfjywfom;om;wm;jrpfxm;onf/ þtcsufESifhywfoufí r[mwrefawmfjrwfMo0g'awmfrSm atmufygtwdkif;jzpfonf/ ]]urÇmhw&m;pD&ifrnfhaeYü igwrefawmfrS w&m;vdktjzpf awmif;qdktem;,laprnfh vlyk*¾dKvfoHk;rsdK; &Sdonf/ ,if;oHk;rsdK;aomyk*¾dKvfxJrS wpfrsdK;rSm vGwfvyfolwpfOD;tm; aus;uRefjyKvkyfí olYtm;a&mif;csNyD; pm;oHk;aomoljzpfonf/}} (Akcg&Dusrf;? tdAfEkrm*s[fusrf;) wrefawmfjrwf txufyg"avhawmfESifhMo0g'awmfrSm EdkifiHwpfEdkifiH? vlrsdK;EG,fwpfpkESifh bmom w&m;wpfckudk vdkufemusifhoHk;olwpftkyfpktwGuf uefYowfowfrSwfxm;jcif;? &nfñTef;oifMum;xm;jcif; r[kwf? taemufwkdif;rS Oa&mywdkufom;rsm;u olwdkYonfomvQif urÇmwGifuRefpepfudk csKyfNidrf;apNyD; uRefb0rS vGwfajrmufapolrsm;omjzpfonf[k tBuD;tus,f*kPf,l ajymMum;aeMuonf/ trSefpifppf uRefrsm;udk vGwfvyfcGifhay;í oifhwifhavsmufywf,Ofaus;zG,f&m jyKrlaexdkifrIrsdK;udk 20&mpktv,fydkif; ESpfrsm;rSom pwifusifhoHk;vmcJhjcif;jzpfonf/ BuD;rm;aomtwdkif;twmESifh vGwfvyfaomolrsm;udk tvpf0ifa&muf zrf;qD;jcif;? tzrf;cH&olrsm;udk tusOf;om;b0xm;NyD; ,if;EdkifiHrsm; udkvdkeDa'orsm;udk o,f,l ydkYaqmifay;avh&SdcJhMuonf/ ,if;taemufwdkif;om;rsm;u þuHMur®mqdk;0g;vSaomolrsm;tay: jyKrlqufqHcJhonfrSm wd&pämefrsm;xufyifydkrdkqdk;0g;cJhonf/ þtcsufudk taemufwdkif;om;rsm;udk,fwdkif a&;om;rSwfwrf;wifxm;onfh pmtkyfpmwrf;rsm;wGif twdtvif;oufaocHaeMuayonf/ 31
  • 32. Oa&mywdkufom;rsm;u tar&duwdkufESifh taemuftdE´d, uRef;pkudkodrf;ydkufNyD;umv uRefukeful;rI twGuf ul;vl;qufqHMujcif;rSm ESpfaygif;350wdkifatmif qufvufwnf&SdcJhygonf/ tmz&duvlrsdK;rsm; tm; wdkuftwGif;ydkif;a'orsm;rS o,faqmifvmí oabFmrsm;ay:odkY wifay;onfh tmz&duwkduf&Sd oabFm qdyfurf;rsm;tm;vHk;rSm uRefurf;ajc[k trnfwGifvmcJhonf/ NAdwdoQpma&;q&mrsm; cefYrSef;csuft& ESpf(100)umvtwGif; (c&pfouú&mZf 1680rS 1786txd) NAdwdoQudkvdkeDEdkifiHrsm;twGuf zrf;qD;cH&í aus;uRefjyKcHcJh&aomvlOD;a&rSm pkpkaygif;oef;20cefY &Sdonf/ 1790ckESpfwGif vlaygif;75000udkzrf;qD;í udkvdkeDa'orsm;wGif uRefvkyfom;rsm;tjzpf toHk;jyKjcif;cHcJh&aMumif; uREkfyfwdkYtm; ajymMum;cJhygonf/ aus;uRefrsm;udk o,f,lydkYaqmif&ef toHk;jyKcJhaom oabFmrsm;rSm ao;i,fínpfywfaya&aeayonf/ þuHMur®mqdk;0g;vSaom tmz&duefvlrsdK;rsm;onf uRJEGm;rsm;uJhodkY oHBudK;rsm;ESifhtaESmifcH&NyD; opfom;pifrsm;xufwGif ae&mcsxm; jcif;cH&onf/ wpfOD;ESifhwpfOD; 18vufrtuGmwGifxm;&Sdjcif;aMumifh vIyf&Sm;&efrSm tvGefcJ,Of;Muyfwnf;vSonf/ xdkaus;uRefrsm;udk oifhwifhavsmufywfaom?vHkavmufaom tpm;tpmrsm; ray;cJhyg/ rusef;rrm jzpfaomtcgrsdK;üvnf; aq;0g;ukoay;jcif;rsdK; vHk;0r&SdcJhyg/ taemufwdkif;pma&;q&mrsm;u zGifh[a&;om;xm;MuonfrSm uRefjyK&efESifht"r®cdkif;ap&ef tzrf;cH& aom pkpkaygif;vlOD;a&20&mcdkifEIef;rSm tmz&duwdkufrS tar&duwdkufodkY o,f,lydkYaqmif&mvrf;aMumif; wGif aoausysufpD;&onf[kqkdonf/ uRefukeful;aompepf txGwftxdyfa&mufcsdefumv tawmtwGif; Oa&myEdkifiHrsm;rS uRefjyK&efzrf;qD;csKyfaESmifcH&aomvlOD;a&rSm cefYrSef;ajctenf;qHk; oef;(100)cefY&Sdonf[k qdkonf/ þonfrSm tpövmrftm; aus;uRefpepfxlaxmifaomomoemjzpfonf[k vlod&SifMum;pGJcsufwif ½Iwfcsaeaomvlrsm; udk,fwdkifwifxm;aomrSwfwrf;rsm;t& odEdkifonf/ þonfrSm tjypfuif;rYJolwpfOD; udk &mZ0wfrIusL;vGefouJhodkYydkif;í vufnd§K;xdk;tjypfwifaeouJhodkY tpövmrfu0dkif;í jypfwif½IHUcsaejcif; om jzpfonf/ tma&;AD;,m;uRef;qG,fa'otwGif; vTrf;rdk;aeNyD;jzpfaom aus;uRefpepfyaysmuf&ef uRefrsm;tm; olaumif;jyKjcif;? aus;uRefb0rS vGwfajrmufapjcif;wdkYjzifh uRefpepfyaysmufa&;twGuf tpövmrfrS ajz&Sif; ay;cJhonf/ rGwfpvifrfrsm;tm; aus;uRefrsm;udk vGwfvyfapjcif;tm;jzifh ¤if;wdkYtjypfrsm;udk avQmfypf EdkifaMumif;? ay;qyfEdkifaMumif; oifMum;ay;onf/ rdrdqE´tavsmuf aus;uRefwpfa,muf vGwfajrmufap jcif;onf tvGefBuD;us,faomtusdK;aus;Zl;&SdaMumif;udk aus;uReftjzpfrSvGwfajrmufapaom vlyk*¾dKvf wpfOD; ajcvuft*Fgtpdwftydkif;rsm;udk tvTwfcH&aomaus;uRef ajcvuft*Fgtpdwftydkif;rsm; vGwfvyfoGm;ouJhodkY i&JrD;rS vGwfajrmufcGifh&rnf[k tav;teufajymMum;xm;onf/ þrl0g'tusdK;w&m;rSm ajzmifhrwfrSefuefí tusifhoDvpifMu,fMuukefaom cvDz[for®wBuD; rsm;vufxufwGif tm;vHk;aomtm&yfaus;uRefrsm;tm;vHk; uReftjzpfrS vGwfajrmufvmí vGwfvyfcGifh &&SdcJhMuonf/ wrefawmfjrwf()wpfOD;wnf;yif aus;uRefaygif;63OD;udk uRefb0vGwfajrmufapcJhonf/ tmtd&S[focifr( )rS uRef67OD;? tAfAg;pf()rS 70OD;? tAf'kvfvm[ft&f&[frmefocif()rS uRefaygif; 30000OD;udkvnf;aumif; 0,f,lí uReftjzpfrS vGwfajrmufapcJhonf/ xdkpm&if;tao;pdwftcsuftvuf rsm;onf xdkacwfxdktcsdeftaMumif; rSwfwrf;wifxm;aom ordkif;taxmuftxm;rsm;wGif avhvmqef;ppf Edkifonf/ 32
  • 33. xdkYaMumifh tma&AD;,m;uRef;qG,fa'o&Sd aus;uRefrsm;jyóemrSm ESpfaygif;40twGif; ajz&Sif; EkdifcJhonf/ þonf aemufydkif;umvtwGif; tpövmrfvlYtzGJUtpnf;wGif usef&Sdaeao;onhf aus;uRef rsm;rSm ppfyGJrsm;twGif; zrf;qD;&rdaomppfoHkYyef;rsm;jzpfNyD; tusOf;om;rsm;tjzpf&SdaecJhonf/ xdkppfoHkYyef; rsm;udk rGwfpvifrftpdk;&rsm;rS xdef;odrf;xm;í ppfyGJrsm;twGif; zrf;qD;cH&aom rGwfpvifrfppfom;rsm;tm; jyefa&G;&ef wpfzuftpdk;&rsm;ESifh oabmwlnDxm;aom tvJtvS,fcHrsm;vnf; jzpfMuonf/ tu,fí rGwfpvifrfEdkifiHrS zrf;qD;&rdxm;aomppfom;rsm;udk wpfzufEdkifiHwGif ppfoHkYyef;rsm;tjzpf zrf;qD;cH&aom rGwfpvifrfppfom;rsm;ESifh vJvS,fjcif;rjyKvQifaomfvnf;aumif;? wpfzufEdkifiHrS ,if;wdkYppfom;rsm;udk ¤if;wdkYvGwfajrmufa&;twGufa&G;&ef aiGray;vQifaomfvnf;aumif; rGwfpvifrftpdk;&taeESifh xdkppfoHkYyef; rsm;udk ¤if;wdkYtm; zrf;qD;&rdcJhaom rGwfpvifrfppfwyfodkY vTGJay;rnfjzpfonf/ ¤if;wdkYonf xdkppfwyfrS ppfom;rsm; tMum;wGifae&rnfjzpfonf/ þodkYjyKvkyfjcif;onf zrf;qD;&rdaomppfoHkYyef;rsm;udk uRJEGm;wd&pämefrsm;uJhodkY ae&mcsjcif;? xdkYaemuf xdkolwdkYvkyftm;udk twif;t"r®apckdif;jcif;wdkYxuf vlom;qefaomvkyf&yfjzpfonf/ xdkYtjyif ppftwGif; zrf;qD;rdaom rdef;rom;rsm;tm; Zdrfr,fvkyf&ef zrf;qD;csKyfaESmifxm;jcif;xufvnf; vlom;qef ayonf/ tpövmrfrS olwdkYtm;jzefYay;aomfvnf; wpfOD;csif;taeESifhrl vlom;qefqefqufqHaerdonf/ xdkYjyif ,if;oHkYyef;rsm;udk BuD;MuyfolwdkYtm;vnf; oHkYyef;rsm;udk aumif;pGmqufqHrIjyK&ef trdefYay;xm;NyD; jzpfonf/ txufazmfjyyg ppfoHkYyef;rsm;? tusOf;om;rsm;ESifhywfoufaomrl0g' tusdK;aus;Zl;rSm ajrmufjrm; pGmaomEdkifiH&yfjcm;rS ppfyGJrsm;wGif uReftjzpfzrf;qD;cH&NyD; rGwfpvifrfEdkifiHrsm;odkY ydkYaqmifcH&aomolrsm;u tpövmrfomoemudk vufcH,HkMunfapaom taMumif;t&if;jzpfonf/ xdkolrsm;omru ¤if;wdkY tquftEG,frsm;uyg tpövmrfodkY0ifa&mufvmBuNyD; BuD;us,faompmayynm&Sifrsm;? tDrmrfacgif;aqmif rsm;? Oya'ynm&Sifrsm;? rsufarSmufa&;&mrsm;udk a[majyma&;om;aom jyKjyifa&;orm;rsm;? EdkifiHtBuD;tuJrsm;ESifh ppfAdkvfcsKyfBuD;rsm; arG;xkwfay;cJhaom taMumif;w&m;vnf;jzpfonf/ xdkodkYaom yk*¾dKvfrsm;rSm aemifwGif tpövmrfhurÇmudk tkyfcsKyfaomolrsm;jzpfvmMuonf/ ,cktcg ppftusOf;om;rsm;udk urÇmwpfvTm;wGif ppfjyKjcif;?&efvdkjcif;rsm;udk&yfem;NyD; tjyeftvSef vJvS,faeMujcif;rSm tpövmrfrSavhvmoif,lí vdkufemusifhoHk;aeaom tavhtusifhaumif;wpfck jzpfayonf/ taMumif;&if;wpfckckaMumifh(odkYr[kwf) tjcm;taMumif;wpfckckaMumifh vJvS,fjcif;rjyKEdkifaom tusOf;om;rsm;udk aumif;rGefpGmqufqHjcif;udkrl twk,lusifhoHk;rIr&Sd/ Oyrm- 'kwd,urÇmppfBuD;twGif;u *smrPDESifh *syefEdkifiHrsm;rS ppf½IH;aomppfwyfrsm;rS ½k&Sm;odkYydkYaqmifjcif;cH&aom ppfom;axmifaygif; rsm;pGmuHMur®mrSm rnfuJhodkYjzpfcJh&onfudk wpfpHkwpfa,mufrSajymjyEdkifygovm;/ ,if;ppfom;rsm;teuf rnfrQaom ppfom;rsm;onf ½k&Sm;ppfwyfvufatmuf vkyftm;ay;pcef;rsm;wGif yifyef;qif;&J cufcJMurf;wrf;rIrsm;aMumifh aoaus ysufpD;Mu&onf/ rnfolwpfOD;wpfa,mufrQ rod&SdEdkifacs/ a&S;a[mif; tD*spfEdkifiH zm½kdbk&ifrsm;vufxufwGif yd&rpfrsm;wnfaqmuf&mü aus;uRefrsm;vkyftm;udk twif; n§if;yef;ESdyfpufNyD; t&,louJhodkY 'kwd,urÇmppftwGif;rS ppftusOf;om;rsm;udkvnf; qdkufbD;&D;,m;a'o ESifh tjcm;zGHUNzdK;rIr&Sdaoma'orsm; zGHUNzdK;wdk;wufa&;twGuf vkyftm;rsm;udk twif;t"r® n§if;yef; ESdyfpufrIjzifh &,lcJhonfrSm oHo,jzpfzG,fr&Sdacs/ 33
  • 34. þtcGifhta&;rSm tpövmrfrS vlom;okdYay;tyfaom tcGifhta&;rsm;teuf ta&;BuD;ouJhodkY wefzdk;vnf;&Sdaom tcGifhta&;wpfckvnf;jzpfonf/ usrf;jrwfuk&ftmefwGif w&m;rQwrIqdkif&m tcGifhta&; ESifhywfoufí csrSwfay;onfrlrSm- þtcsufudk usrf;jrwfuk&ftmefwGifxyfrHí tav;ay;azmfjyxm;onfrSm- txufygtm,ofrsm;ü ñTefjyaeonfhtcsufrSm rGwfpvifrfrsm;taeESifh ¤if;wdkYrdwfaqG oli,fcsif;rsm;udkomru &efolrsm;udkyg w&m;rQwpGmjyKrl&rnf/ wpfenf;tm;jzifhqdkaomf ,if; aemufvdkuf rGwfpvifrfrsm;tm; awmif;qdkonfhw&m;rQwrI[lonf EdkifiHwpfEdkifiH? vlrsdK;EG,fpkwpfpk? wdkif;jynfwpfck? vlrsdK;wpfrsdK; (odkYr[kwf) rGwfpvifrfxkwpfckvHk;twGufomru tm;vHk;aom vlom;rsdK;EG,fxkwpfckvHk;twGufyg tusHK;0ifonfh w&m;rQwrIrsdK;jzpfonf/ tpövmrfonf vlom;rsm;tMum; tom;ta&mif? vlrsdK;EG,f? EdkifiHom;ponfwdkYudk vHk;0rcGJjcm;bJ vlom;tm;vHk;wGif tcGifhta&;vHk;0wlnDjcif;udk tajccHoabmw&m;tm;jzifh av;pm;pGm todtrSwf jyKonfomru ,if;wlnDjcif;oabmw&m;udk t&Sdw&m;jzpfatmifjyKvkyfay;onf/ teEåbkef;awmf&Sif tv’m[frS xdkt&Sdw&m;ESifhywfoufí usrf;jrwfuk&ftmefwGif atmufygtwdkif; rdefYqdkxm;awmfrl/ 34
  • 35. wpfenf;tm;jzifhqdkaomf tm;vHk;aomvlom;rsm;onf nD&if;tudk armif&if;ESrrsm;jzpfMuonf/ olwdkYtm;vHk;onf zcifwpfOD;ESifh rdcifwpfOD;wnf;rS aygufzGm;vmMuolrsm;jzpfMuonf/ þtm,ofawmft"dyÜm,frSm vlom;tm; EdkifiH? vlrsdK;tkyfpkrsm;? rsdK;EG,fpkrsm; cGJjcm;owfrSwfjcif; rS cGJjcm;odjrifapvdkaom&nf&G,fcsufjzpfonf/ xdkodkY cGJjcm;jcif;tm;jzifh vlrsdK;wpfpk?vlrsdK;wpfrsdK;rS tjcm; vlrsdK;? tjcm;rsdK;EG,frS vlom;rsm;ESifh &if;ESD;uRrf;0ifNyD; wpfOD;ESifhwpfOD; yl;aygif;aqmif&GufEdkifMu&ef jzpfonf/ þodkYvlrsdK;cGJjcm;jcif;[lonf EdkifiHwpfEdkifiHrS rdrdEdkifiHom jrifhjrwfomvGefonf[k *kPf,l0Hh<um;&ef r[kwfovdk tjcm;EdkifiHrsm;udk rav;rcefYESdrfhcsqufqHjcif;rsdK; jyKvkyf&efvnf;r[kwf/ xdktcsufudk usrf;jrwfuk&ftmefwGif- ]]vlwpfa,mufu tjcm; wpfa,mufxuf omvGefjrifhjrwfonf[laomtcsufrSm xdkvlom; tom;ta&mif? vlrsdK;? bmompum;? EkdifiHom;ESifhroufqkdifbJ xdkyk*¾dKvf ouú0gw&m;? ol udk,fusifhw&m;oefYpifrI? tusifhpm&dwåjrifhrm;rIESifhom oufqdkifonf/}} xdkYaMumifh tjcm;aomvlyk*¾dKvfrsm; [efyeftm;jzifhazmfjyaom jrifhjrwfrIrsm;udkomMunfhí rqHk;jzwfoifhyg/ odkYr[kwfygu oefYpif rGefjrwfaom udk,fusifhw&m;&Sdaomvlrsm;wGif tjcm;olrsm;xufydkíomvGefaom txl;*kPfodu©m tqifhtwef;[lonf &Sdrnfr[kwfawmhyg/ þtcsufudk wrefawmfjrwfrk[r®'f()rS olMo0g'awmfwpfckwGif Oyrmay;í &Sif;vif; ajymMum;cJhonf/ ]]rnfonhftm&yfwpfa,mufurQ tm&yfr[kwfolwpfOD;xuf ydkírjrwfyg/ xdkYtwl tm&yf 35
  • 36. r[kwfol wpfOD;urQ vlrnf;wpfOD;xufydkírjrwfyg (odkYr[kwf) vlrnf;wpfOD;urQ vljzLwpfa,mufxuf edrfhusrnf r[kwfyg/ toifwdkYtm;vHk;onf tm'rfom;orD;rsm; jzpfMuonf/ tm'rfudk tv’m[ft&Sifu &THUajcmufrS zefqif;xm;jcif;jzpfonf/}} (Adkif[uDusrf;) þoabmw&m;udktajccHNyD; tpövmrfrS wlnDjcif;[laomoabmudk wnfaxmifcJhygonf/ xdkYaMumifh vlom;rsdK;EG,fwpfpkvHk;wGif wlnDjcif;[laom oabmudkvufcHNyD; vlom;tom;ta&mif? vlrsdK;?bmompum;ESifh EdkifiHudk tajccHícGJjcm;aom cGJjcm;jcif; t&if;tjrpfrsm;tm;vHk;udk qefYusifyg onf/ tpövmrfomoemt& udk;uG,f&mt&SifrS vlom;tm; nDrQjcif;?wlnDjcif;[laom tcGifhta&;udk arG;&mygtcGifhta&;tjzpf ay;tyfxm;NyD;jzpfonf/ xdkYaMumifh rnfolwpfOD;wpfa,mufurQ vlwpfa,muf udk oltom;ta&mif? olarG;zGm;&ma'o? vlrsdK;ESifhwdkif;jynfaMumifh tqifhtwef;cGJjcm;rI? rnfonfh tqifhtwef; trsdK;tpm;cGJjcm;rIudkrqdk qefYusifonf/ tar&duefjynfaxmifpkrS tmz&duvlrnf;acgif;aqmif rJvfuGefrftdwfpf(Malcom X)onf olESifh b0wlwpfjynfwnf;om; vlrnf;rsm;t&yfom;tcGifhta&;twGuf tar&duefvljzLrsm;ESifh cg;oD;aom vlwef;pm;wdkufyGJudk qifETJcJhonf/ odkYaomfolonf ruúm[fNrdKUodkY [m*sfusifhpOfjyKvkyf&efoGm;cJhpOfu tm&S? tmz&du? Oa&myESifhtar&duwdkufrsm;rS [m*sfjyKolrsm;onf wlnDaom0wfpHkrsm;0wfNyD; utfA[f ausmif;awmfudk ajy;vTm;o0g;zfvSnfhvQif twef;vdkuftwef;vdkuf pDwef;0wfjyKcJh&onfudk jrifawGUcJhonf/ þjrifuGif;rS olowdjyKcJhonfrSm tar&duefjynfaxmifpkwGif ol&SmazGaecJhonfh tom;a&mifESifh vlrsdK;cGJjcm;rIjyóem tajzjzpfonf[laomtcsufyifjzpfonf/ ,cktcg rGwfpvifrfr[kwfaom tawG;tac:ynm&Sifrsm;pGmu 0efcHMuonfrSm þvlrsdK;ESifh tom;a&mifcGJjcm;rIjyóemudk ajz&Sif;&eftwGuf ydkíaumif;aomenf;vrf;rSm tpövmrfrSvGJí tjcm;rnfonfhbmomw&m;? rnfonfhb0wnfaqmufrI vrf;pOfwGifrS r&SdEdkifyg/ xdkYjyif ¤if;wkdYrS ajz&Sif;ay;Edkifaomtwdkif;twmrSmvnf; tpövmrfbmomu ajz&Sif;Edkifonfhtwdkif;twmxd rDrnf r[kwfyg/ tpövmrfbmomtaeESifh vlom;rsm;twGuf tvGefYtvGefta&;BuD;aom trsm;rS vufcHusifhoHk; EdkifpGrf;&Sdaom tajccHoabmw&m;rsm;udk owfrSwfjy|mef;ay;onf/ usrf;jrwfuk&ftmefwGif- þtm,ofawmfqdkvdk&if;t"dyÜm,frSm aumif;jrwfaom? rGefjrwfaomvkyfief;vkyfrnfh vlwpfOD; wpfa,mufonf awmif0if½kd;pGef; (0g) ajrmuf0if½dk;pGef;wGif aexdkifonfjzpfygap? rGwfpvifrfrsm; axmufyHhjcif;? zswfvwfwuf<uaom yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufjcif;udk arQmfvifhEdkifonfh tcGifhta&;&Sdonf/ 36
  • 37. qefYusifbufoabmtm;jzifh vlwpfOD;wpfa,mufonf raumif;rIjyK&mwGifvnf;aumif;? usL;ausmf apmfum;rI jyKvkyf&mwGifvnf;aumif; xdkolonf uREkfyfwdkYESifhrnfrQeD;pyfaom aqGrsdK; rdwfo*F[jzpfap (0g) tdrfeD;csif;jzpfap uREkfyfwdkYtaeESifh olYtm;vlrsdK;?EdkifiH? bmompum; (0g) EdkifiHom;wlonf[laom taMumif;jycsufrsm;jzifhjzpfap ulnDjcif;? yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufjcif;rjyKEdkif/ &ufpufMurf;MuKwfaom? aMumufp&maumif;aomolonf uREkfyfwdkYnDtpfudkt&if;yifjzpfvifhupm; uREfkyfwdkYtxJrS rjzpfEdkifyg/ olonf olvrf;pOfudk aemifwr&? rjyifoa&GUumvywfvHk; uREfkyfwdkYtultnDudk olYtaeESifh r&Edkifyg/ tjcm;wpfzufwGif aumif;jrwfaom rGefjrwfonfhvkyfief;udk vkyfaqmifygu olonf uREfkyfwdkYESifh aqGrsdK;rawmfpyfaomfjim;vnf; rGwfpvifrfrsm;onf oltaygif;tazmf? olYudkulnD axmufyHholjzpf&rnf/ tu,fí olYtm; rnfodkYrQ axmufyHhEdkifjcif;r&Sdygu tenf;qHk; olvkyfief;twGuf wpfpdwf wpf0rf;wnf;ESifh aumif;aomqE´ xm;&Sdoljzpf&rnf/ 37
  • 38. tpövmrfEkifiHwpfck EdifiHom;tcGifhta&;rsm; d k uREkfyfwdkYtaeESifh vlYtcGifhta&;ESifhywfoufí a,bk,swifjyNyD; jzpfygonf/ tpövmrfhEdkifiH&Sd EkdifiHom;rsm; tcGifhta&;qdkif&mudpöudk txl;tav;ay;í aqG;aEG;MuygpdkY/ þtcGifhta&;rsm;rSm tapmydkif;uwifjycJhaom vlYtcGifhta&;rsm;xufydkí us,fjyefYaomaMumifh ,if;wdkYudk oD;oefY&Sif;vif; wifjy&ef vdktyfayonf/ wrefawmfjrwf() aemufqHk;[m*sfwGif rdefYMum;cJhaomrdefYcGef;rSm ]]toifwdkY toufESifhOpöm "ersm;tm;vHk;udk wpfOD;ESifhwpfOD;usL;vGefrIr&Sdap&/ ,if;trdefYonf urÇmhw&m;pD&ifrnfhaeY oifwdkY udk;uG,f&mt&Sif tv’m[fESifh awGUqHkonfhaeYwdkifatmif wm;jrpfxm;NyD;jzpfacsonf/ }} teEÅbkef;awmf&Sif tv’m[ft&SifrS usrf;jrwfuk&ftmefwGif vlwpfOD;csif;touftdk;tdrfpnf;pdrfESifhywfoufí csrSwfxm; onfhjypf'PfrSm ]]tMuifolonf rGwfpvifrfwpfOD; wpfa,mufudk wrifoufoufBuHpnf owfjzwfcJhygrl xdkoltjypfonf *s[Eérfi&JbHkyifjzpfonf/ (xdkolonf),if;*s[Eérf i&JbHkü tpOftNrJaexdkif&rnf/ xdkYtjyif tv’m[ft&Sifjrwfonf ¤if;tay:ü rESpfNrdKUrIvnf;&Sdayonf/ xdkoltm; tv’m[ft&Sifjrwf u½kPmawmfrSvnf; uif;a0;apawmfrltHh/ xdkol tzdk;BuD;av;aomtjypf'Pfudkvnf; tqifoifh jyKxm;awmfrlthH}} [líjzpfonf/ (uk&ftmef 4;93) wrefawmfjrwf()u ZifrDac: tpövmrfhEdkifiHwGif aexdkifol? rGwfpvifrfr[kwfaom EdkifiHom;rsm;ESifh ywfoufí rdefYawmfrlonfrSm]]tpövmrfhEdkifiHwGif ckdvIHolZifrDwpfOD;wpfa,mufudk owfaomolonf *sEéof O,smOfawmf&eHYudkyif ½SL½dIufcGifh&&Sdrnfr[kwf/ (qG[D;[f tvf-Akcg&Dusrf;? tAl'g0k'fusrf;) tpövmrfwGifw&m;Oya't& ao'Pfay;jcif;rsdK;rSvGJí tm;vHk;aomowfjzwfrIrsm;udk wm;jrpfxm; onf/ þtcsufudk uk&ftmefwGif ]]Advf[muf}}(trSefw&m;ESifhtwl)[lí &nfñTef;xm;onf/ odkYaomf ppfrufjzpfyGm;pOfumv (odkYr[kwf) ykefuefx<urIjzpfay:aeaom tcsdefumvtwGif;ü &S&Dt[f w&m;Oya'udk vdkufemusifhoHk;aom w&m;rQwí ajzmifhrwfrSefuefonfh tpdk;&rsm;omvQif vlwpfa,muf toufudk owfoifh rowfoifhudk qHk;jzwfydkifcGifh&Sdonf/ txufygta&;BuD;aom (odkYr[kwf) txl;tav;ay;pOf;pm;qHk;jzwf&rnfh qHk;jzwfcsufrsm;udk tv’m[ft&Sifjrwftvdkawmfudk tav;rxm;aom pDrHtkyfcsKyfrIrsm; vTrf;rdk;rIatmufwGif&Sdonfh w&m;½kH;rsm;vuf0,f tmPmukefvTJtyfjcif;rjyKoifhay/ þuJhokdYaom w&m;pD&ifqHk;jzwfrIrsdK;onf w&m;rQwrIr&SdbJ wvGJwacsmfjzpfwwfonf/ usrf;jrwfuk&ftmefrS jyqdkaomw&m;rQwrIESifh tpövmrfh tpOftqufrS jyqdkcJhaomw&m;rQwrIrsm;udk EdkifiHawmftaeESihf &SmazGawGU&SdEdkifrnfr[kwfay/ tu,fí w&m;½kH;awmfESifh EdkifiHawmfrS EdkifiHom;rsm;udk w&m;rQwrIr&Sdaomrl0g'rsm;ESifh vkyf&yfrsm;udkqefYusifrI? ,if;wdkY raumif;aomvkyf&yfrsm;udk a0zefrItwGuf ao'Pfay;rnf? owfjzwfrnfqdkvQif ,if;onf tv’m[ft&Sifjrwf tvdkawmfudk vspfvsL½Ií w&m;pD&ifrIukd tvGJoHk;pm;jyKjcif;yifjzpfonf/ EdkifiHawmftaeESifh vkyfBuHowfjzwfrnf? vlowform;udk iSm;&rf;í tjypfrJhEdkifiHom;rsm;udk owfjzwfydkifcGifh 38
  • 39. r&Sdovkd xdkvlowform;udk w&m;½kH;wGif aopm;aoap tjypf'PfrsdK; jyefcH&jcif;rsdK;r&Sd&avatmif umuG,fydkifcGifhr&Sd/ þuJhodkYaom tpdk;&rsdK; wnf&Sdaejcif;onf &mZ0wfrIwpfckomjzpfNyD; ,if;tpdk;& owfjzwfrIrsdK;onf usrf;jrwfuk&ftmefrS jyqdkaom w&m;rQwrItwGuf ao'PfpD&ifrIrsdK;[k rac:qdkEdkifacs/ touf0dnmOfvHkNcHKrIESifhtwl vlwpfa,muftdk;tdrfpnf;pdrfrsm; vHkNcHKrItwGufvnf; tpövmrfrS &Sif;vif;aomtcGifhta&;udkom tyfESif;xm;onf/ usrf;jrwfuk&ftmefwGif olwpfyg; ydkifqdkifrI Opömypönf; rsm;udk rSm;,Gif;aom? w&m;r0ifaomenf;vrf;jzifh &,ljcif;rjyK&/ (uk&ftmef 2;188) EdkifiHom;wdkif; 'kwd,ta&;tBuD;qHk;aomtcGifhta&;rSm ¤if;wdkY*kPfodu©mudk umuG,f apmifhxdef;ay;jcif;jzpfonf/ wrefawmfjrwf()rS aemufqHk;jyKcJhonfh[m*sfwGif >rufMum;ay;cJhaom rdefYcGef; wpf&yfü rdefYrSmcJhonfrSm ]]rGwfpvifrfrsm;tay:ü olwpfyg;touftdk;tdrfpnf;pdrfrsm;udk rw&m;usL;ausmfjcif;rS wm;jrpfxm;onf/ olwpfyg;tdajE´odu©mudk av;pm;&rnf}}[líjzpfonf/ þtcsufudk usrf;jrwfuk&ftmefwGif atmufygtcsufrsm;udk azmfjyxm;onf/ (u) tdk-ouf0if,HkMunfoltaygif;wdkY? oa&mforIrjyK&/ (c) wpfOD;ESifhwpfOD; toa&rzsufMuvifh/ (*) wpfOD;ESifhwpfOD; ]]emrnfajymif}}rsm;ESifh apmfum;armfum; rac:MuESifh/ (C) wpfOD;ESifhwpfOD; aemufuG,fwGif twif;tzsif; rajymMuESifh/ (uk&ftmef 49;11-12) txufazmfjyyg tcsuftvufrsm;rSawGU&onfrSm tpövmrfrScsrSwfjy|mef;ay;aomOya'onf taemufwkdif; toa&zsufjcif;Oya'oxufydkí jrifhrm;ygonf/ tpövmrfhOya't& wpfpHkwpfa,muf tjcm;vlyk*¾dKvfwpfOD; *kPfodu©mudk apmfum;aMumif;oufaojyEdkifygu apmfum;olbufrS rdrdonf av;pm; bG,f*kPfodu©m&SdaomoljzpfaMumif; oufaojyEdkifonfjzpfap? rjyEdkifonfjzpfap apmfum;olonf tjypfay;jcif;cH&rnf jzpfonf/ taemufwkdif; toa&zsufjcif;qkdif&mOya'o pdwf0ifpm;p&mtcsufrSm toa&zsufrItm; trIzGifhaom(w&m;vdk)taeESifh olonf*kPfodu©m&Sdaom? vltrsm;utxifBuD;av;pm; MunfndKjcif; cH&aomoljzpfaMumif; oufaojyEdkif&rnf/ xdkYtjyif ½kH;awmfrSar;jref;ppfaMumpOfwGif ½dkif;jyaompGyfpGJcsufrsm;ESifh wdkufcdkufrIrsm;vnf; jyKvkyfcH&ayrnf/ ,if;odkY ppfaq;&mü apmfum;cH&jcif; onf ol rlv apmfum;cH&aom trIxufydkíyif olY*kPfodu©mtm; xdyg;Edkifayonf/ xdkYjyifw&m;vkdbufrS oufaorsm;tm; w&m;½kH;awmfodkY wifjy&rnfjzpfonf/ jypfwifa0zefpGyfpGJcsufrsm;u ol*kPfodu©mudk usqif;ysufpD;apaMumif;udkvnf; xif&Sm;ap&rnf/ b,favmufrsm; tHhMozG,f&maumif;ygoenf;/ þonfum; Oya' odrfarGUEl;nHhrIygavm/ Oya'o tESpfom&ygavm/ þuJhodkYrw&m;aom? rrQwaomOya'udk udk;uG,f&mt&SifrS xkwfjyefaom Oya'ESifh tb,fuJhodkY EIdif;,SOfEdkifygrnfenf;/ tpövmrfwGif apmfum;cH&ol(toa&zsufcH&ol)onf *kPf&Sdoljzpfap? *kPfrJholjzpfap toa&zsufrIrSm jypfrIwpf&yfyifjzpfaMumif; twdtvif;xkwfjyef aMunmxm;NyD;jzpfonf/ (odkYr[kwf),if;trItm; ppfaq;onfhtcsdefü ,kwfnhHaompum;vHk;rsm;oHk;pGJí wpfzufom;tm; jypfwif ½Iwfcsa0zefjcif;? w&m;vkd*kPfodu©mudk xdckdufepfemapjcif;onf jypfrIwpf&yf 39
  • 40. jzpfaMumif;udkvnf; tpövmrfrS twdtvif;azmfjyxm;onf/ tpövmrfhOya'a&SUarSmufü apmfum;ol (w&m;cH)onf trsm;em;vnfaom taetxm;ESifh w&m;vdk*kPfodu©mESifhausmfMum;rIudk ysufpD;qHk;½IH; apaMumif; ckdifrmpGmoufaojyEdkifcJhygvQif vHkavmufNyDjzpfayonf/ tpövmrfhEdkifiHwGifaexdkifaom EdkifiHom;wkdif;tcGifhta&;udk tpövmrfrS todtrSwfjyKxm;onfh tjyif EdkifiHom;rsm; yk*¾vduqdkif&mtcGifhta&;rsm;tm; wm0efrJh0ifa&mufpGufzufrIudk vHk;0vufrcHay/ þudpö ESifhywfoufí usrf;jrwfuk&ftmefwGif atmufygtwkdif; w&m;0iftrdefYudk xkwfjyefxm;onf/ (uk&ftmef 49;12) (uk&ftmef 24;27) wrefawmfjrwf() vrf;ñTefqHk;rMo0g'rsm;wGif olwpfOD;onf rdrdtdrfodkY0ifa&muf&mwGif yifvQif ½kwfw&uf ckd;aMumifckd;0Suf0ifa&mufrIrsdK;rjyK&/ olYtaeESifh tdrfwGif;ü&SdolwdkYtm; ol0ifvmaMumif; wpfenf;enf;ESifh odapoifhonf/ odkYrSom tdrfwGif;&Sd olrdcif? nDr? tpfr? orD;rsm;taeESifh rjriftyf aom tajctaersdK;rS a&Smif&Sm;Ekdifrnfjzpfonf/ tjcm;olwpfOD;tdrfwGif;odkY acsmif;ajrmif;Munfh½Ijcif;udkvnf; wif;usyfpGm wm;jrpfydwfyif owd ay;xm;onf/ wrefawmffjrwf()rS þudpöESifhywfoufíwif;usyfpGmrdefYawmfrlonfrSm ]]vlwpfOD;onf tjcm; vlwpfOD;wpfa,mufrS tdrfwpftdrftwGif;odkY vsdKU0SufpGmacsmif;ajrmif;Munfh½Iaeonfudk awGU&Sdygu xdkol rsufvHk;wpfvHk;(odkYr[kwf)rsufvHk;ESpfvHk;pvHk;udk xkwfypfEkdifonf/ xdkodkY tjypfay;aomoltm; w&m;pGJqdkjcif; rjyKap&[k rdefYrSmawmfrlxm;onf/ wrefawmfjrwf()rS olwpfyg;pmudkckd;zwfjcif;udkvnf; wm;jrpfcJhayonf/ vlwpfa,mufrS olpmudkzwfaepOf tjcm;olwpfa,mufrS iJhapmif;MunhfNyD;zwfvdkufjcif;udkyifvQif jypfwif½Iwfcsxdkuf aMumif; ajymMum;cJhonf/ txufazmfjyygtcsufrsm;onf vlwpfOD;yk*¾vdutcGifhta&;tm; tav;tjrwf xm;jcif;rsm;jzpfonf/ þonfwdkYum; tm;vHk;aomolwpfOD;csif;tay:wGif tmrcHcsufay;xm;aom tcGifhta&;rsm; jzpfonf/ tjcm;wpfzufwGifrl acwfrD,Ofaus;odrfarGUygonfqdkaom vuf&SdurÇmBuD;wGifrl tjcm;olrsm; pmrsm;udkzwfonfhjyif jzwfawmufjcif;? tem*wfwGifvdktyfvQif Ncdrf;ajcmuftusyfudkifEdkif&ef &nf&G,fcsuf jzifh rdwåLrsm;udk xdef;odrf;xm;jcif;rsm; jyKvkyfMuonfudk awGUEdkifayonf/ tdrfrsm;wGif vsdKU0SuftoHzrf; ud&d,mrsm; wyfqifjcif;aMumifh tcef;ydwfaqG;aEG;ajymqdkrIrsm;udkvnf; toHoGif;jcif;cH&onfvnf;&Sday&m rsm;pGmaomtajctaersm;wGif vlyk*¾dKvfrsm; wpfOD;csif;vGwfvyfrIrsm;qHk;½IH;aeNyD; yk*¾vduvGwfvyfcGifh[k ac:aom y½dkufAdwfpDtppftrSefrSm r&Sdawmh oavmufjzpfaeayonf/ 40
  • 41. tEå&m,fjzpf&eftvm;tvm&Sdaom vlyk*¾dKvfrsm; vQdKU0Sufcsufrsm;udk od&Sd&efvdktyfonf[laom taMumif;w&m;jzifh olwpfyg;twGif;a&;udk EdIufEdIufcRwfcRwfpyfpkjcif;onf pm&dwÅqdkif&m tajccHoabm tm;jzifh tkyfcsKyfaom tkyfcsKyfoltzGJUtpnf;twGuf aumif;aomtvm;tvmr[kwfay/ þodkY jyKvkyfapaomay:vpDrSm acwfopftpdk;&rsm;rS ¤if;wdkYEdkifiHom;rsm; txl;ojzifh todÓPfBuD;rm;Muaom olrsm;tm; tpdk;& w&m;0ifay:vpDrsm;tay: rauseyfMuolrsm;twGuf taMumufw&m;ESifh oHo,xm;NyD; csrSwfxm; aom 'óerS arG;zGm;vmjcif;jzpfonf/ þonfrSm tpövmrfrSowfrSwfay;aom EdkifiHa&;wGif xdckdufepfem tEÅ&m,fjzpfaprI t"dutaMumif;&if;yif jzpfonf/ wrefawmfjrwf() w&m;0iftrdefYrSm tkyfcsKyfolwpfOD;onf oltkyfcsKyfcH jynfolvlxkrsm;tMum;wGif jzpfay:aeaom rauseyfrIrsm; taMumif;t&if;rsm;udk &SmazGjcif;onf jynfolvlxktm; zsufqD;jcif;omjzpfonf/ (tAl'g0k'fusrf;) trD;&frktm0D,mocif()u ajymMum;cJhonfrSm olonf wrefawmfjrwf()rS rdefYMum;awmfrlcJhonfudkMum;cJhonfrSm- tu,fí toifonf vltrsm; (jynfolvlxk) vQdKU0Sufcsuf rsm;udk &SmazGpHkprf;ygu olwdkYtm; wdwdususzsufqD;jcif;rnf (odkYr[kwf) tenf;qHk; oifonf olwdkYtm; ysufpD;vkeD;eD;tajctaeodkY ydkYaqmifjcif;rnf/ ysufpD;jcif;[lonf rnfodkYjzpfay:vmoenf;/ jynfolvlxk tajctaeudkapmifhMunfh&ef vsdKU0Suf&Jrsm;u wpfEdkifiHvHk;wGif ysHUESYHaeonf/ jynfolwdkYta&;udpörsm;udk apmifhMuyfMunfh½Iaeygu vlxkonf wpfOD;ESifhwpfOD; oHo,rsufvHk;ESifhMunfhMuayrnf/ olwdkYtdrfwGifyif vGwfvyfpGmajymqdk&ef aMumuf&GHUMuayrnf/ olwdkYZeD;r,m;rsm;ESifh om;orD;rsm;EIwfcrf;rsm;rS pum;vHk;rsm; vGwfvyfpGm xGufay:vmrnfr[kwfyJ xkdtajctaersdK;onf vlwdkif;udk awGUBuHKvmaprnf/ þodkYapmifhMuyfMunf½I cH&aom tajctaersdK;ESifh awGUBuHKae&aomaMumifh omrefEdkifiHom;wpfOD;taeESifh olYtdrfüyif vGwfvyfpGmajymqdk cGifhqHk;½IH;apNyD; EdkifiHom;rsm;tMum; wpfenf;qdkaomf vlxktMum;wGif r,HkMunfjcif;? oHo,&Sdjcif;om BuD;pdk;vmrnfjzpfaponf/ tpövmrfrScsrSwfxm;aom yk*¾dKvfa&;vGwfvyfcGifhqdkif&m vHkNcHKrIESifhywfoufonfh tajccH oabmw&m;rSm tjypf&SdaMumif; xif&Sm;atmif w&m;½kH;awmfwGifoufaoESifhwuG rwifjyEkdifrcsif; rnfonfhEdkifiHom; wpfOD;wpfa,mufudkrQ axmifoGif;tusOf;csjcif; rjyKap&/ vlyk*¾dKvf wpfOD;wpfa,muf tm; oHo,jzifh zrf;qD;csKyfaESmifjcif;? w&m;½kH;awmfwGif pepfwuspD&ifppfaq;jcif;r&SdbJ axmifoGif; tusOf;csjcif;? xdkoltm; vHkavmufaom ckcHacsycGifhray;bJ ta&;,ljcif;rsdK;udk tpövmrfwGifcGifhrjyKEdkifay/ þudpöudk wrefawmfjrwf()"avhawmfwpfckESifh qufpyfwifjy&aomf wrefawmfjrwf()onf wpfcgu AvD0wfausmif;awmftwGif; oifMum;ydkYcsrIwpfckjyKvkyfaepOftwGif; vlxky&dowftwGif; vl wpfa,mufrS rwfwyf&yfvQufajymMum;cJhonf/ tdk-tv’m[fhwrefawmf? tb,ftaMumif;aMumifh uRefawmf tdrfeD;csif;onf zrf;qD;csKyfaESmifcHae&ygoenf;[k ar;jref;&m wrefawmf()onf xdkol tar;udk Mum;[efr&SdbJ ola[mMum;rIudk qufvufa[mMum;aeayonf/ xdkYaemuf txufyg yk*¾dKvfrS aemufwpfBudrfxí ar;jref; jyefav&m wrefawmfrS ajzMum;jcif;rjyKbJ qufvufía[mMum;aejyef/ xdkyk*¾dKvfrS wwd,tBudrfxNyD; ar;cGef;udkxí ar;jref;jyef&m wrefawmf()rS xdkoltdrfeD;csif; zrf;qD;csKyfaESmifxm;&mrS vTwfay;&ef trdefYay;cJhavonf/ 41
  • 42. wrefawmfjrwf()rS tapmydkif;ar;cGef;ESpfBudrfudk ar;aomtcsdefwGif tajzray;cJh&aom taMumif;t&if;rSm xdktcsdefwGif tusOf;om;udkzrf;qD;cJhaom &Jt&m&SdrSm AvD0wfausmif;awmf twGif;&SdaecJh aomaMumifh jzpfonf/ tusOf;om;udk csKyfaESmif&ef cdkifvHkaomtaMumif;t&if;? taMumif;jycsuf&Sdrnf qdkygu xdkt&m&SdrS ,if;wkdYudk wifjyEdkif&efjzpfonf/ &Jt&m&Sdu wifjyrIrjyKcJhojzifh csKyfaESmifxm;oltm; wrefawmf()rSvTwfay;&ef trdefYay;cJhjcif;jzpfonf/ &Jt&m&SdrS tpövmrfhw&m;Oya'udk od&Sdem;vnfNyD; jzpfí olYtaeESifh ]]tkyfcsKyfa&;u@taejzifh zrf;qD;cH&oljypfrIudkod&SdNyD; ,if;wdkYudk vlxky&dowf tMum;wGif zGifh[rajymEdkifyg/ tu,fíom wrefawmf()rS xdkoljypfrIESifhywfoufí oD;jcm; tcef;xJwGif ar;jref;cJhygu uREkfyfu &Sif;vif;jyygrnf}}[k xívnf; rajymcJhyg/ tu,fíom &Jt&m&Sd taeESifh txufygpum;udk EIwfrSzGifh[cJhyguvnf; xdkcsKyfaESmifxm;oltm; zrf;qD;jcif;rS vTwfay;& rnfjzpfonf/ taMumif;aomf &Jt&m&Sdu zrf;qD;csKyfaESmifxm;oltm; jynfolYw&m;½kH;&Sd vlxky&dwfowf a&SU0,f zGifh[ajymqdkrIrjyKjcif;onf wrefawmf()rS csKyfaESmifxm;oltm; csufcsif; vTwfay;&ef trdefYay;apjcif; t"dutaMumif;t&if; jzpfonf/ þtaMumif;ESifhywfoufí usrf;jrwfuk&ftmefwGif xkwfjyefxm;aomtrdefYrSm &Sif;vif;xif&Sm;vS ygonf/ wrefawmfjrwf()rS rdefYawmfrlonfrSm udk;uG,f&mt&Sif(tv’m[f)xHrS toifwdkYtMum; w&m;rQwrItwGufaqmif&Guf&ef uREkfyftm; rdefYawmfrlcJhonf/ þonfrSm cvDz[for®wBuD;tkr&f()rS tpövmrfhw&m;awmft& w&m;rQwrItwGufrSvJGí rnfolwpfOD;wpfa,mufrQ axmifoGif;tusOf;csxm;jcif; r&Sdap&[k rdefYrSmcJhonfhtaMumif;t&if; jzpfonf/ þae&müoHk;xm;aompum;vHk;rsm;rS &Sif;vif;pGm ñTefjyaeonfhtcsufrSm w&m;½Hk;awmfwGif w&m;rQwrIonf w&m;Oya'twGufomvQifjzpfonf/ tu,fí EdkifiHawmftpdk;&u vlwpfOD;wpfa,muftm; &mZ0wfrIusL;vGefonf[koHo,&SdvQif (0g) rMumao;aom tem*wfumvwGif jypfrIusL;vGefawmhrnf[k oHo,&SdvQif tb,faMumifh oHo, &Sd&aMumif; w&m;½kH;awmfodkY taMumif;jycsufay;&rnfjzpfonf/ xkdYtjyif w&m;cH (0g) oHo,t0ifcH& aomoltm; ckcHacsycGifhay;&rnf/ tu,fí oHo,0ifjcif;taMumif;t&if;udk oufaojyEdkifygu xdkoltm; b,ftcsdefb,fumv txd zrf;qD;tusOf;csxm;jcif;cH&rnfjzpfaMumif;udk today;oifhygonf/ þtajctaewGif ta&;BuD;aomtcsufrSm tpdk;&rSpGJqdkaom pGyfpGJcsufESifhywfoufí jynfolvlxkrS Mum;emcGifh&Sdap&rnfhtjyif tjypfpGyfpGJolbufrS xkacscsufrsm;udkvnf; Mum;emcGifh&SdapNyD; þodkY Mum;emcGifh onf Oya'a&SUarSmuf0,f w&m;vdk? w&m;cHESpfzufpvHk;twGuf w&m;rQwpGmjzpfapjcif;[laom tcsufudk ay:vGif ap&rnf/ þodkYaomtrIudpöESifhywfoufí xif&Sm;aomOyrmudk wrefawmfjrwf() ruúmNrdKUokdY ratmifjrifrDumvrS qHk;jzwfcJhaom ausmfMum;vSonfh qHk;jzwfcsufwGif awGU&SdEdkifonf/ xdkpOftcg wrefawmf()rS ruúmNrdKUudk ppfwdkuf&ef r'De[fNrdKUüjyifqifaeaomtcsdef udk,fawmfjrwf() 42
  • 43. aemufvkduf qG[mAm[fwpfOD;jzpfaom [moGdAfAifeftADAvfotm()rS jzpftHhqJqJjzpfaomwdkufyGJ taMumif;udk trsdK;orD;wpfOD;rS wpfqifhpmjzifh ruúm[fNrdKU&Sd(&efol)tmPmydkifrsm;xHodkY taMumif;Mum; cJhonf/ ,if;odkY &efolbufodkYpmydkYaMumif;udk wrefawmfjrwf()onf tv’m[ft&SifjrwfxHawmfrS 0[Dvrf;ñTefcsuftm;jzifh today;rIudk &&SdNyD;jzpfonf/ wrefawmfjrwf()onf tvD()ESifhZdkAdkif;&f() [laomyk*¾dKvfESpfOD;udk ruúm[fNrdKUodkYoGm;onfhvrf;ray:&Sd þrnfaomae&modkY tjrefoGm;í pm,laqmif oGm;aomtrsdK;orD;udk &SmazGyg/ xdkYaemufxdkpmudk uREkfyfxHodkY jyefvnf&,lcJhyg[k trdefYay;cJhonf/ wrefawmfjrwf()rSmMum;onfhtwdkif; tvD()ESifhZdkAdkif;&f()wdkYonf xdktrsdK;orD;udk &SmazGawGU&SdcJhav onf/ xdktrsdK;orD;xHrS pmudkvnf; jyefvnf&,lí wrefawmfjrwf()xHodkY jyefvnf ay;tyfEdkifcJhonf/ {uefpifppf þudpörSm xif&Sm;aomopömazmufrIwpfck jzpfonf/ trSefrSm ppfjzpfyGm;aecsdeftwGif; ppfa&;qdkif&m vQdKU0Sufcsufwpfckudk wpfzuf&efoltm; today;jcif;xuf ydkíqdk;0g;aom jypfrIr&Sday/ ppfa&;qdkif&mvQdKU0SufcsufESifhywfoufí opömazmufrItwGuf vQdKU0SufMum;emppfaq;jcif;xuf ydkí oifhavsmfaompD&ifrI[lonfr&Sd/ odkYaomf wrefawmfjrwf()rS [moGdAf()tm; wrefawmfjrwf() AvD0wfausmif;awmfodkY qifhac:NyD; &mESifhcsDí&Sdaomy&dowfa&SUwGif uk½dkuf(&Sf)acgif;aqmifxHodkY rnfonfh &nf&G,fcsufjzifh pmydkYcJhaMumif; &Sif;vif;wifjyapcJhonf/ pGyfpGJcH&olbufrS ajymqdkonf/ tdk-tv’m[fhwrefawmf? uREkfyftaeESifh tpövmrfudkqefUusifí x<u ykefuefjcif;r[kwfyg/ xdkYtwl ppfa&;qdkif&mvQdKU0Sufcsufudk opömazmuf&efvnf; r&nf&G,fcJhyg/ jzpfysufcJhaomtrIudpötjzpfrSefrSm uREkfyfZeD;ESifh uREkfyfom;orD;rsm;onf ruúm[fNrdKUwGif aexdkifvsuf&Sdí olwdkYudk umuG,f&ef uREkfyfrsdK;EG,fwl aqGrsdK;om;csif;r&Sdyg/ þpmudk uREkfyf a&;ydkYjcif;jzifh udk½kduf(&Sf)acgif;aqmifwkdYonf xkdaus;Zl;twGuf uREkfyfZeD;ESifhom;orD;rsm;tm; tumtuG,fay;&efomjzpfygonf[k ajz&Sif;csufay;cJhygonf/ xkdtcg tkr&f()ocifrS rwfwyfx&yfNyD; ½dkaopGmavQmufxm;onf/ tdk-wrefawmf? þopömazmuftm; uREkfyf"m;ESifhqHk;rcGifhay;awmfrlyg[k avQmufxm;onf/ xdktcg wrefawmf()rSjyefvnfíajymqdkonfrSm olonf A'&fppfyGJtwGif;u yg0if qifETJcJhbl;aomolwpfOD;jzpfonfhtjyif ol &Sif;vif;acsycsufrSmvnf; vufcHEkdifbG,f&Sdacsonf/ þae&mwGif wrefawmf()½IjrifoHk;oyfyHkESifh qHk;jzwfcsufudk oHk;oyfMunfhMuygpdkY/ txufyg jypfrIwGif ppfa&;qdkif&mvQdKU0Sufcsufudk xkwfazmfowif;ay;aomtcsufrSm xif&Sm;vSaomopömazmufrIBuD; jzpfonf/ odkYaomf wrefawmfjrwf()rS [moGdAf()tm; taMumif;tcsufESpfcktay:wGifaxmufxm;í jypfrIrSw&m;aovTwfay;cJhonf/ yxrtcsufrSm olonfA'&fppfyGJwGifyg0ifqifETJcJhonf[l aomtcsuf jzpfonf/ xdkppfyGJrSm rGwfpvifrfrsm;twGuf jyif;xefcufcJaom xl;jcm;aomppfyGJjzpfcJhonf/ ,if;ppfyGJESifh ywfoufaom olrSwfwrf;rSmvnf; &Sif;vif;aeonf/ 'kwd,tcsufrSm olrdom;pkrSmvnf; ruúm[fNrdKU wGif trSefwu,ftEå&m,f&SdaomtajctaewGif qdkufa&mufaejcif;jzpfonf/ þtajctaersdK;wGif oljypfrIudk vlxky&dowfa&SU0,f xkwfazmfjyoapjcif;onf olYtm;,HkMunfolrsm;a&SUarSmuf0,f *kPfoa&ysufap? t&SufwuGJ tusdK;enf;apjcif;onfyif olYtwGufvHkavmufaomtjypf'Pf jzpfonf[l aomtcsufudk awGU&onf/ cvDz[for®wBuD;tvD()ocifvufxufu cg&d*sD(Kha-rijites)rsm; oabmxm;ESifhtjyKtrl rsm;rSm rGwfpvifrfordkif;bmom avhvmaomausmif;om;ausmif;olrsm;onf aumif;pGmavhvmod&SdNyD; jzpfonf/ xdkolrsm;u cvDz[fBuD;tvD()udk ajAmifapmfum;Muonfhtjyif owfjzwfrnf[kyif 43
  • 44. Ncdrf;ajcmufMuonf/ xdkolrsm;udk ,if;jypfrIaMumifh zrf;rdaomtcg tvDocif()uvTwfay;&ef ol wm0ef&Sdt&m&Sdrsm;tm; ajymMum;onfrSm- ]]olwdkYrSm trSefwu,f EdkifiHawmfudk qefYusifonfh jypfrIrsm;udk usL;vGefrIr&SdbJ &ifhoD;½dkif;pdkif;aompum;vHk;rsm; ajymqdk½kHrQjzifhvnf;aumif; xdkolwdkYtm; axmifoGif; tusOf;csxm;EdkifrIr&Sd [lí jzpfonf}} tDrmrftAl[eDz[focifrS atmufwGifazmfjyrnfh tvDocif() rdefYqdkcsufrsm;udk rSwfwrf;wifcJhonfrSm- ]]xdkolrsm;u vufeufpGJudkifNyD; ykefuefrIrjyKorQumvywfvHk; rGwfpvifrfwdkYcvDz[ftaeESifh ¤if;wdkYtm; 0ifa&muf pGufzufrIjyKrnf r[kwf}} [líjzpfonf/ tjcm;aomtcGifhtcgwpfckwGif tvDocif()onf AvD0wfausmif;awmftwGif; a[majymydkYcsrI jyKvkyfaeonfhtcsdefwGif txufygcg&d*sDrsm;u ,if;wdkYtxl;a<u;aMumfrIrsm;udk a<u;aMumfaomtcgwGif tvDocif()rSrdefYqdkonfrSm ]]toifwdkYonf uREkfyfwdkYESifhtwlwuG &SdaeorQumvywfvHk; r,HkMunfol rsm;ESifh qifETJaomppfyGJwGif yg0ifaeorQumvywfvHk; AvD0wfausmif;awmfodkY vma&mufí tv’m[f t&Sifjrwftm; 0wfjyKudk;uG,fcGifhudk uREkfyfwdkY rjiif;qdkyg/ xdkYtwl EdkifiHawmfOpöm"erSm oifwdkY a0pk&S,f,mrsm;udkvnf; &yfqdkif;ypfrnfr[kwf/ oifwkdYonf uREkfyfwdkYtm; qefYusifykefuef wdkufcdkufrI rjyKorQumvywfvHk; oifwdkYtay:ü ppfa&;qdkif&mta&;,lrI jyKvkyfrnfr[kwf}}/ vuf&SdtcsdeftcgwGif tvDocif()rS BuHKawGUcJh&aom qefYusifa0zefcH&rIxuf ydkíjyif;xefaom yufyuf pufpufa0zefcH&rIrsdK;udk rnfolrQjrifawGUEdkifrnfr[kwfacs/ vuf&Sd 'Drdkua&pDEdkifiHawmfrsm;wGifyif tvDocif()udka0zefouJhodkY a0zefrIrsdK;udk pdwful;yif,OfMunfhcJhrnfr[kwfay/ odkYaomfcvDz[fBuD; tvDocif()rS cGifhjyKcJhaom qefYusifa0zefcGifhrsdK;udk rnfonfhtpdk;&urQ ay;EdkifrIr&SdcJhovdk rnfonfh tpdk;&urQvnf; ,if;udk qefYusifcGifhay;cJhbl;onfvnf;r&Sd/ tpövmrfrS vlom;tm;tyfESif;xm;aom tcGifhta&;rsm;teuf aemufxyfta&;BuD;aom tcGifh ta&;wpf&yfrSm tkyfcsKyfolzdEdSyf n§Of;yef;rIudk qefYusifuefYuGufydkifcGifh&Sdonf/ usrf;jrwfuk&ftmefwGif þtm,ofawmft"dyÜg,frSm tv’m[ft&Sifjrwfonf ½kefY&if;Murf;wrf;aom pum;vHk;rsm;oHk;pGJ jcif;ESifh olwpfyg;tm; jypfwif½Iwfcsa0zefjcif;udk vHk;0rESpfoufaMumif;qdkvdkonf/ odkYaomf xdkokdY rw&m;jypfwif ½Iwfcsa0zefcH&olrSmum; rw&m;rI (odkYr[kwf) rdrdtm; n§Of;yef; ESdyfpufcH&jcif;twGufrl ckcHumuG,fydkifcGifh &SdaMumif; rdrdtm;jyKrlcH&aom rw&m;rItwdkif;tqt& wkYHjyefydkifcGifh&SdaMumif;udk qdkvdk onf/ þzdESdyfn§if;yef;rIudk ckcHumuG,fydkifcGifhrSm vlwpfOD;csif;pDtwGufom owfrSwfxm;onfr[kwf/ txufazmfjyygusrf;ydk'fawmfqdkvdk&if;udk a,bk,soabm jcHKiHktoHk;csEdkifonf/ vlyk*¾dKvfwpfOD; 44
  • 45. wpfa,mufrSjzpfap? ygwDwpfckrSjzpfap? tmPmudkvk,lNyD; olwdkYzmomolwdkY tmPmydkiftBuD;tuJ? OD;pD;OD;aqmifrsm;[k ,lqaeNyD; oufqdkif&mEdkifiHtwGif;&dS vlwpfOD;csif;? tkyfpkrsm; odkYr[kwf vlxkwpf&yf vHk;udk n§if;yef;aeMuygvQif xdktmPmydkifrsm;tm; qefYusifjcif;? qefYusifaMumif;azmfxkwfjcif;onf vlom;tm; udk;uG,f&mt&SifrS ay;tyfxm;aomtcGifhta&; jzpfonf/ þtcGifhta&;udk usL;ausmf vk,lrIonf udk;uG,f&mt&Sifudk qefYusifaom oabmoufa&mufonf/ tpövmrfEdkifiHawmftwGif; aexdkifMuaom EdkifiHom;rsm;tm;vHk;udk vGwfvyfpGmawG;ac:ydkifcGifhESifh vGwfvyfpGm azmfxkwfajymqdkydkifcGifhudk ay;tyfxm;onf/ odkY&mwGif xdktcGifhta&;onf trSefw&m;? opöm w&m;twGuf 0g'jzefYcsda&;wGif oHk;Edkifaomfvnf;? raumif;rIudk jzefYcsda&;twGufrl vGwfvyfpGm azmfxkwfydkifcGifh? awG;ac:ydkifcGifh ay;rxm;ay/ tpövmrfrSjyqdkxm;aom vGwfvyfpGmazmfxkwfajymqdkydkifcGifh todonmonf taemufwdkif;xuf jrifhrm;vSayonf/ trSefpifppf trSefw&m;? opömw&m;udk 0g'jzefYcsdjcif;xuf aumif;jrwfaomtusifhoDvudk jzefYcsda&;twGuf vGwfvyfpGm azmfxkwfajymqdkydkifcGifh onf vlom;wpfOD;csif;twGuf tyfESif;xm;aomtcGifhta&;omru rvkyfrjzpfaqmif&Guf&rnfh wm0efvnf; jzpfonf/ wpfpHkwpfa,mufrS olvlom;rsm;ESifhywfoufí þtcGifhtvrf;udk vkyfaqmif&ef jiif;y,fygu xdkolonf teEÅpGrf;tm;&Sifjzpfaom udk;uG,f&mt&SifESifh ppfaMunmí ppfyGJqifETJoljzpfonf/ tvm;wlyif raumif;rIESifhywfoufí umuG,fwm;qD;&efrSmvnf; vlom;wdkif;twGuf rvkyfrjzpf vkyfaqmif&rnfhwm0efESifh tcGifhta&;jzpfonf/ þae&mwGif xdkraumif;rI[lonf xdkyk*¾dKvfwpfOD; wpfa,mufaMumifhjzpfap? vlwpfpkaMumifh jzpfap? rdrdEdkifiH EdkifiHawmftpdk;&rS jzpfap? tjcm;aom EdkifiHrsm;rS tpdk;&rSjzpfap jypfrIusL;vGefygu wm;jrpf&efrSm vlwdkif;twGuf wm0efjzpfonf/ txufwGif azmfjyxm;ouJhodkY raumif;rIESifh MuHKBudKufvmygu ,if;udk yGifhvif;pGm jypfwif ½Iwfcsa0zefoifhouJhodkY trSefwu,f vkyfaqmifoifhaom udk,fusifhodu©mqdkif&m rSefuefaomvkyf&yfudkvnf; axmufjyoifhonf/ usrf;jrwfuk&ftmefwGif opömw&m;ESifh ywfoufí atmufygtwdkif; vrf;ñTefxm;onf/ xdkYtjyif rkemzdufac: omoemhta&jcHKta,mifaqmifrsm;ESifh ywfoufí azmfjyxm;csufrSm- 45
  • 46. xdkYjyif tv’m[ft&SifjrwfrS tpövmrfEdkifiHawmfwpfck &nf&G,fcsufESifhywfoufí uk&ftmef usrf;awmfjrwfwGif vrf;ñTefxm;onfrSm- wrefawmf()rS rdefYrSmawmfrlonfrSm ]]tu,fí toifwdkYteufrS wpfOD;wpfa,mufonf raumif;rIESifh MuHKawGU&aomtcgwGif xdkraumif;rIudk oludk,fwdkif udk,fxdvufa&muf wm;jrpftqHk;owf ap&rnf/ tu,fí oltajctaerSm xdkodkYjyKvkyfEdkifonfh tajctaewGifr&Sdygu olEIwfvQmjzifh BudK;yrf;&rnf/ (qdkvdkonfrSm xdkraumif;rIudk EIwfjzifhajymqdk&rnf/) xdkokdY EIwfjzifh[efYwm;&ef tajctaeray;ygu tenf;qHk; ol pdwfESvHk;xJwGif qefYusifaMumif; jypfwifa0zef ½Iwfcs&rnf/ þodkY raumif;rIudk qefYusifjcif;onf ,HkMunfouf0ifrI tedrfhqHk;tqifhjzpfonf}}/ vlom;tm; ajzmifhrwfrSefuefaom oefYpifrGefjrwfaomenf;vrf;odkY vdkufyg&ef vrf;jyac:aqmif &rnfrSm rGwfpvifwdkif; rvkyfrae& wm0efwpf&yfjzpfovdk wpfzufwGif raumif;rIrsm;rS a&SmifMuOf&ef wm;jrpfjyKjyifay;&rnfrSmvnf; ppfrSefaom rGwfpvifwdkif; wm0efomjzpfonf/ xdkYaMumifh tpdk;&wpfckrS ¤if;EdkifiHom;rsm; tcGifhta&;udk csKd;ESdrfazmufzsufjcif;onf udk;uG,f&mt&Sif trdefYawmfudk wdkuf½dkuf qefYusifjcif;jzpfonf/ þodkYaomtpdk;&rsKd;onf ol jynfolvlxkESifh y#dyu©rjzpfaomfjim;vnf; udk;uG,f&mt&SifESifhrl y#dyu©jzpfaeayrnf/ xdktpdk;&onf udk;uG,f&mt&SifrS tyfESif;xm;aom vlom;rsm; tcGifhta&;rsm;udkomru ol w&m;0ifxrf;&Guf&rnfjzpfaom wm0ef0wå&m;rsm;udk csKd;azmufaejcif; jzpfonf/ tpövmrfrSvlom;tm; ay;tyfxm;aom vGwfvyfcGifhrsm;wGif vGwfvyfpGm toif;tzGJUrsm;zGJUpnf;cGifh vnf;yg0ifonf/ þtcGifhta&;t& vlom;rsm;onf ygwDrsm;? tzGJUtpnf;rsm;udk vGwfvyfpGmzGJUpnf; wnfaxmifEdkifcGifh&Sdonf/ þtcGifhta&;wGif vdkufemaqmif&Guf&rnfh taxGaxGpnf;urf;csufrsm;&Sdonf/ xdkpnf;urf;rSm tzGJUtpnf;wpfck(odkYr[kwf) toif;tzGJUwpfckudk zGJUpnf;wnfaxmifjcif;onf trSefw&m; odkYr[kwf? opömw&m;ESifh rGefjrwfoefYpifaom tusifhoDvrsm;&&Sda&;twGuf 0g'jzefYEdkifa&;twGuf jzpfoifh aomfvnf; raumif;rIESifh olwpfyg;tm; xdcdkufepfemapa&;twGufrl pnf;½Hk;vkyfaqmifcGifh r&Sdap&/ uREfkyfwdkYtm; aumif;jrwfaom tusifhoDvvkyf&yfrsm;udk vkyfaqmif&ef 0g'jzefYwdkufwGef;&ef? rdrdwdkY udk,fwdkif vdkufemusifhoHk;Mu&ef wdkufwGef;xm;ayonf/ þtcsufESifh ywfoufí usrf;jrwfuk&ftmefwGif- 46
  • 47. “ ’ txufygusrf;ykd'fawmf qdkvdk&if;teuft"dyÜm,frSm rGwfpvifrf vltpkta0;wpfckvHk;taeESifh vltrsm;tm; (rGwfpvifESifh rGwfpvifr[kwfolrsm;) rGefjrwfoefYpifaomudk,fusifhw&m;? tusifhoDvESifh trSefw&m;udk vufcHem;vnf usifhoHk;vmEkdifapa&;? aqmif&Guf&efESifh raumif;rIrsm;rS wm;qD;&efrSm rjzpfrae jyKvkyf&rnfh wm0efwpf&yfjzpfonf/ þodkYaumif;jrwfaom tusifhoDvrsm;&&Sdapa&;ESifh raumif;rIrsm;rS wm;qD;&efrSm rjzpfrae jyKvkyf&rnfh wm0efwpf&yfjzpfonf/ þwm0efrsm;udk rGwfpvif rf vlUtpkta0;wpfckvHk;rS wm0efr,lEdkif? raqmif&GufEdkifvQif rGwfpvifvlUtpkta0;xJrS tzGJUtpnf;wpfckudk a&G;cs,fvkyfudkifap&rnf/ þtaMumif;ESifh ywfoufí usrf;jrwfuk&ftmefwGif- þusrf;ydk'frS azmfñTef;aeonfhtcsufrSm rGwfpvifwdkif;rS rjzpfrae xrf;aqmif&rnfh wm0ef 0wå&m; rsm;udk rGwfpvifvlUtpkta0;wpfckvHk;rS vspfvsL½IpjyKvmcJhvQif ta&;BuD;qHk;ESifh rjzpfrae vkyfaqmif&rnfhvkyfief;rSm rGwfpvifrsm;xJrS tenf;qHk; tkyfpkwpfckrS txufygwm0efudk rvGJraoG xrf;aqmifwm0ef,l&ef jzpfonf/ txufusrf;ydk'fvm ñTefMum;csufESifh wvGJpDjzpfaeaom taMumif;csif;&mwpfckrSm- ]rGwfpvifEdkifiH wpfckwGif tzGJUtpnf; odkYr[kwf? vlpktoif;tzGJUwpfckzGJUpnf;vdkufNyDqdkvQif xdktzGJUtpnf;onf raumif;rI pufqkyf&GH&SmzG,fudpörsm;udk aqmif&Guf&ef&nf&G,fcsufESifhjzpfNyD; xdktzGJUtpnf;rSyif EdkifiHawmfudk tkyfcsKyfcGifh &wwfMuavonf/ xdktzGJUtpnf;vufatmufwGif rGefjrwfoefYpifaom tusifhoDvrsm; ay:xGef;vma&;? trSefw&m;? opömw&m;ay:xGef;vma&;twGuf BudK;yrf;tm;xkwfaqmif&GufMuukefaom tzGJUtpnf;rsm;? ygwDrsm;tm;vHk;onf vTrf;rdk;cs,fvS,fcH&NyD; xyfwvJvJ 'ku©ay;aESmuf,Sufjcif;? wdkufcdkufcH&jcif;rsm;ESifh aemufqHk;wGif w&m;r0iftoif;[k aMunmzsufodrf;cH&onfrSm txufygusrf;ydk'fawmfvm udk;uG,f&m t&Sif owfrSwfjy|mef;csufrsm;ESifh vHk;0ajymif;jyefjzpfaeonf/ tcdkiftrm ajymEdkifonfh tcsufrSm uREfkyfwdkYonf rGwfpvifrsm;jzpfMuíom þEdkifiHonf tpövmrfEdkifiHawmfjzpfygonf/ odkYaomf þEdkifiH twGif; vkyfaqmifaeMuonfhvkyfief;rsm;rSm raumif;rIESifh pufqkyf&GH&SmzG,fudpörsm;udk jzefYcsday;aejcif;om jzpfNyD;? w&m;r0if vmbfay;vmbf,ljcif;? udk,fusifhw&m; edrfhuscsKdU,Gif;jcif;rsm;jzifh EdkifiHom;wdkY 47
  • 48. t&nftaoG;? tqifhtwef;udk edrfhusavsmhenf;aponf/ xdkYjyif ¤if;wdkY oGufvufwuf<uaom? xda&mufaomt[efYtwm;? taESmihft,Sufrsm;ESifh vlxkaumif;usKd;? rGefjrwfoefYpifaom tusifhoDvrsm; &&Sdapa&;twGuf BudK;yrf;tm;xkwfMuukefaom tzGJUtpnf;rsm;udk trsKd;rsKd;zdtm;ay;vQif vlUtzGJUtpnf; wpfckvHk; zGHUNzdK;wdk;wufatmif jyKjyifajymif;vJa&; vkyfief;rsm;tm; t[efYtwm;jzpfaponf/ xdkYtjyif rGefjrwfaomtusifhoDvrsm; &&SdjyefyGm;a&;twGuf BudK;yrf;tm;xkwfMuolrsm;? raumif;rIvkyfief;rsm;ESifh &ufpuf,kwfrmrIrsm;udk yaysmufatmif aqmif&GufaeMuolrsm; b0tajctaerSmvnf; onf;rcHEdkif avmufatmif tcuftcJ jyóemrsm;ESifh &ifqdkifawGUBuHK&onf/ tpövmrfrStpövmrfhEdkifiHawmf&Sd EdkifiHom;rsm;tm; tyfESif;xm;aomtcGifhta&;rsm;wGif todw&m; ESifh ,HkMunfcsufqdkif&mvGwfvyfcGifhvnf; yg0ifonf/ usrf;jrwfuk&ftmefwGif xkwfjyefxm;aom w&m;0if trdefYrSm- tpövmrfonf BuD;us,faom trSefw&m;ESifhjrifhjrwfrIjzpfaomaMumifh rGwfpvifrfrsm;taeESifh vlom;wdkYudk tpövmrfodkYzdwfac:jcif;? tpövmrfonf rSefuefaMumif;oufaojyjcif;wdkYjyK&ef vrf;ñTefaomf vnf; vlwdkYtm; tpövmrfudk,HkMunfvmap&ef twif;tMuyfrjyK&ef vrf;ñTefxm;NyD;jzpfonf/ tpövmrf odkY 0ifa&mufvmjcif;onf oufqdkif&myk*¾dKvf qE´t&om jzpfap&rnf/ rGwfpvifrfrsm;taejzifh tpövmrf omoemhabmiftwGif; 0ifvmMuolrsm;tm; vufurf;í BudKqdkMu&rnfjzpfNyD; xdkolwdkYtm; rGwfpvifrf vlYtpkta0;twGif;&Sd tcGifhta&;rsm;ESifh *kPfodu©mtqifhtwef;rsm; wlnDpGmay;Mu&rnfjzpfonf/ wpfzuf wGifrl tpövmrfudkvufrcHMuaomolrsm; qHk;jzwfcsufrsm;tm;vnf; av;pm;todtrSwfjyKMu&rnf/ xdkYtjyif rnfonfhpm&dwÅ? vlrIa&;ESifhEdkifiHa&;qdkif&mzdESdyfcsKyfcs,frIrsm;jzifhjzpfap xdkolwdkY ,HkMunfcsufudk rajymif;vJap&/ todw&m;ESifh,HkMunfcsuf? vGwfvyfcGifhESifhtwl tpövmrfrS vlom;wpfOD;csif;tay:wGif tmrcH xm;aomtcGifhta&;wpfckrSm bmoma&;,HkMunfcsuf? cH,lcsufrsm;qdkif&mvGwfvyfcGifhjzpfNyD; vlwpfOD;tm; ol ,HkMunfcsufcH,lcsufESifhywfoufí rnfodkYaomusL;ausmfxdyg;rIrsm;udkrQ rjyK&ay/ þta&;ESifh ywfoufí usrf;jrwfuk&ftmefwGif udk;uG,f&mt&Siftv’m[frS 48
  • 49. þñTefMum;csufrsm;udk ½kyfxk udk;uG,fol? ewfbk&m;udk;uG,folrsm;twGufom uefYowf owfrSwfxm;onfomru jynfolvlxk acgif;aqmifrsm;? EdkifiHawmfol&Jaumif;rsm;twGufyg tusKH;0if onf/ tu,fí vlwpfpku ,HkMunfcsuf wpf&yfudk vufcHNyD; vltcsdKUudkvnf; MunfndKav;pm;tHh/ odkYaomf toifhtaejzifh ol,HkMunfav;pm;onfrSm rxdkufwef[kcH,lthH/ odkYwdkifatmif xkdolrsm;tay: &ifhoD;Murf;wrf;aompum;rsm;ajymjcif;jzifh olwdkYpdwfwGif;cHpm;csufrsm;udk xdcdkufepfemapjcif;rsdK;udk tpövmrfrS vufrcHyg/ odkYaomf tpövmrfwGif oifhwifhavsmufywfaom ,Ofaus;zG,f&mrsm;jzifh pum;tacstwifqdkjcif;ESifh aqG;aEG;ajymqdk jcif;rsm;udk wm;jrpfydwfyifxm;jcif;r&Sd/ usrf;jrwfuk&ftmefwGif [k ñTefjyxm;onf/ þodkYajymqdkqufqHenf;udk usrf;*ef&olrsm;twGufom[lí uefYowfxm;jcif;r&Sdyg/ tjcm;bmomw&m; ,HkMunfudk;uG,frI&Sdolrsm;twGufyg tusHK;0ifygonf/ tpövmrfwGif vlwpfOD;u usL;vGefaomjypfrItwGuf tjcm;vlwpfOD;tm; zrf;qD;csKyfaESmifjcif; (odkYr[kwf) axmifoGif;tusOf;csxm;jcif;rjyK&[k vrf;ñTefxm;NyD; þenf;jzifh vlwpfOD;csif;tcGifhta&; udk todtrSwfjyKxm;onf/ þoabmw&m;udk usrf;jrwfuk&ftmefwGif atmufygtwkdif; vrf;ñTefxm; onf/ tpövmrfrS wpfOD;csif;yk*¾dKvfqdkif&mwm0ef&SdrIudk ,HkMunfonf/ uREkfyfwdkYtm;vHk;onf rdrdwdkY vkyf&yfrsm;twGuf wm0ef&SdMuNyD; ,if;vkyf&yfrsm; aemufqufwGJtusdK;qufrsm;udk wpfpHkwpfOD;tay: ajymif;vJyHkcsjcif;rjyKEdkifaMumif; rdrdwkdYbmom cH,l&rnfjzpfaMumif;udk vufcHxm;NyD;jzpfonf/ uREkfyfwdkYzefqif;&Sif pMu0VmwpfckvHk;tm; auR;arG;jyKpkxdef;odrf;apmifha&Smufawmfrlaom tv’m[ft&SifrS abmifcwfowfrSwfay;xm;onfh þw&m;rQwaom omwlnDrQjzpfaom tajccHpnf;rsOf;udk rxDrJhjrif jyKvkyfjcif;? csdK;azmufjcif;rsm;onf tvGef&SufzG,faumif;onfh 0rf;enf;pdwfxdckdufzG,f&mudpö jzpfonf/ Oyrm- vlyk*¾dKvfwpfOD;wpfa,mufu jypfrIusL;vGefcJhthH (odkYr[kwf) jypfrIusL;vGefonf[k oHo,0ifcH&onfqdkygu xdkolZeD;udkvnf; zrf;qD;cGifh&Sdonfqdkjcif;rsdK;jzpfygonf/ trSefwu,f rjzpfoifh rjzpfxdkufaomudpö&yfrsm;rSm tjypfrJhaomolrsm;onf olwdkYrusL;vGefaom(olwpfyg; usL;vGefaom)jypfrIrsm;twGuf tjypfay;cH&jcif;yif jzpfonf/ txufygudpö&yftwGuf avmavmq,fjzpfcJh&onfh Oyrmwpfckay;&rnfqdkvQif- NrdKUwGifaexdkifol wpfOD;onf AkH;ypfrItwGuf yg0ifywfoufonf[k oHo,t0ifcH&onfhtrIjzpfonf/ &JrS olYtm; pHkprf;ppfaq;aomumvtwGif; olYtm; aMumufrufzG,fn§if;yef;ESdyfpufrItm;jzifh olYxHrS jypfrI usL;vGefcJhonf[laom ajzmifhcsuf? 0efcHcsuf&&Sdatmif qGJxkwfcJhonf/ xdkolrS rdrdrSmtjypfr&SdaMumif; 49
  • 50. ckcHumuG,faomtcgwGif &JrS oltar? ZeD;? orD;ESifhnDr^tpfrwdkYudk zrf;qD;ac:aqmifNyD; ola&SUarSmufwGif udk,fvHk;wD;cRwfaeapcJhjcif;jzifh olYxHrS jypfrIusL;vGefaMumif; ajzmifhcsufay;apcJhonf/ þjyóemaemufqufwGJ&v'frSm oHo,jzifh jypfrIwpfckudk pHkprf;ppfaq;azmfxkwfa&;twGuf tjypfr&Sdaomtdrfoltdrfom;? rdef;rom;rsm;tm; udk,fvHk;wD;cRwfapí t&SufwuGJjzpfapjcif;rSm w&m;0if vkyfoifhaomvkyf&yftjzpf vufcHvmMujcif;jzpfonf/ þuJhodkYaom Edkifvkdrif;xufjyKwwfaom tmPm&Sifrsm;tm; þae&mwGif uREkfyfar;csifonfh ar;cGef;wpfckrSm olwdkYonf rGwfpvifrfrsm;jzpfonfqdkvQif þodkYvlom;rsdK;EG,fwpfckvHk;tm; qefYusifonfh &mZ0wfjypfrIrsdK;udk usL;vGef&eftcGifhta&; &Sdygovm; (odkYr[kwf) olwdkYonf tpövmrf oGefoif ñTefMum;csufrsm;t& EdkifiHawmfta&;t&mrsm;udk pDrHtkyfcsKyfaeonf[kqdkEdkifygovm;/ olwdkYonf usrf;jrwfuk&ftmefrS csrSwfay;xm;aomOya'orsm;udk a,mufusm;rsm;ESifh rdef;rom;rsm; udk,fvHk;wD; cRwfapjcif;tm;jzifh rxDrJhjrif jyKaeMujcif;omjzpfonf/ olwdkYonfvlom;rsm;tm; *kPfodu©mn§dK;EGrf;apNyD; t&Suf&Muaponf/ NyD;vQif xdkolwdkYu a<u;aMumfa&&GwfaeMuonfrSm uREkfyfwdkYonf rGwfpvifrfrsm; jzpfMuayonf/ tpövmrfrS vdktyfcsuf&Sdaeolrsm;qdkif&m tcGifhta&;udk todtrSwfjyKxm;ygonf/ usrf;jrwf uk&ftmefwGif- þusrf;ydk'fwGif rGwfpvifrfwpfOD;wpfa,mufxHwGif tultnD taxmuf tyHh awmif;cHvmvQif xdkoltm; ulnDaxmufyhH&rnf[laomtcsufomru xdkolwpfa,mufrS rdrdrSm r&Sdqif;&JaMumif; zGifh[ awmif;qdkvmrIr&Sdaomfjim; rGwfpvifrfwpfa,mufrS xkdolonf b0wnfaqmufrI tajccHvdktyfcsufrsm; vHkavmufrIr&SdaMumif;odvmygu ulnD&efrSmwm0efjzpfonf/ þonfrSm tpövmrfrS vlom;wdkif;tm; tyfESif;xm;aom b0wnfaqmufrI tajccHvdktyfcsufrsm;qdkif&m vHkNcHKrItcGifhta&;jzpfonf/ txufygtcGifhta&;udkumuG,f&eftwGuf tpövmrfwGif apwemtavsmufvSLaomvSL'gef;jcif;udk omru rvSLrae&jzpfaom Zum;ofac:pGefYvSLjcif;tvSL'geay:wGifyg rDScdktm;xm;rIjyKaeonf/ xdkYaMumifh Zum;of[kac:aom vlrIaxmufyhHa&;ay;aqmifjcif;[laomr@dKifudk tpövmrftBuD;qHk;r@dKifBuD;ESpfck jzpfaom tDrmef,HkMunfjcif;ESifh qGvm;of(udk;uG,f&mt&Siftm; 0wfjyKwnfaqmufjcif;)[laom r@dKifBuD; ESpfckNyD;vQif wwd,ta&;tBuD;qHk;r@dKifwGifxm;&Sdjcif;jzpfonf/ wrefawmfjrwf()rS uREkfyfwdkYtm; &Sif;vif;pGm vrf;ñTefoifMum;cJhonfrSm- xyfrHwifjy&rnfqdkaomf tpövmrfEdkifiHawmftaeESifh axmufyhHrnfholr&Sdaom qif;&Jom;rsm;tm; axmufyHhay;urf;&rnfjzpfonf/ wrefawmfjrwfrS rdefYawmfrlonfrSm ]]EdkifiHawmftBuD;tuJ[lonf 50
  • 51. axmufyHh rnfholr&Sdol tkyfxdef;oljzpfonf}} (tAl'g0k'f? od&frZDusrf;)/ wrefawmfrS toHk;jyKcJhaom ]]0vD}}[laom pum;vHk;wGif us,f0ef;aomt"dyÜg,frsm;&Sdygonf/ rdbrJhuav;i,frsm;? oufBuD;&G,ftdkrsm;? tvkyfvufrJhrsm;ESifh emrusef;olrsm;wGif ulnDaxmufyHholrnfholwpfOD;wpfa,mufr&Sdygu ¤if;wdkYtm; auR;arG;axmufyHh&efrSm EdkifiHawmfwm0efomjzpfonf/ tu,fíaoqHk;olwpfOD;wGif tkyfxdef;ol (0g) tarGqufcHolwpfOD; wpfa,mufrQr&Sdaomtcg xdkaoqHk;ol½kyftavmif;udk ajrjr§KyfoN*ØK[fay;&efrSm vnf; EdkifiHawmfwm0efom jzpfonf/ xdkYaMumifh ppfrSefaomEdkifiHawmfwpfckonf jynfolvlxktm; trSefwu,f aumif;usdK;csrf;omay;Edkifaom jynfawmfomwpfckjzpfonf/ tpövmrfrS olEkdifiHom;rsm;udk w&m;Oya'a&SUarSmufwGif t<uif;rJhomwlnDrQaomtcGifhta&; udk ay;xm;onf/ usrf;jrwfuk&ftmefESifh ['D;qfMo0g'usrf;rsm;wGif rGwfpvifrfrsm;ESifhywfoufaom tcGifhta&;rsm;ESifh wm0ef0wå&m;rsm;udk xif&Sm;pGmazmfjyxm;onf/ þazmfjycsufrsm;t& rGwfpvifrfrsm; tcGifhta&;rsm; ESifhwm0ef0wå&m;rsm;rSm tm;vHk;twGuf twlwlyifjzpfaMumif; xif&Sm;onf/ wrefawmfjrwf()rS rdefYawmfrlcJhonfrSm ]]rGwfpvifrfrsm;toufESifhaoG;onf tm;vHk;twGuf twlwl tzdk;xkduf}} (tAl'g0k'f? tdAfEkrm*s[f)/ xdkYtwltjcm;aom Mo0g'awmfwpfckwGifvnf; wrefawmfjrwf()rS ]]rGwfpvifrftm;vHk;rSay;vmaom umuG,fapmifha&SmufrIonf wlnDonfhrGwfpvifrf rsm;teufrS omrefvlwpfOD;onfyifvQif vlom;wpfa,muftwGuf umuG,fapmifha&Smufay;&ef tmrcHcsuf ay;Edkifonf}} (Akcg&D? rGwfpvifrfESifh tAl'g0k'fusrf;)/ wrefawmfjrwf() tao;pdwfonfhtjcm;aom "avhawmfwpfckwGif wrefawmf()rS rdefYawmfrlonfrSm ]]tv’m[fwpfyg;wnf;&Sdjcif;ESifh wrefawmfjrwf rk[r®'f()onf tv’m[f&plvfwrefawmfjzpfjcif;udk vufcH,HkMunfjcif;? rdrdwdkYa&S;½kd;xHk;wrf;pOfvm tpGJtvrf;a[mif;rsm;udk pGefYvTwfí rGwfpvifrf vlYtzGJUtpnf;twGif; yl;aygif;yg0ifNyD; nDtpfudkzGJUjcif;udk yg0ifaqmif&Gufolrsm;taejzifh tjcm;rGwfpvifrfrsm;enf;wl wm0efESifhtcGifhta&;rsm; &SdMuonf/ (Akcg&D? epmtD) xdkYaMumifharG;&mygrGwfpvifrfrsm;ESifh rGwfpvifrf opfvGifrsm;tm;vHk;tMum;wGif t<uif;rJhwlnDaom tcGifhta&;rsm;&Sdonf/ bmoma&;t& nDaemifzGJUjcif;? ,if;wkdYtcGifhta&;rsm;wlnDrI? wm0ef0wå&m;rsm; omwlnDrQrI wkdYonf tpövmrfvlYtzGJUtpnf;twGif; omwlnDrQrItajccHoabmw&m;yifjzpfonf/ cvDz[fBuD; tvD 51
  • 52. ()ocifvufxufwGif tpövmrfhEdkifiHawmftwGif;aexdkifMuukefaom rGwfpvifrfr[kwfaom EkdifiHom;rsm; taetxm;ESifhywfoufí aocsmpGmzGifhqdk&Sif;jyxm;onfrSm ]]xdkolwkdYtm; umuG,fapmifha&SmufMu& onfrSm olwdkYtouf0dÓOfonf uREkfyfwdkYtouf0dÓOfESifhtwlwlyifjzpfouJhodkY olwdkYpnf;pdrfOpöm rsm;onfvnf; uREkfyfwdkYpnf;pdrfOpömrsm;ESifh twlwlyifjzpfaomaMumifhjzpfonf/}} (tAl'g0k'fusrf;)/ wpfenf;qkdaomf rGwfpvifrfr[kwfaomEkdifiHom;rsm; touftdk;tdrfpnf;pdrfrsm;onf rGwfpvifrfrsm; touftdk;tdrfpnf;pdrfrsm;uJhodkY tav;xm;tyfaomaMumifhjzpfonf/ vlwef;pm;cGJjcm;jcif;onf tBuD;rm; qHk;aomjypfrIrsm;xJrS wpfck jzpfonf/ usrf;jrwfuk&ftmefwGif zd&fatmifbk&ifvlwef;pm;cGJjcm;jcif;udk ESpfouft&omawGUaeyHkudk ñTefjy xm;onfrSm tpövmrfrS tcdkiftrmawmif;qdkcsufrSm tpövmrfhEdkifiHawmf&Sd tkyfcsKyfolt&m&Sdrsm; tjrifhqHk;rS tedrfhqkH;txd w&m;Oya'a&SUarSmufwGif tm;vHk;wpfajy;nDwlnDap&rnf[laomtcsuf jzpfonf/ xdk tkyfcsKyfolrsm;rS rnfolwpfOD;wpfa,mufrQ w&m;Oya'rSuif;vGwfcGifh&&Sdrnfr[kwf/ EdkifiHom;rsm;teufrS tedrfhqHk;EdkifiHom;onfyifvQif EkdifiHawmftwGif;&Sd tjrifhqHk;tkyfcsKyfrItmPmydkiftzGJUtpnf;udkyifvQif rauseyfvQif rauseyfaMumif; wdkifMum;csufrsm;udk w&m;0ifzdkifwGJí wifjyydkifcGifh&Sdonf/ cvDz[fBuD;tkr&f ()ocifrS ajymMum;cJhonfrSm ]]uREkfyfudk,fwdkif wrefawmfjrwf()tm; jrifawGUcJh&onfrSm wrefawmf ()onf rdrdaMumifhjzpfaomudpö&yftwGuf oufqkdifoltm; rdrdtay:tpm;,lap/ Oyrm-A'&fppfyGJ tcsdefumv wrefawmfjrwf()rS rGwfpvifrfppfwyftwGif; ppfom;rsm;twef;rsm;udk nDatmif n§day;aepOf ppfom;wpfOD;0rf;ydkufukd ½dkufykwfNyD; olYtm; olwef;twGif; wGef;ydkYa&muf&SdapcJhonf/ xdk ppfonfu rauseyfaMumif;wifjy&mwGif ]]tdk-wrefawmf? toifonf oifwkwfjzifh uREkfyftm; ½dkufESuf emusifapcJhonf}}[k wifjycJhonf/ xdktcg wrefawmf()rS csufcsif;yif ol0rf;ydkufudkvSefí ajymMum; onfrSm ]]uREkfyf tvGef 0rf;enf;ygw,f/ oifhtaeESifh uREkfyfu oifhtm; jyKrlcJhouJhodkY jyefvnf vufpm;acsvufwkHYjyefvdkygu wHkYjyefEdkifygonf/ xdktcgtxufygppfom;rS ta&SUodkY xGufvmNyD;vQif wrefawmf()0rf;ydkufudk erf;½IHUNyD;ajymcJhonfrSm jyKvkyfvdkonfrSm þodkYomjzpfygonf/}} jrifhjrwfaomtxufwef;vTmtrsdK;orD;tm; cdk;rIESifhqufEG,fí zrf;qD;ac:aqmifvmcJhMuonf/ ,if;trIudk wrefawmfjrwf()xHwifjyNyD; vGwfNidrf;csrf;omcGifhawmif;cHcJhMuonf/ xkdtrIESifhywfoufí wrefawmf()rS wHkYjyefírdefYawmfrlonfrSm ]]oifwdkYrwkdifrSD&SdcJhaom vltkyfpkrsm;udk tv’m[ft&SifjrwfrS ysufpD;apcJhonfrSm ¤if;wdkYonf omrefvlom;rsm;tm; olwdkYusL;vGefcJhonfhtjypfrsm;twGuf jypf'Pfay; cJhaomfvnf; ¤if;wdkY tBuD;tuJrsm;? *kPfxl;&mxl;&Sdolrsm;tm; ,if;wdkYusL;vGefcJhaomjypfrIrsm;twGuf ta&;r,l? tjypfudkuif;vGwf cGifhay;cJhaomaMumihfjzpfonf/ uREkfyfonf uREfkyftoufudk pdk;ydkif 52
  • 53. awmfrlaom tv’m[ft&Sifjrwftm; opömjyK wkdifwnfajymvdkonfrSm (uREkfyf) rk[r®'f() orD;awmfzmoGdr[fyifjzpfygap? txufygjypfrI(cdk;rI)rsdK;usL;vGefcJhonfrSm xif&Sm;vQif olrvufudkyif jzwfawmufthH}} [líjzpfonf/ cvDz[for®wBuD;tkr&f()vufxufwGif tD*spfEdkifiHtkyfcsKyfol tr&fAifeftvftm;pfom;jzpf olrk[r®'f()u tD*spfvlrsdK;wpfOD;tm; MumyGwfESifh½dkufí tjypfay;cJhonf/ xdktD*spfvlrsdK;onf r'De[f NrdKUodkYoGm;NyD; cvDz[fBuD;xHokdY oGm;a&mufwdkifMum;cJh&m cvDz[fBuD;rS xdktkyfcsKyfolESifholom;ukd csufcsif; qifhac:cJhonf/ cvDz[fBuD;a&SUarSmufodkY xdkolESpfa,mufa&muf&SdvmaomtcsdefwGif tD*spf EdkifiHom;w&m;vkdudk MumyGwfay;NyD; ola&SUwGifyif tkyfcsKyfolom;udk MumyGwfjzifh½dkufapcJhonf/ tD*spf EdkifiHom;u olYtwGufvufpm;acsrIudk jyKNyD;aomtcg tkr&f()ocifrS olYtm; ajymMum;onfrSm ]]*kPf odu©m&SdaomtkyfcsKyfoludkvnf; MumyGwfESifhwpfcsuf ½dkufvdkufyg? olYtaztkyfcsKyfol[laom jrifhrm;aom *kPfodu©mtay:wGif vGJrSm;aomrmeomr&SdvQif ol om;onf toifhtm;MumyGwfjzihf½dkufcJhrnfr[kwf}}/ xdktcg w&m;vdkjzpfonfhtD*spfEdkifiHom;rS ]]uREkfyftm; MumyGwfjzifh½dkufESufcJhonfyk*¾dKvftm; uREkfyfudk,fwdkif vufwkHYjyefonfhtaeESifh MumyGwfjzifh'Pfcwftjypfay; NyD;ygNyD}}[k wifjycJhygonf/ xdktcg tkr&f() ocifuajymcJhonfrSm- ]]tv’m[ft&Sifjrwftm; oufaojyKygonf/ tu,fí þtkyfcsKyfoltm; toifu ½dkufESufcJhvQifvnf; oifvkyf&yftwGuf uREkfyfrS rnfonfhta&;,lrIrsdK;rQ jyKvkyfrnfr[kwf/ toifonf toifvGwfvyfaomqE´tm;jzifh xdktkyfcsKyfoltm; csrf;omcGifhay;cJhjcif; jzpfonf}}/ xkdYaemuf tkr&f() ocifonf tr&fbifeftvftmpf()bufodkYvSnfhNyD; rausreyfrdefYqdkcJhonfrSm ]]tdk-tr&f()? vlwdkYonf ¤if;wdkYrdcifrsm;xHrS vGwfvyfpGmarG;zGm;vmcJhygvsuf toifonf vlwdkYudk uRefjyK&ef rnfonfhtcsdefu pwifcJhavoenf;}}/ tpövmrfEdkifiHawmfwGif ,if;oefYpifaom*kPfusufoa&ESifh pnfyifzGHUNzdK; BuD;yGm;wdk;wufaeaom tcg omrefvkyfom;jynfolvlxkrS w&m;½Hk;awmfü tkyfcsKyfolcvDz[frsm;tm; qefYusifí wdkifMum;EdkifcGifh &Sdonf/ xdktcgrsdK;wGif cvDz[ftkyfcsKyfolrS ½Hk;awmfwGif um&Dac:w&m;olBuD;a&SUwGif pGJcsufrsm;jyefvnf ajz&Sif;jy&rnf/ tu,fícvDz[fwGif EkdifiHom;wpfOD;OD;ESifhywfoufí wdkifMum;p&m&Sdygu xdktrIudk w&m;½kH;awmfwGif wifjyrI rjyKbJ rdrdESpfoufovdk jyKydkifcGifhr&Sd/ tpövmrfrSEdkifiHom;wdkif;tay: ay;xm;aomtcGifhta&;rsm;teuf tcGifhta&;wpfckrSm raumif;rI (0g) &mZ0wfrIwpfckudk jyKvkyf&efapckdif;cH&ygu jiif;qefydkifcGifhyg0ifonf/ þtcGifhta&;t& raumif;rI wpfck jyKvkyf&ef rnfonhfEdkifiHawmftpdk;& (0g) pDrHtkyfcsKyfolrS trdefYay;apckdif;onfjzpfap xdkyk*¾dKvfrS rvdkufem&ef jiif;qefydkifcGifh&Sdonf/ þodkYaomtajctaersdK;wGif xdkyk*¾dKvfjiif;qdkjcif;trIonf olYtwGuf jypfrIrajrmufonfhtjyif rdrdxuftqifhedrfhaomolwpfOD;udk raumif;rI(0g)rSm;,Gif;aom tjyKtrlwpf&yf jyKvkyf&ef trdefYay;jcif;onfom jypfrIusL;vGefjcif; jzpfonf/ þodkYaomtrdefYrsdK;udk jyif;jyif;xefxef zdtm;ay;í vkyfapaomtxuft&m&Sdonf ol&mxl;tqifhtwef; rnfrQyifjrifhrm;apumrl olonf w&m;Oya'udk ta&;rxm; rvdkufemjcif;omrnf/ xdkYaMumifh xdkyk*d¾KvfonfomvQif xkwfy,fjcif; cHxdkufonf/ atmufazmfjyyg wrefawmfMo0g'awmfwGif raumif;rIrsm;udka&SmifMuOf&ef &Sif;vif;aomvrf;ñTef oifMum;jcif;rsm;udk awGU&SdEdkifonf/ ]]vlom;wpfOD;wpfa,muf trdefYtmPmudkvdkufemaqmif&Guf&ef 53
  • 54. udk;uG,f&mt&Sif tv’m[ftrdefYudk vdkufemrIr&Sdjcif;onf vHk;0cGifhrvTwfEdkifaomudpörsdK;jzpfonf/}} (tDrmrft[fr'f tdAfed [rfAvf rkpfe'fusrf;) wpfenf;tm;jzifhqdkaomf rnfolwpfOD;wpfa,mufwGifrS rdrdvufatmufi,fom;rsm;tm; tv’m[ft&SiftrdefYawmfudk qeYfusifzDqefapjcif;rjyKap&[k qdkvkd onf/ xdkenf;wl rnfonfh jypfrIrsm; usL;vGefol wpfOD;wpfa,mufrQ oltjypfuif;rI(odkYr[kwf) jypf'PfrS uif;vGwfap&ef ¤if; usL;vGefrIonf rdrdqE´aMumifhr[kwfbJ txuftBuD;tuJrsm; trdefYtmPmaMumifh[laom taMumif;jycsufrsdK;jzifh jypf'PfrS uif;vGwfcGifhr&Sdap&/ þuJhodkYaom tajctaejyóemrsdK;ay:aygufvmcJhvQifvnf; jypfrIudk usL;vGefaomol udk,fwkdifESifh xdkjypfrIusL;vGef&ef trdefYay;olESpfOD;ESpfa,mufpvHk;onf &mZ0wfrIqdkif&m w&m;pGJqdkjcif;udk &ifqkdif&rnfjzpfonf/ tpövmrfomoemwGif EdkifiHawmftpdk;&[lonfrSm pMu0Vmudk jyKpkysdK;axmifxdef;odrf;apmifha&Smuf awmfrlaom zefqif;&Siftv’m[ft&Sif udk,fpm;vS,frsm;jzpfMuNyD; þudk,fpm;jyKrIwm0ef0wå&m;onf rnfonhf vlyk*¾dKvfwpfOD;wpfa,muf? rdom;wpfpk(odkYr[kwf)rnfonfhvltkyfpk?vlYtvTmwpfckudkrQ tyfESif; xm;onfr[kwfbJ rGwfpvifrfvlYtzGJUtpnf;wpfckvHk;tay: ,HkyHkvTJtyfxm;aomwm0efwpf&yfjzpfayonf/ usrf;jrwfuk&ftmefwGif þusrf;ydk'fqdkvdkcsufrS &Sif;vif;pGm ñTefjyaeonfhtcsufrSm ]]cvDz[f}}udk,fpm;vS,fonf udk;uG,f&mt&SifrSay;xm;onfh tm;vHk;ESifhqdkifaom vufaqmifrGefjzpfNyD; þudk,fpm;vS,fjyKtkyfcsKyfjcif; twGuf rGwfpvifrfwdkif;onf tcGifhta&;tnDtrQ&SdNyD; rnfolwpfOD;wpfa,mufurQ tjcm;rGwfpvifrfrsm; xufydkí tcGifhta&; omvGefrIr&Sdap&/}} EdkifiHta&;tcif;rsm;aqmif&Guf&mwGif usrf;jrwfuk&ftmefrS axmufcHvrf;ñTefxm;onfhenf;vrf;rSm atmufygtwkdif;jzpfonf/ 54
  • 55. þusrf;ydk'fwGifazmfjyxm;aomoabmw&m;t& rGwfpvifrfwpfOD;onf EdkifiHawmf ta&;t&m udpörsm;wGif wdkuf½dkufyg0ifajymqdkydkifcGifh&SdouJhokdY EdkifiHawmfta&;udpörsm;udk aqmif&Guf&ef ol udk,fpm;vS,f (0g) tjcm;rGwfpvifrfrsm;rS a&G;cs,fwifajr§mufxm;onfhudk,fpm;vS,fudk vkyfaqmifapcGifh &Sdonf/ vlwpfOD;wpfa,muf(0g) vltkyfpkwpfpk (0g) ygwDwpfcktm; rGwfpvifrfvlxk &oifh&xdkufaom tcGifhta&;rsm;udk ydwfyifwm;jrpfjcif;ESifh EdkifiHawmftcsKyftjcmtmPmudk usL;ausmfvk,ufjcif;rsdK;udk rnfonfhtajctaersdK;wGifrS tpövmrfrScGifhjyKrnfr[kwf/ xdkenf;wl vlwpfOD;wpfa,mufrQ vdrfvnf vSnfhjzm;jcif; (0g) n§if;yef;ESdyfpufrI (0g) vmbfay;vmbf,lrIrsm;jyKvkyfNyD; ¤if;udk,fwdkif (0g) ¤if;a&G;cs,f xm;aomMoZmcHyk*¾dKvftm; rJa&G;cs,fcH&atmifjyKvkyfNyD; oufqdkif&mvTwfawmfodkYyg0ifapjcif;onf avsmfuefaomvkyf&yfr[kwf[k tpövmrfrS owfrSwfonf/ þvkyf&yfrsdK;onf vltrsm;tcGifhta&;udk csdK;azmufonfh opömazmufrIomru zefqif;&Siftv’m[ft&SifxHrS vlom;tay:,HkyHkvTJtyfxm;onfh urÇmN*dK[fudk tkyfcsKyfydkifcGifhudk qefYusifonfhvkyf&yf jzpfonf/ wpfenf;qdkaomf zefqif;&SifrS vlom;tay: ay;tyfxm;onfh trmeofac:,HkyHkvTJtyfrIudk cd,meofac:tvGJoHk;pm;vkyfNyD; tv’m[ft&SifESpfoufaom tkyfcsKyfrIenf;pepfudk qefYusiftkyfcsKyfaerIomjzpfonf/ ½SL&mac:Oya'jyKvTwfawmftaeESifh atmufazmfjyygoabmw&m;rsm;udk vufudkifjyKí vkdufem aqmif&Gufoifhonf/ (1) tpdk;&tzGJUtkyfcsKyfolacgif;aqmifESifh Oya'jyKvTwfawmftzGJU0ifrsm;udk jynfolvlxk vGwfvyfaoma&G;cs,frIjzifhom a&G;cs,fwifajr§mufap&rnf/ (2) jynfolvlxkESifh ,if;wdkYukd,fpm;vS,frsm;onf a0zefoHk;oyfcGifhESifh ,if;wkdYxifjrif,lqcsuf oabmxm;rsm;udk vGwfvyfpGmazmfxkwfcGifh&Sdap&rnf/ (3) EdkifiHawmftajctaerSefrsm;udk jynfolvlxka&SUarSmufodkY xdef;csKyfrIr&SdbJ wifjyEkdif&rnfjzpfNyD; jynfolvlxktaeESifh EkdifiHawmftpdk;&vkyf&yfrsm; oifhavsmfrSefuefrI&Sd^r&Sdudk qHk;jzwfpD&ifydkifcGifh &Sdap&rnf/ (4) jynfolvlxkaxmufcHrIudk&&Sdaom a&G;cs,fcHvlyk*¾dKvfrsm;onfom EdkifiHawmftm; tkyfcsKyfcGifh tmPmudk &&Sdapjcif;? jynfolvlxkaxmufcHrIr&aom vlyk*¾dKvfrsm;taeESifh ,if;vuf&Sd&&Sdxm; aomtmPmydkif &mxl;tqifhtwef;rS z,f&Sm;ay;Edkif&ef vHkavmufaomtmrcHcsuf&Sdoifhonf/ 55
  • 56. tpövmrfjyefvnfrxGef;um;rDumvu urÇmay:wGif vlom;qefaom? oifhwifhavsmufywfaom Oya'pnf;urf;rsm;qdkif&m todonmrsm;udk vspfvsL½Ixm;cJhonf/ þtodonmrsm;udk 17&mpktwGif; ay:xGef;cJhaom *½dkwD;,yfpfac:tawG;tac:ynm&SifwpfOD; vkyf&yfrsm;rSwpfqihf azmfxkwfcJhonf/ odkYaomf ppfyGJrsm;ESifhqdkifaom ]]tjynfjynfqdkif&mOya'rsm;}}udk trSefwu,fpepfwus pDpOfaygif;pnf; cJhonfrSm 19&mpk tv,fydkif;avmufwGifrS jzpfonf/ þodkYaomOya'rsm; rowfrSwfrjy|mef;rDumvu t½dkif;tpdkif;0g'ESifh &ufpufMurf;MuKwfaom0g'rsm;udkom ppftwGif;üusifhoHk;cJhMuonf/ ppfyGJrsm;twGif; epfemqHk½IH;&olrsm;tcGifhta&;ESifhywfoufíum; todtrSwfrjyKcJhMuacs/ þta&;udpörsm;ESifhywfoufí 19&mpktwGif; owfrSwfcJhaomOya'rsm;(odkYr[kwf) xdkumv aemufydkif;rS ,cktcsdeftxd owfrSwfcsufrsm;udk ]]Oya'}}[laompum;vHk;ESifh roHk;tyf? rac:tyf/ tb,faMumifhqdkaomf ,if;wdkYwGif Oya'tESpfom&r&SdaomaMumifhjzpfonf/ ,if;pnf;rsOf;Oya'orsm;rSm EdkifiHcsif; oabmwlpmcsKyfESifh oabmwlnDcsufrsm;jzpfMuonf/ tb,faMumifhqdkaomf &efbufEdkifiHrsm;u ,if;wdkYudk vdkufemrIrjyKu EdkifiHrsm;taeESifh ,if;oabmwlnDcsufrsm;udk w&m;0if0efcHapaomtcsufrsm; tjzpf oabmrxm;Muyg/ qdkvdkcsufrSm þ,Ofaus;aomOya'rsm;udk wpfzuf&efoluav;pm;ygrS rdrdwdkYrSvnf; vdkufemrnf/ wpfzufrS ,if;wdkYtm;vspfvsL½Iygu rdrdwdkYrSvnf; vspfvsL½Irnfjzpfonf/ xdkYaMumifh ESpfOD;ESpfzufvufcHEdkifrItajctaeay:wGifrlwnfí pDpOfxm;onfwdkYudk ]]Oya'}}[k rac:qdkEdkifyg/ þonf tjynfjynfqdkif&mOya'[kac:qdkaeaom Oya'rsm;udk EdkifiHrsm;rS rMumcPvspfvsL½IaeMujcif; taMumif;&if;yif jzpfonf/ ppfudk,Ofaus;odrfarGUaom? vlom;qefaom pnf;urf;Oya'rsm;ESifh tpövmrfrS ]abmif} uefYowf ay;xm;jcif;onf Oya'obm0yif jzpfonf/ tb,faMumifhqdkaomf ,if;Oya'rsm;rSm udk;uG,f&mt&Sif tv’m[fESifh olwrefawmfrS rdefYqdktyfaom ]]w&m;0iftrdefY}}rsm;jzpfNyD; þtrdefYrsm;udk &efoltjyKtrl rnfodkYyifjzpfap rGwfpvifrfxkwpf&yfvHk;rS tajctaetm;vHk;wGif vdkufemaqmif&Guf&rnfh trdefYawmfrsm; jzpfaomaMumifhwnf;/ vGefcJhaomESpfaygif;(1400)ausmfu tpövmrfrScsrSwfcJhaomppfOya'orsm;udk taemufwdkif;rS rnfodkY vufcHusifhoHk;cJhonfudk tjyKoabmjzifh okawoejyKMunfhoifhygonf/ tpövmrf aus;Zl;jzifh rGwfpvifrfrsm;aqmif&GufcJhaom ,Ofaus;odrfarGUívlqefonfh ppfa&;qdkif&mtjyKtrlrsm;udk taemufEdkifiHrsm;rSvufcHusifhoHk;NyD;aemuf tjrifhqHk;a&mufatmif rnfodkY xdef;odrf;BuD;MuyfuGyfuJcJhonf udkvnf; avhvmqef;ppfoihfygonf/ taemufwkdif;pma&;q&mrsm;u rMumcPpGyfpGJajymqdkonfrSm wrefawmfjrwf()rS c&pf,mefESifh *sL;rsm; w&m;"r®vrf;ñTefoifjyrIrsm;udktwkckd;í tpövmrfhvrf;ñTefoifMum;rIrsm;udkjyKcJhonf[l/ þ ae&mwGif pm½Ioludk tvHktavmufaxmufcHay;EdkifonfhtcsufrSm pmzwfoltaeESifh or®musrf;udk zwf½I oifhygonf/ vlom;½kyfydkif;ESifh pdwfydkif;qdkif&m,Ofaus;rIudk a<u;aMumfaeaom taemufwdkif;om; vl,Ofaus;rsm; jrifhjrwfaomusrf;pmu rnfodkYaomppfyGJqdkif&menf;vrf;rsm;udk vrf;ñTefaxmufcHxm; onfudk rdrdudk,fwdkifqef;ppfoifhygonf/ 56
  • 57. vlom;tay: tpövmrfrStyfESif;xm;aom tajccHvlYtcGifhta&;rsm;teufrS tcsdKUaomtcGifhta&; rsm;taMumif;udk NyD;cJhaomtcef;u@rsm;wGif tao;pdwfwifjycJhNyD;jzpfonf/ ,cktcgtpövmrfrS &efolrsm;twGuf ay;tyfxm;aomtcGifhta&;rsm;ESifh wm0ef0wå&m;rsm;udk qef;ppfMunfhMuygpdkY/ tpövmrfrS &efolEdkifiHwpfEdkifiHtwGif; jzpfay:aomppfyGJtwGuf wdkufyGJppfonfrsm;ESifh wdkufyGJ0if ppfonfr[kwfolrsm;tMum; xif&Sm;aomcGJjcm;owfrSwfrIudkcsrSwfcJhygonf/ wdkufyGJ0ifppfonfr[kwfolrsm; jzpfMuaom trsdK;orD;rsm;? uav;oli,frsm;? oufBuD;&G,ftdkESifh tdkrif;rpGrf;Muaomolrsm;twGuf wrefawmf()rS rdefYrSmawmfrlonfrSm ]]rnfonfhoufBuD;&G,ftkd? trsdK;orD;ESifh uav;wpfOD;wpfa,muf udkrQ rowf&}}[kjzpfonf/ (tAl'g0k'f) ]]bkef;awmfBuD;ausmif;rsm;wGif aexdkifMuukefaom bkef;BuD; &[ef;rsm;udk rowf&/ 0wfjyK&Sdcdk;&ef tvdkYiSm aqmufvkyfxm;aomae&mrsm;wGif aexdkifMuolrsm;udk rowf&}}[líjzpfonf/ (tDrmrftdAfEk[rfAvfrkpfe'fusrf;) ppfyGJwpfckwGif wrefawmfjrwf()onf ajray:wGifvJusaoqHk;aeaom trsdK;orD;wpfOD; tavmif;udk awGUaomtcg ]]olronf wdkufyGJwGif wdkufcdkufonfr[kwfbJ tb,faMumifh owfcH&oenf;}} þtqdkrS Oya'ynm&Sifrsm;uaumufcsufcsMuonfrSm ppfyGJwpfcktwGif wkdufyGJ0ifppfonfr[kwfaomol rsm;udk ppfjzpfaepOfumvtwGif;üvnf;aumif;? ppfyGJNyD;qHk;oGm;aomumvüvnf;aumif; owfydkifcGifhr&Sd [líjzpfonf/ qufvufí wkdufyGJ0ifppfonfawmftay:wGif tpövmrfrStyfESif;xm;aomtcGifhta&;rsm;udk qef;ppf MunfhMuygpdkY/ wrefawmfjrwf()Mo0g'awmfwpfckü ]]rD;jzifhtjypfay;jcif;[laomtrIudk rD;t&SifocifrSvGJí rnfolrS rjyKxdkufyg/}} (tAl'g0k'f) þMo0g'awmfrSaumuf,lEdkifaom w&m;0ifwm;jrpfcsufrSm ]]touf&Sifvsuf&Sdaeaom &efolwpfOD;udk rD;jzifh½dIUjcif;rjyKoifh}}[k qdkvkdjcif;jzpfonf/ wrefawmfjrwfrdefYawmfrlonfrSm ]]'Pf&mtemw&jzpfaeolwpfOD;tm wdkufckdufjcif;rjyK&}}/ qdkvdk&if; t"dyÜg,frSm wdkufcdkuf&ef usef;rmoefpGrf;rIr&Sdavmufatmif 'Pf&m&&Sdxm;onfh&efolppfonfrsm;? wpfzef trSefwu,fppfyGJwGif wdkufyGJr0ifMuaomppfonfrsm;tm; wdkufckdufjcif;rjyK&/ ]]rnfonfhppfoHkYyef;udkrQ "m;atmuf0,frusa&mufap&}} þonfrSm tvGef&Sif;vif;aom jywfom; vSonfh wrefawmfjrwf() ñTefMum;csufjzpfonf/ 57
  • 58. wrefawmfjrwf()rS ]]vlwpfOD;wpfa,muftm; owfjzwf&ef csnfaESmifxm;jcif;rjyK&}}[lí wm;jrpfawmfrlcJhonf/ wrefawmfjrwf()rS rGwfpvifrfrsm;tm; vrf;ñTefoifMum;ay;onfrSm ppfjzpfaecsdefwGif vlaeNrdKU&Gmrsm;udk ppfom;rsm;rS twif;t"r®vk,ufzsufqD;jcif;? t"r®,liifjcif;? taqmuftOD;rsm;udk zsufqD;jcif;? ppfonfr[kwfMuaomolrsm; Opömypönf;rsm;udk xdcdkufepfemqHk;½IH;apjcif;rjyK&[líjzpfonf/ (qG[D;[ftvf-Akcg&D?tAl'g0k'f) þtcsufudk wrefawmfatmufygtrdefYawmfwGif azmfjyxm;onf/ ]]olwpfyg;Opöm"ersm;udk vk,ufwdkufckdufjcif;onf taoaumifykyfudkpm;jcif;xuf ydkíw&m;r0ifaom vkyf&yfjzpfonf/}}(tAl'g0k'f) or®wBuD;tAlAu&fonfvnf; ppfcsDwuf&mvrf;aMumif;wpfavQmufwGif olppfonfrsm;tm; tm;ay;avh&SdaomtrdefYrSm ]]NrdKU&Gmrsm;udk rzsufqD;Muukefvifh/ xdkYtwl xGef,uf pdkufysdK;xm;aom v,fuGif;jyifrsm;ESifh O,smOfNcHajrrsm;udkvnf; rzsufqD;&/ xdkYtwl uRJEGm;paom wd&pämefrsm;udkvnf; owfjzwfjcif;rsdK;udkrjyKvkyf&}}[kjzpfonf/ ppfajrjyifrS ypönf;rsm;odrf;qnf;&,laom vuf&oHkYyef;ypönf;rsm;ESifh vk,ufcdk;,l&&Sdaom ypönf;rsm;rSm rwlEdkif/ vuf&oHkYyef;ypönf;rsm;rSm ppfpcef;rsm;ESifh &efolXmecsKyfrsm;rS odrf;qnf;&&Sdaom Opöm"ersm;? pm;eyf&du©mrsm;? ppfvufeufud&d,mwefqmyvmrsm;yg0ifonf/ ,if;wdkYESifhywfoufí oD;jcm;pm&if;xm;&Sd&rnf/ ppfEdkifiHwpfckrS rGwfpvifrfrsm;taeESifh ppf½IH;aomEdkifiHwpfck omrefjynfolvlxk "eOpömypönf; rsm;udk tcaMu;aiGray;bJ,ljcif;udk rjyKvkyf&efwm;jrpfxm;onf/ tu,fí rGwfpvifrfppfwyfwpfckrS &efolEdkifiHwpfEdkifiH a'owpfckudk odrf;ydkufrdaomtcg xdkt&yfa'o&Sd vlxkrsm;ydkifqdkifaomypönf;rsm;udk xdkolrsm; cGifhjyKcsufr&&SdbJ &,lydkifcGifhr&Sd/ ppfwyftaeESifh vdktyfaomypönf;wpfpHkwpf&m&Sdvmygu oufqdkif&ma'ocHrsm;xHrS 0,f,ljcif; (0g) a'ocHrsm;cGifhjyKcsuf&,lNyD;rS awmif;cH&,ljcif;jyK&rnf/ cvDz[fBuD;tAlAu&fonf rGwfpvifrfppfwyftm; ajymavh&SdonfhtcsufrSm ]]tu,fíxdkppfonfrsm;onf ppfa&SUwef;rsufESmpmodkY tydkYcH&yguvnf; ydkif&Sifrsm;cGifhrjyKbJ uRJEGm;rsm;EdkY&nfudkyif aomufcGifhr&Sd}} [líjzpfonf/ tpövmrfjyefvnfrxGef;um;rDumvu tma&AD;,m;uRef;qG,fa'owGif jyKrlcJhMuonfh tavhtusifhqdk;wpfckrSm &efol½kyftavmif;udk udk,fvuft*Fgrsm; jzwfawmufzsufqD;ypfjcif; jzpfonf/ tpövmrfbmom jyefvnfay:xGef;vmNyD;onfhaemufydkif;wGif rGwfpvifrfrsm;u &efol½kyftavmif;udk udk,ft*Fg jzwfawmuf zsufqD;jcif;rjyK&ef wm;jrpfxm;onf/ þodkYwm;jrpfaMumif;udk atmufazmfjyyg ['D;qfMo0g'awmfwGif awGUEdkifonf/ ]]wrefawmfjrwfonf &efolrsm;½kyftavmif;aumifrsm;udk udk,fvuft*FgjzwfawmufzsufqD;jcif;udk wm;jrpfxm;onf/}} (qG[D[ftvf-Akcg&D? tAl'g0k'f) þ 58
  • 59. wm;jrpfcsufudk xkwfjyefcsrSwfaomtcsdefwGif jyif;jyif;xefxef trdefYay;cJhjcif;jzpfonf/ tl[k'fppfyGJwGif r,HkMunfolrsm;u ppfyGJatmifyGJ&txdrf;trSwftjzpf rGwfpvifrfppfonfrsm; ESmacgif;?em;&Gufrsm;udk jzwfawmufí BudK;ESifhoDNyD; olwkdYvnfyif;wGif csdwfqGJjcif; jyKcJhMuonf/ wrefawmfjrwf()OD;&D;awmf [rfZmocif0rf;ydkufudkqkwfNzJNyD; ukd½dkuf&Sfacgif;aqmiftAlpkzf,ef()ZeD;u [rfZmocif() tonf;udkxkwfNyD; 0g;pm;cJhavonf/ þrQaMumufrufzG,faumif;aom jrifuGif;udkjrif&aomtcg rGwfpvifrfppfonfrsm;u tvGefa'goxGufMuonfrSm obm0yif jzpfonf/ odkYaomf wrefawmfjrwf()rS ol aemufvdkufqG[mA[fBuD;rsm;tm; &efol½kyftavmif;rsm;udk tvm;wljyKrlNyD; jypf'PfpD&ifcsufrsdK; rcsatmif awmif;qdkcJhonf/ þodkYwrefawmfjrwfBuD; () atmifhtnf;onf;cHrI? xdef;csKyfrIrsdK;udk aMumif;usdK;qifjcif a0zefwwfaom vlrSefvQif tpövmrfonf pMu0Vmzefqif;&SifrScsrSwfay;aomomoemjzpfaMumif; vufcH ,HkMunf&ef vHkavmufaomOyrmjzpfonf/ tu,fí tpövmrfrS vlom;wdkY pdwfobm0udk vGwfvyfcGifh ay;NyD; pdwfvIyf&Sm;rItwdkif; vkyfcGifhay;vdkufvQif tl[k'fppfyGJtwGif; awGUBuHKcJh&onfhjzpf&yfonf wrefawmf()tm; olaemufvdkufrsm;tm; &efolrsm;½kyftavmif;udk cE¨mudk,ftpdwftydkif;rsm; jzwfawmufzsufqD;cGifhay;vkdufatmif wGef;ydkYae aomjzpf&yfjzpfonf/ t[fZmAf[laomppfyGJwGif ausmfMum;aom&efol&JrufwpfOD;usqHk;cJhNyD; ol½kyftavmif;rSm rGwfpvifrfrsm; r'De[frSckcHumuG,f&efwl;xm;aom uwkwfusif;twGif;usoGm;cJhonf/ r,HkMunfolrsm; (&efolrsm;)zufrS xdktavmif;udk ¤if;wdkYtm;vTJtyfay;&ef 'Dem (10000) ay;tyfrnfjzpfaMumif; wrefawmf ()xH urf;vSrf;vmcJhonf/ xdktcgwrefawmf()rS wHkYjyefajymqdkonfrSm ]]uREkfyfonf vlao tavmif;aumifrsm;udk a&mif;rnfr[kwf/ oifwdkYtaeESifh oifwdkYusqkH;oGm;aom&Jabmf&Jzuf ½kyftavmif;udk tvdk&Sdygu ,laqmifoGm;Edkifonf}}[k jzpfonf/ tpövmrfwGif opömazmufrIudk txl;ydwfyifwm;jrpfonf/ ppfajrjyifodkYxGufcGmrnfh rGwfpvifrf ppfonfawmfrsm;tm; wrefawmf()rSay;avh&Sdaom ñTefMum;csufrsm;teufwpfckrSm ]],HkMunfcsufudk csdK;azmufolrjzpfMuukefvifh}} þrdefYMum;csufudk usrf;jrwfuk&ftmefESifh ['D;qfawmfrsm;wGif tzefzef wvJvJazmfjyxm;onf/ þudpöESifhywfoufí [k'dkifAD,mNidrf;csrf;a&;pmcsKyfcsKyfqdktNyD; jzpfysufcJhaom tjzpftysufrSm tvGefausmfMum;aomOyrmwpf&yf jzpfonf/ [k'dkifAD,mpmcsKyfESifhywfoufí tcsdefumv udkowfrSwfNyD;aomtcg r,HkMunfolrsm;udk,fpm;vS,fom; tAl*sef',fvfqdkolrSm rGwfpvifrfrsm;ESifh r,HkMunfolrsm;tMum; Mum;0ifaphpyfay;aomoljzpfí olYwpfudk,fvHk;aoG;rsm;ayvl;vsuf rGwfpvifrf ppfonfrsm; wJrsm;teD;wGif[pfatmfvsuf tultnDawmif;cJhonf/ xdktcg wrefawmf()rS wkHYjyef ajymMum;onfrSm ]]pmcsKyfoufwrf;ESifh oabmwlnDcsufrsm;udk owfrSwfNyD;NyDjzpfaomaMumifh uREkfyfwdkYrSm oifhudkulnDEdkifonfhtaetxm;wGifr&Sdyg/ toifonf oifzcifxHodkYjyefoGm;yg/ þuJhodkYaom zdpD;ESdyfpufrIrsdK;rS uif;vGwfcGifh&atmif udk;uG,f&mt&SifrS tjcm;aomtcGifhtvrf;rsm; toifhtwGuf jznfhqnf;ay;vdrfhrnf/}} 59
  • 60. rGwfpvifrfppfwyfwpfckvHk;onf tAl*sef',fvftusyftwnf;twGuf tvGefpdwfraumif;jzpf&NyD; rsuf&nfyifus&rwwfjzpfonf/ odkYaomf wrefawmfjrwf()rS atmufygtwdkif; aMumfjimvdkufaomtcg ]]uREkfyfwdkY taeESifh oabmwlnDcsufudk rcsdK;azmufEdkifyg}}[k rdefYqdkvdkuf&mwGif rnfonfh rGwfpvifrf wpfOD;wpfa,mufurS a&SUodkYxGufNyD; xdkuHraumif;aomtusOf;om;udk ulnD&efxGufvmjcif;r&Sd/ r,HkMunfolrsm;rS xdktusOf;om;udk ruúm[fNrdKUqDodkY jyefqGJac:oGm;cJhonf/ þonfrSmrGwfpvifrfrsm; pmcsKyfoabmwlnDcsuftay: vdkufemrIESifhywfoufí NydKifbufuif;aomOyrm jzpfonf/ tpövmrfordkif; wGif tvm;wlOyrmrsm;pGm jyEdkifcJhonf/ usrf;jrwfuk&ftmefwGif csrSwfxm;onfrSm þusrf;ydk'fwGif rGwfpvifrfrsm;u rdrdwdkY&efolrsm;tay: w&m;0ifppfaMunmjcif;r&SdbJ ajymifajymifwif;wif; &efprI? &efvdkrIrsm;rjyKMu&ef wm;jrpfxm;onf/ xdkodkYwm;jrpf&onfhtcsufrSm &efbuf? NydKifbuf[lonf &efpjcif;? &efvdkjcif;udk tvG,fwuljzpfapEdkifaomaMumifh jzpfonf/ ,cktcg tjynfjynfqdkif&mOya'[lonfrSm EdkifiHwpfckESifhwpfck w&m;0ifppfaMunmjcif;rjyKbJ &efpjcif;rjyKEdkifatmif csrSwfxm;aomOya'jzpfonf/ odkYaomf þOya'rSm vlvkyfOya'omjzpfaomaMumifh ,if;udk rMumcP vspfvsL½IwwfMuonf/ wpfzufwGif rGwfpvifrfrsm; tpövmrfhw&m;Oya'[lonfrSm udk;uG,f&mt&Sif tv’m[frS abmifuefYowfcsrSwfay;xm;aomOya'jzpfjcif;aMumifh vspfvsLjyKcsdK;azmufrnfr[kwfyg/ þpmtkyfwGifazmfjycJhaomtcGifhta&;rsm;onf vGefcJhaomESpfaygif;1400ausmfuwnf;u tpövmrf rS vlom;tm; tyfESif;xm;cJhaomtcGifhta&;rsm;jzpfonf/ þae&mwGif vlom;[lonfrSm tpövmrfEdkifiH twGif; aexdkifaomEdkifiHom;rsm;yg0ifovkd ppfyGJwGif&ifqkdifwdkufyGJ0ifcJhMuaom &efolrsm;twGufvnf; yg0ifonf/ tvGefvsifjrefpGmwdk;wufaeygonf? tvGefyif,Ofaus;rItqifhtwef;jrifhrm;vSygonf[k a<u;aMumfaeaom ,ckacwftcgwGifawmif vGefcJhaomESpfaygif;1400ausmfu ay:xGef;cJhaomOya'rsm; xufydkí w&m;rQwaom omwlnDrQjzpfaomOya'rsm; rjyKvkyfEdkifao;aomaMumifh uREkfyfwdkY tpövmrf tay:xm;&Sdaom,HkMunfrIudk ydkíopfvGifvef;qef;apovkd ydkNyD;tDrmefawmifhwif;cdkifrmvmapygonf/ wpfzufwGif 0rf;enf;p&maumif;aomtcsufrSm rGwfpvifrfrsm;onf t"dyÜg,fuif;rJhpGm taemufwdkif; OD;aqmifvrf;ñTefrIudk &SmazGaeonfrSmvnf; tvGefpdwfysufzG,f&mjzpfonf/ ydkítonf;emp&maumif;onfh tcsufrSm urÇmwpf0Srf;&Sd olwdkYudk,folwdkY rGwfpvifrf[ka<u;aMumfaeMuaom tkyfcsKyfoltpdk;&rif;rsm;onf udk;uG,f&mt&Siftv’m[fESifh tv’m[f&plvf wrefawmf() csrSwfay;aom tkyfcsKyfrIqdkif&mtajccH rsm;udk vspfvsL½INyD; xif&mpdkif;aeMujcif;yifjzpfonf/ tv’m[ft&Sif oem;MuifemrI? r[mu½kPmawmf 60
  • 61. rsm; ¤if;wdkYtay:odkYusa&mufNyD; tv’m[ft&Sif[d'g,of (ac:) vrf;ñTefrItwGuf rSefuefaom vrf;ñTefrIrsm; cH,lEdkifygap/ 12.7.2005 (wevFmaeYn 1 61