Power generation-oil-gas-industies

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POWER GENERATION OIL GAS INDUSTRY GENERATOR BOILER TURBINE ELECTRICITY MYANMAR

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Power generation-oil-gas-industies

  1. 1. ေရနံ၊ဓါတ္ေငြ႔စြမ္းအား မာတိကာ Pages Electric Generation 1 – 8 Gas Turbine 9 – 28 Steam Turbine 29 – 39 Boiler 40 – 51 Pressurized Water Reactor 52 – 62 Singapore Power 63 – 56 Petronas (Malaysia) 67 – 86 Total (S.A) Franch 86 – 93 Singapore JTC Development 94 – 108 ခ်မ္းသာေသာႏိုင္ငံမ်ားစာရင္း ႏွင့္ ျမန္မာ 109 – 112 ျမန္မာျပည္ရင္းႏွီးျမဳတ္ႏွံမႈ၊ တရုပ္အမ်ားဆံုး 113 - 114 ေျပာစရာနည္းနည္း ရိွလို႔ပါ 115 - 119 Presented by ေဇာ္ေအာင္ (မံုရြာ) ေအးျငိမ္း (ေလးမ်က္နာ)
  2. 2. !"#$ !"%$ & ' ( ) & * & & +!, & & & & & & & & & - .- #$$" +#, //// ! ) # ( # ! & # # # % # 0 1 % / 0 & 2 / Page 1 of 8Electricity generation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 21/02/2010http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Power_generation
  3. 3. )))) / & & 3 & & & !""! +0, (((( * - 4 * & & 3 5 4 * 6 - 7 " 4 - #$$68 +%, Page 2 of 8Electricity generation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 21/02/2010http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Power_generation
  4. 4. & - 9 : (); < & & = > 3 & ( & & & & & - / !""0 > & "$ &&&& < & & ( ? & 1 & & & - * ---- > & &* 5 & = & & & & & / & & & & & & @ : ; / 8 ## 2 : & Page 3 of 8Electricity generation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 21/02/2010http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Power_generation
  5. 5. & 6$A & &* ' * & : & & B & 1 & * > & & & & > ( & - & - & & & ; & ) ; & ' & & & - B - - < & 1 . Page 4 of 8Electricity generation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 21/02/2010http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Power_generation
  6. 6. . & < & 4 > @ > & ? %$A & 1 0$A & 4 +6, . & & & & = & 0$A & : C / 5 C 1111 9 & - > & & = 9 & = 9 3 ' > >& (); & 4 < > @ 5 .-< 1 B +2, > & ? Page 5 of 8Electricity generation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 21/02/2010http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Power_generation
  7. 7. & 1 & & & / D& D +7, & 3 & & & 4 3 & //// ( * & &&&& ( * . - & & #$$2 #2A & / C //// ( *: & / ( 8 . - 0$ & & & > .- & 4 +", ---- #$$2 Page 6 of 8Electricity generation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 21/02/2010http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Power_generation
  8. 8. & ; & - ; & E: = ; & : =; @ & & & : - : < & ; - @ ( B 9 9 ! FFFF G = E * ( G *HH H& H& H H& H @ ) ; 8 # $7 & Page 7 of 8Electricity generation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 21/02/2010http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Power_generation
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age 8 of 8Electricity generation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 21/02/2010http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Power_generation
  10. 10. ! " # $ % % & '' % ( # % ! )*+ $$$$ , - . & / & / , % % ! / . / / / 0 / 0 , $ / + & / 1 2 Page 1 of 20Gas turbine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 21/02/2010http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gas_turbine
  11. 11. ---- ,+34- (# " 5 - ( ' ,+334& 6$ ) 6 7 8 - ,++,4& 9 : % ;,< ,1.=4) % % % > / ? @ ! / * A 0 # + % + , B 2 8 $ > > " + , , $ $ + , . 2 $ + , / > + , 0 A + . & + / & + 0 C % + + A 1 % ? % % ? , % ? . : % * @ = 2 ,3 ,, # Page 2 of 20Gas turbine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 21/02/2010http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gas_turbine
  12. 12. ,1?*4 8 ! ,?=,4 % ) > # - % & ,*?.4 : '@ ' % ,*=04@ $ B % & % & ,*=+4& 0 ,33 B $ B @ ,=3/4 C D # % E ,, % " - @ ,=,/4C & & > ,=,04 $ $ ,=,*4F # % ,=.34& % " : ,=/34@ ! - % % % D # & ,=/? ,=/042GB B ,=/14- % F A - % @ % # &&&& > Page 3 of 20Gas turbine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 21/02/2010http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gas_turbine
  13. 13. % 4 , 4 % % % . 4 % % % / 4 % % & $ A % 2 $ " A @ % % 4 H H H % %" - % 9 A ! " % " % % " & > Page 4 of 20Gas turbine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 21/02/2010http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gas_turbine
  14. 14. ' ) ,3333 ,33333 & ! & % & % &&&& % %% %% %% % !!!! ! ' ) ! " ! 9 % % % 9 & & #7A.+33 7A1333 % 9 : ! : Page 5 of 20Gas turbine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 21/02/2010http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gas_turbine
  15. 15. ;.<;/< % % 7 @ 2 & % ;0< A ! ;+< & @ ;+< 7 % % @% A ! @ ;1< BE & % " ! % % % ' & 5 13I5 % % % ;?< & 4 % #- & 0*3 13I Page 6 of 20Gas turbine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 21/02/2010http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gas_turbine
  16. 16. @ 9 ; < & % ; < & % > % ' % % ,33 /33 % /+J03I ; < & % 03I 6$ % ; < % +* 6 ;*< $$$$ A 4$ F % % % % % 9 &&&& & % 9 " Page 7 of 20Gas turbine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 21/02/2010http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gas_turbine
  17. 17. & 6 6 6C,6" 6B & 6 6C.6" & 2222 A 42 ,=1/ ) A % K 8L C 8 % F % 9 @ !@ !@ !@ ! ! A ) K @ ( A & :/H1? ;=< & .. ; < AAAA 4 & A & $ & $ " & - B @ " AAAA & % & @ ! % : 2B Page 8 of 20Gas turbine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 21/02/2010http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gas_turbine
  18. 18. ' B % # ' & A % % % ! % % ' A % % % ! % ;,3< - % 9 9 A % % % % % & #*+ A 2 # & .+ /+I *3I % A& ' ! ,==3 B - # ( Page 9 of 20Gas turbine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 21/02/2010http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gas_turbine
  19. 19. ! B % A % % + 1I B # 7 % ,.3,+3 H A &( ' % +33?33 H ,.33,+33 H ;,,< #### A % % # % ' " % & % ! @% % >F&#C E@ ' 1 + A ' >&F7 % 9 C % .33= ' .+3 >&F7 , *33M$ / /33M " > % ' %%%% % % ! % Page 10 of 20Gas turbine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 21/02/2010http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gas_turbine
  20. 20. & % % - % % % 2BA % % % % & % % % & % % % 9 N % B 2B 2B 2B 2 8 $ > > "8 $ > > "8 $ > > "8 $ > > " % $ ;,.< ;,/< A & % % $ $$ $$ $$ $ ,=+3 2 > $ # A > 2 % % & )#&, & ,=+32 % )#&, & ,=1? @&BF & @ A @ - A B O ,=1* - &P % % % Page 11 of 20Gas turbine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 21/02/2010http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gas_turbine
  21. 21. : ,03 H *? " +3333 & % 7 @ A $ % ,=+3 ,=*3 $ $ & $ ,=1/ ;,0< & 9 $ & A % ,=+/ ,=+1 ,=+= A & % $ ,=?+ @ *33 & - ,=?= &8 ,=*+ C % & &.0 ,=?? % & > ! & ,=13 % % ,=*= > % > ;,+< % ,+ ,==3 8 % 8 % #% $ $ ;,1< ,==/ A % 5 #8, 03 % & 7 .331 A # ) ! ) 7 2 $2 $2 $2 $ 2 % >2A F ! 2 % >2A ,=1/ .0 - 7 A % - Page 12 of 20Gas turbine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 21/02/2010http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gas_turbine
  22. 22. 2 % ,3? * ,?/ H" ,0. ..= H" 2 - ! - $ A K # % ,=1* - &P % # % ,=1* .0 - 7 A & $ % ;,?< ,=1?( % @&BF & @ % % B ) +33N @&BB O ! ,=?, 7 $ $ 7 +1> , B O $ ! >>>> & % $ A % -#8, 8@ $ & ,=== # @# 2 $ : 7 $ C Q E @ " 8@ 9 9 8@ .33/ & : + 1 % /3 % % > CR$ AAAA & A&& & @EB#2>K# .333 R.K@ A&&" 2 2 .+3 .*/ /*3 " @ /1+ H ..? " 2 % E@S,*+ 333 &&&& Page 13 of 20Gas turbine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 21/02/2010http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gas_turbine
  23. 23. A 4 % @% % % > () & &&&& & % ,=+0 BE.=?= % $ B O$ > $ 9 ;,*< @ % BE @% H2 & *3 E@ A, & 9 % 9 % @ % A, % ( % & *3 2 & *3 % & =3 & ?." E % & *3E: & *0 % & % % % B 7 C %C %C %C % % % % ( 9 & % % 2 C %(A > A >.33= Page 14 of 20Gas turbine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 21/02/2010http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gas_turbine
  24. 24. A >+3=" % ,=0? A 8 % 6> 6 9 .H/ ! B > > B > B ,=+/ ;,=< & 2 C %(& *, & " -A@ " ,=1, & C % KT ,=1, . & >>$ & @ C % 1 @ ,=11 ,=1? / > @ B ,.*. % 0/33 & ! ,. C T % .33+ ;.3< & C % & % & K ! ,=1* & 9 .. 333 2 2 F &A>/ U U & % C %N % /+ /? / & & .33. K ! & & % @ B $ & ! % % $ 9 ,=?. & . 0 . ,. / @ @ ?+3 & E@ E@ $ (- - # $ E@$ $- " ,=1? @ % E@ C %(B @ > & E@@A C %( & % & A >.33= Page 15 of 20Gas turbine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 21/02/2010http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gas_turbine
  25. 25. AAAA & % % & % 6 6 @ B " ,=0= & E @ A $ 7 % ,=+1 6) @ 6 # 1133@-B-: % =?33 ?333 & % # -: % & 6) @ 6 ,=?. B B > ,=?3 ,=*. @ $ 7 % C .1 333 & B O & 0 & 6# 6 6# 6 6 6 6 6 & % E @ # FB#$ % @ " & % % 9 ,=*. > 9 & &@ ! ,=?? B O & 0$, :7 ++ A /, - % ! ! % Page 16 of 20Gas turbine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 21/02/2010http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gas_turbine
  26. 26. @ 7 (-@@ -@@,+33 @ # @ 8 @ : % % $F #7A.+33 # 7A,133 1* A & -@@=33 @ $ >>J@& 7 &/+ /0 333 & @ : % % .33? % ) .333 A $ @ & & 2A@V A . $ : & ;.,< %%%% % % %N % % $ $: % F % CF ,==3 & % H F % % % %%%% %%%% ;..< %%%% 8 N @ A % % % Page 17 of 20Gas turbine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 21/02/2010http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gas_turbine
  27. 27. 7 - 7 : %: %: %: % $ 7 @@@@ > : # 2 % % 2222 , WWWW - R 6& 9 : @ & 6 4HH HC HC I.3, " - @ & 4HH HC HC I.3, 2 % .33* 3/ .= . WWWW 68 BE 6 4HH % 33 H%>& X Y% O% Y+ V2 >#/ @3" % " 4HH % 33 H%>& X Y% O% Y+ V2 >#/ @3 / WWWW 6> @ B 6 4HH H X Y$ O Y O Y,/1" A B 4HH H" ,=== 4HH H X Y$ O Y O Y,/1 0 WWWW 6EK&8 6 4HH 0 H H H@H .33/H H!Z H" @ $ 6 6) 2 6 6 .33/ 4HH 0 H H H@H .33/H H!Z H $ # )?= ! & % Page 18 of 20Gas turbine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 21/02/2010http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gas_turbine
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age 19 of 20Gas turbine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 21/02/2010http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gas_turbine
  29. 29. # .33, + @>C3,/ 3,+*0? P 2 A 6 6 K $ : $ 6& V F & # 6 @ #& B C .331 3, /3++ % 4 4HH H H H.331 3, /3++ 6A ) # 6 & K @>C3=+,3+*= = , & B # & @ # 6 ) 7K & A& B ,==. @>C3.1.,,,1.0 #### 4HH ' HH@ H& H# H: % H Z$ Z# H Z& F : B ! ;,< 4HH ! H" & @ $% ) # 4HH ' H H % Z Z %Z!Z% Z.331 " A& & 7 4HH H H H " A& A 4HH ' H H H =?H H H $ : # 2 A 4HH %H H9 H H " 6 6 4HH % H " % 6 4HH H[ ,3.H) " 2 % 6 4HH H H Z 6 $ 4 A C % & ,= .3,3 ,,43, & % $ % $ @ 7 N @ & E ] ' Page 20 of 20Gas turbine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 21/02/2010http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gas_turbine
  30. 30. ! " # $ % & '(()" *'+ # $ , ,$ " - . (/0 $ " $ " $ %%%% ' 1 2 2"' 3 % 2"2 % 4 & 5 6 4"' Page 1 of 10Steam turbine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 21/02/2010http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steam_Turbine
  31. 31. 1111 $ ' 1 3 " *2+*4+*)+ 7 '88' 9 ,6 5 3 $ " $ # : - ';2< = 3 ';)( " *8+ $ '(() 3 % & $ $ >"8 " *;+ & ? $ $ $ $ " *>+ 1 $ , : " 4"'"' # 4"'"2 4"2 5 7 4"4 ) 6 8 7 ; @ > ( < '/3 2///A % '</8" & & 5 & Page 2 of 10Steam turbine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 21/02/2010http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steam_Turbine
  32. 32. & ? , " & B $ $ ! >"8 8//// " & ? $ , '//// *(+ , %" " & % , $ " *;+ $ $ " @ : @ " 1 , " # $ " - $ ,% $ C" " # % 7 % $ '<// B $ = - $ D% " #$ = - $ ? $ E $ " @ & B FGG$$$" , B " " " G " " ! ' /">8 9 2 ////// ' 8///// " " 3 %3 %3 %3 % " E $ " " $ $ Page 3 of 10Steam turbine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 21/02/2010http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steam_Turbine
  33. 33. " % $ " 9 </0 $ $ " $ " # $ $ " " 3 " # $ " 3 $ $ " # $ $ " %%%% " $ " $ $ " $ $ " " &&&& 5 65 65 65 6 $ 9 " E H I $ $ 2/0,</0 " H I " 5 Page 4 of 10Steam turbine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 21/02/2010http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steam_Turbine
  34. 34. " $ $ ! " ! $ " ! $ $ " 7 F " $ " #### !! $ B " B $ B " $ " $ !! " 6 !! !! $ " $ !! " J J J J" # !! " !! " $ Page 5 of 10Steam turbine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 21/02/2010http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steam_Turbine
  35. 35. " # B " " $ $ $ $ " 5555 7777 $ $ $ $ " $ $ " $ $ $ '/ '8 &7 $ $ " & $ $ 9 " $ " # $ $ " #$ " $ $ " $ 9 " $ $ $ 9 " *<+ C $ !! $ " # Page 6 of 10Steam turbine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 21/02/2010http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steam_Turbine
  36. 36. " 9 9 " 6 ! $ $ $ " '//0 '/80" 9 $ $ " E " B $ $ " : 9 $ $ 9 $ " *'/+ 6666 3 $ (/0 $ ? " 7 $ $ $ $ % & " $ $ " # *''+ " $ " 9 $ 4/// G 8/1! 4;// G ;/1! " # $ $ $ , " *'2+ 7777 K ! $ $ $ " $ &7 $ '// &7" Page 7 of 10Steam turbine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 21/02/2010http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steam_Turbine
  37. 37. " $ 9 ! $ 9 $ " 1 $ F 8/0 8/0 " *'4+ *')+ *'8+ *';+ E , $ $ $ , $ , $ " E $ $ $ $ " # E ?L )/ . ? " @@@@ 7 F " $ " 1 $ $ $ , $ " *'>+ $ '</( 5 7 7 : % 7 " : E A '<2) '( //' $ $ '<2<" - , , $ Page 8 of 10Steam turbine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 21/02/2010http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steam_Turbine
  38. 38. 6 '" MMMM FGG$$$" " G3- G G)))>'<G ,% , ,& 2" MMMM " 3 - 5 4" MMMM $ 1 ?? ?J '<<2,/;,28 " 1 3 )) 2 F'/>,'2)" )" MMMM 5?% =" ="K3" 3" '<<< " 1 " 7 8" MMMM 9 ,6 '88' "6" FGG$$$" , , " GE GE 02/'" $ 5 24 2//<K $ N1 '<>; 9 ,6 7 3 " 4),8 # 1 C " ;" M FGG$$$" " G 3 " >" MMMM FGG$$$" " G G G O O " (" MMMM & % "" J J FGG$$$" " " G G G '" " FGG$$$" " " G G G '" " <" MMMM = %" 2//; " % $ " - @F " " 48" #-E<>(/()<4)/4)8" '/" MMMM 6 &$ : " E /'4/2" 2" $ " ''" MMMM & " " 3 - 6 3 5 C & - 4'/8 1 42)/ E $P " J : 3 3 F1 QJ FGG$$$" " G G) 84) ;(44B>)(>G" @ " FGG$$$" " G G) 84) ;(44B>)(>G" '2" MMMM @ ! 2//8 " , E &$ & " 5AF & - " " '''" #-E'8<4>//42;" '4" MMMM $$$" " G G G " ')" MMMM FGG " " G O G'82;/'G;G %@G G G'GE $,- , , , ,3 G '8" MMMM FGG "$ " G$ G R R, ! O <;,% ';" MMMM FGG$$$" " "BG G $G G)8'G)8'/2'" '>" MMMM F? @ ? $ 7 ! F2//> 44; " (8 Page 9 of 10Steam turbine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 21/02/2010http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steam_Turbine
  39. 39. % A"%" '<<( " 3 # & " " '<>> : " " " 1" '(>( " 1 : $ 3 " 6" % "" 3333 F - # B 5 & % & 7 FGG$$$" " G G2>;(> 1 3" % FJ J FGG$$$" " G G , , G , , , , , G , " $& 6 , % % - 1 FGG$$$" $ " G $ G G , , , , ,'" 3 , C L @ FGG$$$" " " " G7C 3C7G@5%5@5%5G " # 48/7 $ - FGG$$$" " G G O " " J FGG "$ " G$ G O J % F S S3 $ '< 2/'/ /8F//" % % , @ K " C " T # " , ! " Page 10 of 10Steam turbine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 21/02/2010http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steam_Turbine
  40. 40. !"#!$# %%%% &&&& ' ( ) '* + ) ,,,, " % " " & " $ " - , " . + $ + - + - " / . / 0 0 " 0 $ + 0 - , 0 . % 1 , 2 + 3 4 5 "6 7 Page 1 of 13Boiler - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 21/02/2010http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boiler
  41. 41. ' ) + ' +&7 , ) 8 9 / ' ) : ' ) ; < < , & '*=) 8 > > 9 $6 8 8 , < < 7 > > ? / '/4+@) A ,,,, B > Page 2 of 13Boiler - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 21/02/2010http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boiler
  42. 42. C <( < </ <C < < > "3 / > 7 > / ' ) A > ' > ): '-> ) 9 > > > 8 > 9 C : D > > > + C Page 3 of 13Boiler - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 21/02/2010http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boiler
  43. 43. > / + 9 < < ++++ + C / A , > A 7 !.# 9 B > / E "5"5 / + 9 , !0# ++++ & C + & ' ) + !-# Page 4 of 13Boiler - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 21/02/2010http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boiler
  44. 44. 8 < < D ' ) C < < + 8 D + ' ) " -66F" 166 G, '$ -2$F$ 5"$ G ) + ' ) ' ) + D 9 C < < !1# D ++++ Page 5 of 13Boiler - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 21/02/2010http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boiler
  45. 45. + ' ) 8 < < 9 < < ' - $66 D$$ 61 &( $$6 1 ) > < < 9 H < < < < //// , 9 "5$$ & + I 7 "66 '"6 666 (:" .06 ) % 8 / & 9 "5$5 "5$2 @ "5-6 .6 "36 '. 666 "3 666 (:036 $ 1"" ) > Page 6 of 13Boiler - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 21/02/2010http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boiler
  46. 46. > C > , > 7 > > , J , $66" //// / 7 ' ) > ? D ' ) > < < & / ? C > ' ) Page 7 of 13Boiler - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 21/02/2010http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boiler
  47. 47. 8 > > ', > 8 + ) ' ) > + > ++++ CCCC 9 CCCC CCCC , C, C, C, C 8 9 + > CCCC / H H > D, / 4 + CD, / 4 + CD, / 4 + CD, / 4 + C ? Page 8 of 13Boiler - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 21/02/2010http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boiler
  48. 48. / C/ C/ C/ C < < K ++++ K ' ) EEEE >>>> CCCC 9 ' ) 9 < > < ' ) + C+ C+ C+ C 9 > ,,,, CCCC 9 C > A C ' ) 9 9 BBBB C 8 H , A, A, A, A C / ++++ &&&& C + C & D,& D,& D,& D, C 9 ,,,, C @@@@ C Page 9 of 13Boiler - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 21/02/2010http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boiler
  49. 49. ,,,, C %%%% (((( C C C 9999 C ???? C 4444 C ,,,, & 8 A 8 C 9 C < < A A '9B ) C B ' B ) : B 8 Page 10 of 13Boiler - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 21/02/2010http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boiler
  50. 50. C A ++++ ' ) B 7 ' ) 7 ' ) @ / / > / / E / ( ( ( > 4 4 + ' ) 4444 Page 11 of 13Boiler - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 21/02/2010http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boiler
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  95. 95. Seletar Aerospace Park is a 300-hectare aviation hub - a strategic development that will launch Singapore's goal to become a global aviation hub, where maintenance, repair and overhaul (MRO) services are provided in an environment surrounded by world-class aerospace companies and facilities. Singapore’s aerospace industry has soared to new heights with an average growth rate of 13 per cent since 1990. The industry employed some 19,000 people and contributed S$6.9 billion in output in 2007. Fuelling the industry’s growth, Seletar Aerospace Park will add new market segments such as narrow-body and smaller aircraft to Singapore’s already strong MRO industry of commercial wide-body aircraft. By laying a strong foundation for Seletar Aerospace Park,
  96. 96. Singapore will attract emerging companies looking for cost-competitive and reliable manufacturing locations to produce and assemble aerospace components. Seletar Aerospace Park will host a wide range of activities, including: • Manufacturing and assembly of aircraft engines, components and small aircrafts • Maintenance, Repair & Overhaul of aircrafts & components • Business & General Aviation • Training and R&D Companies at Seletar Aerospace Park benefit from synergies in this integrated environment that include economies-of-scale and increased efficiency. There is also significant scope for new industry collaborations – alliances brought about by the Park’s shared infrastructure, and close proximity to suppliers, customers and partners within the tight-knit aerospace community. Singapore’s offshore and marine industry has weathered many storms and demonstrated resilience in achieving its current position. The industry started off modestly in the 1960s as part
  97. 97. of Singapore’s industralisation plan but has seen significant growth over the last 40 years. It has evolved from a small regional ship repair and building centre into a world-class offshore and marine hub with a wide range of capabilities, from rig building, ship-repair and FPSO conversion, specialised offshore vessel construction, offshore and marine supporting services, and oil and gas equipment manufacturing. Today, Singapore has achieved global leadership position in the construction of jack-up and semisubmersible oil rigs. We are also one of the world's leaders in the construction of specialised or customised vessels like anchor handling tugs or offshore support vessels providing supporting services to offshore and marine operations. Singapore is also the leading location in the Asia Pacific for the manufacturing of oil and gas equipment and there have been numerous world renowned companies who have established sophisticated and state of the art manufacturing facilities here. Singapore's offshore and marine sector has been growing at a compound annual growth rate of almost 30% since 2004, making it one of the fastest growing sectors in Singapore's economy in the last few years. As at 2008, 7.3% of Singapore's total manufacturing output and 9.3% of the manufacturing sector’s VA could be attributed to the offshore and marine sector. The industry employed close to 70,000 people of which 12,000 are skilled workers.
  98. 98. Singapore aims to be a global hub in the development and manufacture of clean technology products. This promising new industry – the cleantech cluster – is expected to contribute S$3 billion to Singapore’s gross domestic product and create 18,000 jobs across a broad range of areas, including renewable energy, water and environment technologies, energy efficiency by 2015. To grow the cleantech industry, the government has mapped out a blueprint comprising five key pillars: R&D, manpower development, grooming of Singapore-based enterprises, branding of the industry and nurturing a vibrant industry eco-system. JTC has been working together with other government agencies to develop a CleanTech park catering to companies focusing on R&D, test-bedding and prototyping activities into clean technology.
  99. 99. Singapore’s vision is to be the Biopolis of Asia, a leading international biomedical sciences cluster advancing human health by achieving excellence across the entire value chain. The Government has invested in more than S$5billion in building up industrial, human and intellectual capital and remains fully commited to developing this sector. Biopolis is a biomedical R&D hub at one-north, purpose-built to house key public and private biomedical research institutes and organisations. It is also the first major development in one-north. As a premier biomedical manufacturing centre in Asia, Tuas Biomedical Park (I and II) provides excellent infrastructure and opportunities for businesses to flourish. JTC's biomedical parks have already attracted world-renowned players in the biomedical field such as MSD, Pfizer, Wyeth, Ciba Vision, GSK Biologicals, Novartis, Lonza Biologics and Abbott Nutritionals. Fast Facts on Jurong Island
  100. 100. Information Directory Information Directory Telephone Operation Hours Emergency Command Centre 6268 1076 6268 1020 Monday - Sunday Visitors Pass Office 62681587 6268 1248 Monday - Sunday ChemGallery @ Jurong Island 6262 5070 / 6262 5074 Monday - Friday 9.00am - 12.00pm 1.00pm - 5.00pm Jurong Island Fire Station 6267 4713 Acumed Medical Group 6261 7177 Monday - Friday 8.30am - 1.00pm 2.00pm - 5.00pm Saturday 8.30am - 12.00pm Acez Instrument (S) Pte. Ltd 6867 7600 Monday - Friday 8.30am - 5.30pm Saturday 8.30am - 1.00pm One Family Food Centre 6268 3872 Monday - Friday 6.00am - 7.00pm Saturday 6.00am - 6.00pm Sunday/Public Holiday 6.00am - 4.00pm Sakra Minimart 9639 3593 Monday - Friday
  101. 101. 10.00am - 5.00pm La Vela Restaurant & Café 6266 1933 Monday - Friday 9.00am - 4.30pm New Developments @ Jurong Island Towards a Smoother Traffic Flow at Jurong Island Checkpoint In anticipation of the increase in traffic into Jurong Island due mainly to the various expansion and construction projects, JTC had embarked on various traffic measures leading through the Jurong Island Checkpoint. These measures aim to provide smoother traffic without compromising on security of Jurong Island and safety to the motorists. Some of the measures include : · Introduction of Reversible Flow for inbound traffic at Jurong Pier Flyover · Conversion of existing Checkpoint Vehicular Outbound Lanes to cater to Reversible Flow · Conversion of part of Jurong Island Highway (immediately after the Checkpoint) to cater to Reversible Flow · Conversion of the Departure Hall area into both Arrival and Departure · Construction of additional bus alighting and boarding bays · Addition of 11 security clearance turnstiles at Arrival Hall · Relocation of the Long Term Pass Office to 20 Jurong Pier Road JTC will be implementing the reversible flow traffic scheme with effect from 28 Oct 2008, with operational hours between 6:30am and 8:30am. If you require any clarifications or assistance, please feel free to contact the Emergency Command Centre at 62681020. Thank you and we look forward to your continued support. Electronics
  102. 102. Wafer Fabrication and Advanced Display Park Singapore’s semiconductor industry began in the 1960s, with the introduction of early assembly and testing activities. Based on a report by the Strategic Marketing Associates in 2006, Singapore is ranked No. 2 by city after Hsinchu in Taiwan and No. 6 by country after Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, US and China in terms of wafer fab production capacity. The wafer companies in Singapore accounts for about 10% of the world’s foundry wafer output and holds 5% of worldwide wafer fabrication capacity. In 2007, the semiconductor cluster generated S$36.2billion (US$24 billion) semiconductor manufacturing output with a value-add of S$9.7billion (US$6.4 billion) and employs around 40,000 people. The industry is currently supported by a vibrant ecosystem with 40 integrated circuit design companies, 20 chip assembly and test plants, 8 Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMs) /Compound /Epitaxy Wafer Fabs, 14 silicon wafer fabrication facilities as well as research Institutes and supporting industries. There are 4 wafer fabrication parks and 1 advanced display park in Singapore. They are located in Woodlands, North Coast, Tampines and Pasir Ris and occupy a total land area of 252.48 hectares. Tampines Wafer Fab Park Located in the eastern region of Singapore, near the Tampines Regional Centre, this park benefits from the excellent road and rail links provided by the Tampines Expressway and Tampines MRT station. 42.78 hectares of the 79.95 hectares of total land available in the park has already been taken up by semiconductor companies like Chartered Semiconductor Tampines (CSM Tampines), Singapore, Siltronic Singapore, Siltronic Samsung Wafer, Formfactor and Qimonda. . Pasir Ris Wafer Fab Park Situated in the eastern region of Singapore, this park is conveniently located close to the Tampines Re is easily available, given its proximity to the Tampines Expressway and Pasir Ris MRT station. Currently, about 18.88 hectares of the 59.63 hectares site has already been allocated. Established Silicon Manufacturing and Soitec.. Woodlands Wafer Fab Park This park is located in the northern region of Singapore, near the Woodlands Regional Centre. It enjoys excellent connectivity to the city and airport via the Marsiling MRT station and Bukit Timah Expressway. About 28.33 hectares of the 48.5 hectares site has been allocated. Chartered Semiconductor Manufacturing, our home-grown semiconductor company is an anchor tenant in the park, with five wafer fabrication plants on site. The other occupants include TECH Semiconductor Singapore and First DCS, which provides chilled water to the wafer fabrication companies in the park. North Coast Wafer Fab Park Located in the northern region of Singapore, the North Coast Wafer Fab Park is situated close to the Woodlands Regional Centre, Admiralty MRT Station and the Bukit Timah Expressway. Out of the 21.0 hectares of total land available at the park, 0.67 hectares has
  103. 103. been allocated to Avago and 11.92 hectares has been allocated to IM Flash Singapore, a joint venture between Intel and Micron. Advanced Display Park This park features a 35.0 hectares site dedicated to supporting the advanced display industry. It is home to AFPD, which is fully-owned by Toshiba and operates Singapore’s first Thin Film Transistor (TFT) – Liquid Crystal Display (LDC) plant. The park is located in the vicinity of the Tampines Regional Centre, Tampines MRT station and the Tampines Expressway. Infocomm Fusionopolis @ one-north is envisioned to be a vibrant hotspot for R&D in the Infocomm and Media (ICM), Science and Engineering industries. The 30-ha cluster, to be developed in phases, will be the catalyst for a dynamic public-private partnership in these key disciplines. Fusionopolis will serve as the cradle of knowledge where next generation applications are incubated and test-bedded. Fast Facts With a vision on integration and fusion of industries, the ICT, Media, Science and Engineering industries have been strategically housed within Fusionopolis, a world class research infrastructure and network. At Fusionopolis, multidisciplinary research and partnerships will thrive in a mutually rewarding environment, allowing scientists across industries, research institutes and businesses to collaborate in research projects
  104. 104. to pioneer the development of technology products and solutions. It is also the first work-live-play-learn development in one-north. Residents can enjoy the benefits of living in chic and cosy apartments, excellent connectivity with the one-north MRT station, one-stop entertainment hub with themed restaurants, a fitness club as well as lifestyle retailers all under the same setting. Developmental Phases Phase 1 Phase 1 of the Fusionopolis is a 120,000 sqm development designed by internationally renowned Japanese architect, the late Dr Kisho Kurokawa. The two-tower cum podium complex is the first integrated work-live- play-learn development in one-north. It showcases work-live apartments, a state-of-the-art Experimental Theatre (Genexis), the one-north gallery as well as amenities such as food and beverage and retail outlets, a fitness club and a roof top swimming pool. Equipped with facilities like broadband connectivity, satellite access and IT infrastructure, Phase 1 provides an ideal environment for both public and private research institutes. Phase 1 is also an eco-friendly development which comes with a total of 13 sky gardens or "green lungs". Fusionopolis Phase 1 was officially opened on 17 October 2008. Its tenants include the research institutes under A*STAR (Science & Engineering Research Council (SERC), Institute for Infocomm Research (I2R), Institute of High Performance Computing (IHPC) and the Data Storage Institute (DSI)), the Media Development Authority, SPRING Singapore, AFC Network Pte Ltd, Autodesk Asia Pte Ltd, Thales Technology Centre (S) Pte Ltd, Vestas Technology R&D Pte Ltd, Seiko Instruments and Ubisoft Singapore Pte Ltd. Phase 2A Phase 2A will yield 103,600 sqm of business park and R&D space, when it is completed in 2012. A massive test-bed for new technologies, Phase 2A is designed to house dry and wet laboratories, clean rooms and vibration sensitive test-bedding facilities. It will also see the setting up of Singapore's largest R&D clean
  105. 105. room facility. Phase 2B Phase 2B is a 50,000 sqm development designed by renowned "green" architect, Dr Ken Yeang. This green and sustainable development will provide business park and laboratory space to house agencies and companies that would form synergistic collaborations with those from Phases 1 and 2A when it is completed in 2011. Media
  106. 106. A place where the finest in the media industry can thrive and grow. A place where content, services and collaborations can be financed, produced, developed and traded to international markets. A place where new media tools and applications can be created, tested and launched to the world stage. It all begins here - Mediapolis @ one-north. Mediapolis is a unique collaboration between four government agencies – the Media Development Authority, JTC Corporation as the master developer, Infocomm Development Authority and the Economic Development Board. When completed, Mediapolis will be a vital piece of Singapore's media ecosystem and help elevate Singapore into a Trusted Global Media Hub. Fast Facts Mediapolis is strategically located within one-north, a 200-hectares innovation and R&D hub. Mediapolis will be a self-contained center of expertise that will house a media ecosystem comprising incubators, R&D activities, content development, digital production, broadcasting, industry-responsive education, intellectual property and digital rights management. These will be anchored by shared facilities such as sound stages, advanced digital screen studios, sound recording studios and motion capture studios and services.
  107. 107. Mediapolis will focus on the development of high quality digital media content as well as R&D in interactive digital media. It will be supported by a strong and robust IT infrastructure and a synergistic business environment. Developmental Plans A 19-hectare plot within one-north has been earmarked for the development of Mediapolis. The development will be demand driven by the industry and will be carried out in phases. When fully developed, there will be business park space to house quality digital production and post production facilities. R&D laboratories located within Mediapolis will also play a key role to boost R&D efforts in digital media technologies to capture the increasing demand for innovative applications, services and devices. The master plan for Mediapolis @ one- north was unveiled in December 2008. Logistics LogisPark Strategic location, efficient 24/7 operations, reliable physical and IT infrastructure, and excellent connectivity have made Singapore a compelling global logistics hub and supply chain management (SCM) nerve centre. With over 3000 international and local logistics companies already located in Singapore, we are a key logistics hub in the Asia Pacific. The logistics service sector is enjoying healthy growth from the continued development of the local manufacturing industry and newly-identified high growth industry clusters in the biomedical and chemical industries.
  108. 108. Our position as Asia's leading distribution hub is supported by the presence of a myriad of companies that have established regional distribution centres (RDCs) in Singapore, and our steadfast commitment to the industry continues with investment in an integrated IT platform to support our world-class port and logistics hub Supporting Singapore's goal to become the region's premier logistics hub, JTC has gone beyond providing mere space for logistics businesses. A new generation of business solutions have been tailored for third party service providers (3PLs), chemical logistics companies and companies requiring general warehousing. JTC aims to help realise Singapore's vision as the leading integrated logistics hub in the Asia-Pacific region by providing best-value industrial facilities, and facilitating value-creation in the industry through fostered partnerships. Airport Logistics Park of Singapore (ALPS) The 26-ha ALPS was officially opened in 2003 and is Singapore's first logistics park with Free Trade Zone status. Leveraging on the excellent connectivity and handling efficiency of Changi Airport, lessees and tenants in the park enjoy quick turnaround for time-sensitive products and services. It also offers reduced cycle times, administrative and manpower costs associated with import and export procedures. Since its launch, an increasing number of logistics players in the industry are recognising the advantages of locating in ALPS. To date, 18-ha of land has been allocated. ALPS is currently home to world-class logistics players like Menlo Worldwide Forwarding Inc, Bax Global Pte Ltd, Nippon Express (Singapore) Pte Ltd, UPS SCS (Singapore) Pte Ltd and DHL Exel Supply Chain Singapore Pte Ltd. ALPS won the "Logistics Park of the Year" award at the Asia Logistics Awards 2006 ceremony held on 5 October 2006. The Asia Logistics Awards is an annual event organised by Lloyd's Freight Transport Buyer Asia (FTB Asia) and aims to recognise the leading players in various sectors such as freight transport, logistics and supply chain management. Nominees for this award were judged based on the following criteria: quality of park management; level of customer service; location and access to transportation; park infrastructure; costs and tax incentives. Although ALPS was up against strong contenders like AMATA and Jebel Ali FTZ, it was selected as "Logistics Park of the Year" by an independent panel of leading executives in the logistics industry. Banyan and Meranti LogisPark Located on Jurong Island, Asia-Pacific's premier integrated chemicals hub, Banyan LogisPark and Meranti LogisPark provide a full spectrum of integrated logistics and supply chain support for companies on Jurong Island. For more information on the chemical logisparks on Jurong Island, please click here. Other LogisParks
  109. 109. JTC also offers a wide array of land sites at various locations around Singapore. Our sites are available in various sizes and are well served by infrastructure such as power, water supply, sewerage system, telecommunications and an efficient network of roads. For more information on the various logistics parks, please click Changi, Toh Tuck & Toh Guan and Clementi West.
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  112. 112. 3 J73 J73 J73 J7 )))))))) 3 353 353 353 35 5 /65 -./01 +L*LM* L+NCOP 0 1 5- - I%3 /65 G8 - @;%3 / 8G32/530 3/5 1 5 $%389>%$ 0 8G3 30!"G =3@ 5 $"@ </>G! @Q 5 )) 2$3 5 3 !& 2" $%389 !15 5 -$ #$ 38 $ !0 $ 02" 3 5 3 !5 $%89 3/ -5/4 . 30)) -IR! @I$ @ 3 5 78 @3 4 @5 3 $%3 S4 - 5 5 65$%389 5 $"BTF@ - 5 BUF 016 63 ! BVTF 5 3 - I%3-! -! 5 <0$%$09 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_future_GDP_per_capita_estimates_(PPP)
  113. 113. - ;%3 /1 /01 $& ! ! 3/ " V9 2/530;%3 /1$ : Q 3 3 & $%389 2 01?785 5 2/530 5 2545 3 3 . $%="9 J;%3 /1 /W=7! ! 5Q 5 $" 04 /X4 =7! B L+ Y+* Z[]^_` * F 018J65& = $%="92 04 /5 3 5 $"25 S< ! 5 $%3893 J7 3 5 $" 04 /5 7$%=")) 4 /5 30 . 30 5 $"5$0 3 004 ! <0. $%389 S9 4 /5 30 ;%3 /!$ 5 4 5 65# " )) !5 ! !$%389 $& 7$/ $ !$ 5 !$ 5 $ /!$3 - 5 < $%$092 $a !1$a$ ! !5 $7 5 $" V4 5 < 2 30 / $&5 < $%$ !$ @ %. 657 $%$20$55 0 5 /30G3! 3/ - 657$%9 ? 318"! 0 /- 75 3 & 3 & 38 $J789 X9 $& $ $7 - < / 89 7$/ ! !$ 8 )) < " 5 < ! 30 /65 - - 75 ! 4 $0@ - 8 $0 482 $7 S ! 5 65&$%9 58 $%! 30!$ /@ - 3/1-65#01)) 7$7 S ! 5 65# 65&$%9 W9>% Q3$0 - @ !1$%! 30 /- - 7017$/ 2!$!15 3 )) 5 $"$0$ ! @5/ -!$!$ .1 $%389 $&3 35.15 3 )) 5 20 S4 ! 5-3/ 3 35! 303 $$&@ 5 78 01?785 315 "8" $%9 "31- 5 58 $ ! 3058!"# 0 b 5 - $$7 .3 a30-3/5 )) 3 35! . 389 =8 "< /1!A3 $7 3 )) 58G35 653 & $%$0))9 $&$ 5 !"# / $& $ ! !$5 30- Q 3 35 0 ! 65 $a 5 $%$09 - S4V4 3 = 2" $%="9 - !5-$#!5 5$02/5 <0$%$09 $&$ 5 7@ 3 </ )) <5!5 $7- 3/1-65#01 /65 B b F < $% !1)) SVc . .a4%7cS4V4
  114. 114. ျမန္မာျပည္မွာ ရင္းႏွီးျမႇဳပ္ႏွံမႈ တ႐ုတ္ အမ်ားဆံုး သတင္းရင္းျမစ္ > ကိုေပါက္ အဂၤါေန႔၊ ေဖေဖၚဝါရီလ ၂၂ ရက္ ၂၀၁၁ ခုႏွစ္ ၁၈ နာရီ ၁၁ မိနစ္ နယူးေဒလီ (မဇၥ်ိမ) ။      ။ ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံအတြင္း ႏိုင္ငံျခား ရင္းႏွီးျမႇဳပ္ႏွံမႈ ပမာဏ အမ်ားဆံုးႏိုင္ငံမွာ တ႐ုတ္ႏိုင္ငံ ျဖစ္လာေၾကာင္း ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံ ကုန္သည္မ်ားႏွင့္ စက္မႈလက္မႈ လုပ္ငန္းရွင္မ်ားအသင္း UMFCCI ေျပာဆိုခ်က္အရ သိရသည္။ တ႐ုတ္ႏိုင္ငံက ၆.၄ ဘီလ်ံ ရင္းႏွီးျမႇဳပ္ႏွံထားရာမွ ယခုႏွစ္ ဇန္နဝါရီလတြင္ ၉.၆ ဘီလ်ံအထိ တိုးခ်ဲ႕ျမႇင့္တင္ခဲ့ရာ ၉.၅ ဘီလ်ံသာ ရွိသည့္ ထိုင္းႏိုင္ငံထက္ ေက်ာ္လြန္ကာ ရင္းႏွီးျမႇဳပ္ႏွံမႈ အမ်ားဆံုးႏုိင္ငံ ျဖစ္သြားျခင္း ျဖစ္သည္။ “တ႐ုတ္က ပေရာဂ်က္ေပါင္း ၃ဝ ဗ်။ ေရနံနဲ႔ သဘာဝဓာတ္ေငြ႔မွာ အမ်ားဆံုးေပါ့။ ေက်ာက္ျဖဴကေန ကူမင္းကို သြယ္မယ့္ ေရနံပိုက္လိုင္းေလ။ အဲဒီဟာမွာ အမ်ားဆံုးပဲခင္ဗ်” ဟု UMFCCI ျပန္ၾကားေရးဌာနမွ ဦးမ်ဳိးဝင္းထြန္းက မဇၥ်ိမကို ေျပာသည္။ {play}images/NewsPhotos/FEB11/UMFCCIUMWT.mp3{/play} ၂ဝဝ၆ ခုႏွစ္ေနာက္ပိုင္း ေရနံႏွင့္ သဘာဝဓာတ္ေငြ႔က႑တြင္ တိုးခ်ဲ႕ရင္းႏွီးျမႇဳပ္ႏွံခဲ့သည့္ ထိုင္းႏိုင္ငံမွာ ရင္းႏွီးျမႇဳပ္ႏွံမႈ အမ်ားဆံုး ႏိုင္ငံအျဖစ္ ၿပီးခဲ့သည့္ႏွစ္ ႏိုဝဘၤာလအထိ ၇ ႏွစ္ၾကာ တည္ရွိခဲ့သည္။ ထိုစဥ္က တ႐ုတ္ႏိုင္ငံမွာ နံပါတ္ ၂ ေနရာတြင္ ရွိေနခဲ့သည္။ UMFCCI တရားဝင္ ထုတ္ျပန္ထားေသာ ကိန္းဂဏန္းမ်ားအရ ရင္းႏွီးျမႇဳပ္ႏွံမႈ အမ်ားဆံုး ၆ ႏိုင္ငံတြင္ တ႐ုတ္ႏိုင္ငံက အေမရိကန္ေဒၚလာ ၉၆ဝ၃.၁၆၈ သန္း၊ ထိုင္းက ၉၅၆၈.ဝ၉၃ သန္း၊ ေဟာင္ေကာင္က ၅၉ဝ၄.၉၁၈ သန္း၊ ကိုရီးယားက ၂၇၂ဝ.၈ဝ၆ သန္း၊ ၿဗိတိန္က ၂၆၅၉.၉၅၄ သန္းႏွင့္ စကၤာပူက ၁၅၉၂.၄၄၃ သန္း ရင္းႏွီးျမႇဳပ္ႏွံထားသည္။ တ႐ုတ္ျပည္သူ႔သမၼတ ႏိုင္ငံသည္ ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံအတြင္း ယခုႏွစ္ ဇန္နဝါရီလကုန္အထိ အေမရိကန္ေဒၚလာ ၁ဝ ဘီလ်ံနီးပါး ရင္းႏွီးျမႇဳပ္ႏွံထားေၾကာင္းႏွင့္ ယခုႏွစ္အတြင္း လွ်ပ္စစ္စြမ္းအားက႑ႏွင့္ ေရနံႏွင့္ သဘာဝဓာတ္ေငြ႔ က႑တြင္ ၃ ဘီလ်ံေက်ာ္ ထပ္မံရင္းႏွီးျမႇဳပ္ႏွံေၾကာင္း ယခုတပတ္ထုတ္ Eleven ဂ်ာနယ္ အင္တာနက္ စာမ်က္ႏွာတြင္လည္း ေဖာ္ျပထားသည္။ 1 / 2
  115. 115. ျမန္မာျပည္မွာ ရင္းႏွီးျမႇဳပ္ႏွံမႈ တ႐ုတ္ အမ်ားဆံုး သတင္းရင္းျမစ္ > ကိုေပါက္ အဂၤါေန႔၊ ေဖေဖၚဝါရီလ ၂၂ ရက္ ၂၀၁၁ ခုႏွစ္ ၁၈ နာရီ ၁၁ မိနစ္ ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံအတြင္း ႏိုင္ငံျခား ရင္းႏွီးျမႇဳပ္ႏွံမႈမ်ားမွာ ေရနံႏွင့္ သဘာဝဓာတ္ေငြ႔က႑၌ ၄၂ %၊ လွ်ပ္စစ္က႑တြင္ ၃၆ %၊ သတၳဳတူးေဖာ္မႈတြင္ ၈ %  စသျဖင့္ ရွိေၾကာင္း ဦးမ်ဳိးဝင္းထြန္းက ေျပာသည္။ ၁၉၈၈ ခုႏွစ္ ေနာက္ပိုင္းတြင္ ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံ၏ တံခါးဖြင့္ စီးပြားေရးေပၚလစီအရ အဓိကအားျဖင့္ အိမ္နီးခ်င္းႏိုင္ငံမ်ားမွ လာေရာက္ရင္းႏွီးျမႇဳပ္ႏွံရာ ထိုင္း၊ စကၤာပူ၊ တ႐ုတ္၊ ေဟာင္ေကာင္၊ ကိုရီးယားႏွင့္ ၿဗိတိန္မွာ အဓိက ႏိုင္ငံမ်ား ျဖစ္သည္။ ျမန္မာႏွင့္ တ႐ုတ္အၾကား ကုန္သြယ္မႈ ပမာဏမွာ ၿပီးခဲ့သည့္ ၂ဝဝ၉-၂ဝ၁ဝ ဘ႑ာႏွစ္အတြင္း က်ပ္သန္းေပါင္း ၁ဝ,၂၁၃ ေက်ာ္ ရွိခဲ့သည္။ 2 / 2
  116. 116. ေျပာစရာနည္းနည္း ရိွလို႔ပါ - This is the truth. Burmese from Singapore ႏိုင္ငံျခားလာၿပီးအလုပ္လုပ္တာကိုပဲ တခ်ိဳ႔က ႏိုင္ငံေတာ္ သစၥာေဖာက္မႈႀကီးလို ျမင္ေနၾကေသးတယ္။ ကြ်ဲေျခရာခြက္ထဲ က်ေနတဲ့ဖားေလးေတြလို အင္မတန္ သနားစရာေကာင္းတဲ့ သူမ်ားပါေပပ ခင္ဗ်ာ။ ေျပာတဲ့သူေတြက ဥေရာပႏိုင္ငံေတြက မဟာဘဲြ႔၊ ေဒါက္တာဘဲြ႔ႀကီးေတြ ယူလာခဲ့တဲ့သူေတြ ျဖစ္တဲ့အတြက္ ကြ်န္ေတာ့္မွာ အံ့လည္းအံ့ၾသမိပါရဲ့။ ေအးေလ၊ သူတို႔လည္း သူတို႔အျမင္နဲ႔ သူတို႔ေပါ့။ ရိွပါေစ။ သူမ်ားေတြ ဘာေတြလုပ္ေနသလဲ။ သူတို႔ဒီလိုသြားျခင္းျဖင့္ ဘယ္လို အက်ိဳးအျမတ္ေတြရသလဲ ဆိုတာ နည္းနည္းမွ ထည့္မစဥ္းစားဘဲ သူတို႔ ျမန္မာျပည္မွာ ၀န္ထမ္းဘ၀နဲ႔ လုပ္ေနတာကိုဘဲ ျျမန္မာျပည္ႀကီးက သင္ေပးလိုက္တဲ့ ပညာေတြ အတြက္ အမိႏိုင္ငံေတာ္ႀကီးကို ျပန္ေက်းဇူးဆပ္ေနသလိုလို။ ကြ်န္ေတာ္တို႔က ျမန္မာျပည္က သင္ေပးလိုက္တဲ့ ပညာေတြနဲ႔ စင္ကာပူ ႏိုင္ငံေတာ္ႀကီးကိုပဲ အလုပ္အေကြ်းျပဳေနသလိုလို။ ဒါက သူတို႔အျမင္ကိုး ခင္ဗ်။ ေဒါက္တာေအာင္ထြန္းသက္ ေျပာတာေလး နားေထာင္ၾကည့္စမ္းပါ။ “သူတို႔ႏိုင္ငံျခားသြားလုပ္ျခင္းျဖင့္ ကိုယ့္ႏိုင္ငံမွာမရိွတဲ့ ေခတ္မီအတတ္ပညာေတြ သူတို႔ဟာသူတို႔ ေလ့လာၿပီးသား သင္ၿပီးသား ျဖစ္သြားတယ္။ ဒီေတာ့ အဲဒီလူေတြသာ ျမန္မာျပည္ျပန္လာခဲ့ရင္ သူတို႔နဲ႔အတူပါလာမဲ့ အတတ္ပညာေတြဟာ ဘာနဲ႔မွ ၀ယ္လို႔မရတ့ဲ အင္မတန္ အဖိုးတန္တဲ့အရာေတြ ျဖစ္တယ္။ ေနာက္ၿပီး တကမၻာလံုးမွာရိွတဲ့ ႏုိင္ငံျခားေရာက္ျမန္မာေတြကေန ျမန္မာျပည္ျပန္ပို႔ေနတဲ့ ေငြေတြဟာ နည္းနည္းေနာေနာမဟုတ္ဘူး - တဲ့။” ဆရာႀကီးေျပာတာ ဟုတ္မဟုတ္ နည္းနည္း ေပသီးေခါက္ၾကည့္ရေအာင္။ ကြ်န္ေတာ္တို႔ခင္ဗ်ားတို႔ ျမန္မာသံရံုးကို တစ္လ ဘယ္ေလာက္ေပးေနရသလဲ။ ကြ်န္ေတာ္ လတိုင္း တစ္လကို စင္ကာပူေဒၚလာ ၁၂၀ (ျမန္မာေငြ တစ္သိန္းနီးပါး) ေပးေနရတယ္ ဆိုတာ ခင္ဗ်ားတို႔ သိပါတယ္။ ပီအာ၊ အီးပီ၊ အက္စ္ပတ္စ္၊ ၀ပ္ပါမစ္၊ မိတ္။ အားလံုး ပွ်မ္းမွ်ျခင္းအားျဖင့္ တစ္ေယာက္ ၈၀ ပဲထားပါဦး။ စင္ကာပူမွာ လာအလုပ္လုပ္ေနတဲ့ ျမန္မာေပါင္း သိန္းဂဏန္းနီးနီးရိွတယ္။ ဒါေပမဲ့ ၅ ေသာင္းပဲထားပါဗ်ာ။ ျမန္မာသံရံုးရဲ့ တစ္လ ၀င္ေငြ ေနာ္။ တြက္ၾကည့္မယ္။ ၈၀ x ၅၀၀၀၀ = စင္ကာပူေဒၚလာ ၄ သန္း။ အားပါးပါး။ သိပ္မ်ားသြားသလား။ ထားပါ ေလးပံုတစ္ပံု ဆုိရင္ေတာင္ တစ္သန္း --- ခင္ဗ်။ ျမန္မာျပည္က ဘယ္စက္ရံု၊ ဘယ္ရံုး၊ ဘယ္ဌာနက တစ္လ ေဒၚလာေလးသန္း (ဘာအရင္းမွ စိုက္စရာမလို၊ ဘာစက္ပစၥည္းမွ မလို၊ လုပ္သားခဘယ္ေလာက္မွ မလို၊ ဘာ ကာယအား၊ ဉာဏအားမွ စိုက္စရာမလိုဘဲ) ရပါသလဲ။ ေျပာပါ။ ဒါ သံရံုးကို ေျပာတာ။ စင္ကာပူလာ အလုပ္လုပ္တယ္ ဆိုတာ ကိုယ့္မိသားစုကို ေကြ်းေမြးေထာက္ပံ့ဘို႔ ဆိုတဲ့
  117. 117. ရည္ရြယ္ခ်က္နဲ႔ခ်ည္း လာၾကတာ။ ဘယ္သူမွ အားအားလ်ားလ်ား အေလလိုက္ရေအာင္ (သည္းခံပါခင္ဗ်ာ - ရိုင္းသြားတယ္) ေပ်ာ္ဘို႔ပါးဘို႔ လာၾကတဲ့သူ မရိွဘူး။ သူရို႔ႀကိဳက္တတ္လို႔ ဘီယာေသာက္တယ္ ဆိုရင္ေတာင္ အိမ္ေတာ့ ျခစ္ခ်ဳပ္ျပန္ပို႔ၾကတဲ့ သူခ်ည္းပဲ။ ဒါဆို စင္ကာပူႏိုင္ငံသား ခံသြားတဲ့လူေတြကလဲြလို႔ က်န္တဲ့ ျျမန္မာေတြအားလံုး ကိုယ့္မိသားစုရိွရာ ျမန္မာျပည္ကို ပိုက္ဆံျပန္ပို႔ၾကတဲ့ သူေတြခ်ည္းပဲေပါ့။ ရွင္းေနတာဘဲ။ ကိုင္း၊ ဒါဆို တစ္လတစ္လ ျမန္မာျပည္ကို ႏိုင္ငံျခားမွာ အလုပ္လုပ္ေနသူေတြ ျျပန္ပို႔ေနတဲ့ ေငြေတြ တြက္ၾကည့္မယ္။ တကမၻာလံုးဆိုတာ သိပ္ က်ယ္ျပန္႔တယ္။ ကြ်န္ေတာ္ လက္လွမ္းမမီဘူး။ ကိုယ္သိသေလာက္ စင္ကာပူကိုပဲ တြက္မယ္။ ခုနေျပာသလို စင္ကာပူမွာ အလုပ္လုပ္ေနတဲ့သူကုိ ၅ ေသာင္းပဲထား တြက္ရေအာင္။ ကြ်န္ေတာ္တစ္လကို အနည္းဆံုး ဆယ္သိန္း ျပန္ပို႔တယ္။ ၀ပ္ပါမစ္သမားေတြဆို အနည္းဆံုး သံုးသိန္းေတာ့ ပို႔မယ္။ ထားပါ။ ပ်မ္းမွ်ျခင္း - တစ္ေယာက္ကို ငါးသိန္းပို႔တယ္ပဲထား။ တစ္ေယာက္ ငါးသိန္း x လူ ငါးေသာင္း = က်ပ္ သန္းေပါင္း ႏွစ္ေသာင္းခဲြ = ၂၅ ဘီလ်ံ။ အိုးဟိုးဟိုး။ အာ၊ မျဖစ္ႏိုင္တာ။ ဒါဆို နည္းနည္းေလွ်ာ့ခ်ၾကည့္မယ္။ ကဲ တစ္ေယာက္ တစ္သိန္း x လူငါးေသာင္း = က်ပ္ သန္းေပါင္း ၅ ေထာင္ = ၅ ဘီလ်ံ။ (ဒါထက္ပိုစရာပဲ ရွိတယ္။) ဒါ - စင္ကာပူတစ္ႏိုင္ငံထဲကို ေျပာတာ။ တကမၻာလံုးမွာ ဆယ္ႏိုင္ငံကို သြားအလုပ္လုပ္ၾကတယ္ပဲ ဆိုပါေတာ့။ ၅ ဘီလ်ံ x ၁၀ = ဘယ္ေလာက္ျဖစ္သြားမလဲ၊ ဘီလ်ံ ၅၀ မဟုတ္လား။ အဲဒါ တစ္ႏွစ္ကိုေျပာတာ မဟုတ္ဘူး။ တစ္လ တစ္လ ျမန္မာျပည္ကို ၀င္ေနတဲ့ ပိုက္ဆံေတြကိုေျပာတာ။ ခင္ဗ်ား ျမန္မာျပည္မွာ အလုပ္လုပ္ရင္ တစ္လ ဘယ္ေလာက္ရမလဲ။ ေမးစရာမလိုပါဘူးဗ်ာ။ မစားေလာက္လို႔ လာၾကတဲ့ သူေတြခ်ည္းဟာကို။ ဒါဆို တကယ္စစ္စစ္ေပါက္ေပါက္ ေသေသခ်ာခ်ာသာ တြက္ၾကည့္မယ္ဆိုရင္ ကြ်န္ေတာ္တို႔ ခင္ဗ်ားတို႔ဆီကေန ၀င္ေနတဲ့ ျမန္မာျပည္ရဲ့ ၀င္ေငြဟာ (သံရံုးေတြအပါအ၀င္ဆိုရင္) ျျမန္မာတစ္ႏုိင္ငံလံုးရဲ့ အမိ်ဳးသားထုတ္ကုန္ (GDP) ရဲ့ ထက္၀က္မွ်ေတာင္ မရိွႏိုင္ေပဘူးလား။ ထားပါေတာ့ဗ်ာ။ ကြ်န္ေတာ္ စိတ္တိုတိုနဲ႔ ေရးလိုက္တာပါ။ အသက္လည္း ႀကီးပါၿပီ။ ဖက္ၿပိဳင္ၿပီးေတာ့လည္း ရန္မျဖစ္ခ်င္ ေတာ့ပါဘူး။ ကြ်န္ေတာ္က ကိုယ္လုပ္ႏိုင္တတ္သမွ်ေလးနဲ႔ ျမန္မာျပည္နဲ႔ ျျပည္သူျပည္သားေတြကို လုပ္ေပးမယ္ဆုိၿပီး သူငယ္ခ်င္းေတြနဲ႔စုၿပီး ေက်ာင္းေတြ (အစိုးရစာသင္ေက်ာင္း၊ ဘုန္းေတာ္ႀကီးသင္၊ သီလရင္သင္ ပညာေရးေက်ာင္း) ျပင္ေပး။ ေဆးရံုေဆးခန္းေတြ ျပင္ေပး။ ေဆာက္ေပး လုပ္ေနတာ။ ခုဆို ေနရာေပါင္း ၁၄၀ ေလာက္ရိွၿပီ။ ျမန္မာေငြနဲ႔ သိန္း ၇၅၀ ေက်ာ္။ စင္ကာပူေဒၚလာ တစ္သိန္းေက်ာ္။ ကြ်န္ေတာ္ျမန္မာျပည္မွာေနရင္ လုပ္ႏုိင္ပါ့မလား။ ကိုယ့္ဟာကိုယ္ေတာင္ မနည္း ထမင္းစားဘို႔လုပ္ေနရတာ။ ကြ်န္ေတာ္တို႔လို လုပ္ေနတဲ့ ႏုိင္ငံျခားေရာက္ ျမန္မာေတြ၊ အဖဲြ႔အစည္းေတြ မနည္းပါဘူးဗ်ာ။ ရာနဲ႔ခ်ီရိွပါတယ္။ အဲဒါေတြသာ ေပါင္းလိုက္ရင္ ခုနက ေအာ္ႀကီးဟစ္က်ယ္ေျပာေနတဲ့ ျမန္မာျပည္ႀကီးရဲ့ အက်ိဳးကို သူတို႔သာ ေဆာင္က်ဥ္းေနပါတယ္ဆိုတဲ့ မမတို႔ထက္ အဆေပါင္း ရာနဲ႔ခ်ီရိွပါတယ္ ခင္ဗ်ာ။
  118. 118. ခုေတာ့ ဒီလို ပရဟိတလုပ္ငန္းဆိုတာ လူတိုင္း (ေစတနာပါရင္) လုပ္လို႔ရတယ္။ ဒီေတာ့ သူမ်ားမလုပ္ႏုိင္တာ ငါလုပ္မဟဲ့လို႔ ျမန္မာျပည္မွာ လုိေနတဲ့ (Big Gap) ကြက္လပ္ႀကီးကို ျဖည့္ဘို႔ ညဘက္ အိပ္ခ်ိန္ေတြေလွ်ာ့ၿပီး စာအုပ္ေတြ ျပဳစုတယ္ ေပါ့ခင္ဗ်ာ။ ကြ်န္ေတာ္ ရန္ကုန္ျပန္ေရာက္ရင္ စာအုပ္ဆိုင္ေတြ၊ စာအုပ္အေဟာင္းတန္းေတြ သြားေမႊေလ့ရိွတယ္။ စာအုပ္ကို ကြ်န္ေတာ္က လူမွန္းသိတတ္စကတဲက ခ်စ္လာတာ။ ဒီလို ေလွ်ာက္ေမႊရင္းနဲ႔ ကိုယ္က အင္ဂ်င္နီယာဆိုေတာ့ အင္ဂ်င္နီယာနဲ႔ ပတ္သက္တဲ့ စာအုပ္စာတမ္းေတြ လုိက္ရွာၾကည့္တယ္။ ဘုရားစူးရပါေစရဲ့။ တကယ္ အားကိုးအားထား ျျပဳရေလာက္တဲ့ ျမန္မာလိုေရးထားတဲ့ အင္ဂ်င္နီးယားရင္း စာအုပ္ တစ္အုပ္မွ မရွိဘူး ခင္ဗ်ာ။ ဦးေဖသိန္း (လွ်ပ္စစ္) ေရးတဲ့ စာအုပ္တခ်ိဳ႔။ ဦးအုန္းျမင့္ (ဒီဇယ္) ေရးတဲ့ စာအုပ္တခ်ိဳ႔။ ဦးကိုကိုေလး ေရးတဲ့ စာအုပ္တခ်ိဳ႔တေလပဲ ေတြ႔တယ္။ ဒါေပမဲ့ အဲဒီစာအုပ္ေတြက တကယ့္ အင္ဂ်င္နီယာစာအုပ္ေတြ မဟုတ္ဘူး။ တက္ခနစ္ရွန္ (Technician) ေတြအတြက္ေလာက္ပဲ အသံုးတည့္တယ္။ အင္ဂ်င္နီယာ စာအုပ္ေတြတင္ပဲလားတဲ့။ မဟုတ္ဘူးခင္ဗ်။ တျခား ဘာသာရပ္ေတြေရာပဲ။ အားလံုး။ တကယ့္က်က်နန ျပဳစုထားတဲ့၊ အားကိုးအားထား ျပဳရေလာက္တဲ့စာအုပ္ တစ္အုပ္မွ မရိွဘူး။ ျမန္မာစာေပနဲ႔ပတ္သက္လို႔ေတာ့ စာအုပ္ေတြ ေတာ္ေတာ္မ်ားမ်ား ေတြ႔တယ္။ ညီမျဖစ္သူကလည္း ျမန္မာစာဆရာမ၊ ကြ်န္ေတာ္ကလည္း ျမန္မာစာေပ ၀ါသနာပါေတာ့ လက္လွမ္းမီသမွ် အကုန္လိုလို ၀ယ္ထားတယ္။ အားရစရာဆိုလို႔ ျမန္မာစာေပ တစ္ခုပဲရိွတယ္။ မႏွစ္က ကြ်န္ေတာ့္သူငယ္ခ်င္း ကိုေအာင္ေဇာ္ဦးက သူဖတ္ခ်င္လို႔ စပါးအေၾကာင္း ေသေသခ်ာခ်ာ ေရးထားတဲ့ စာအုပ္မ်ားရိွရင္ ေျပာစမ္းပါ။ သိရင္လည္း ၀ယ္ေပးစမ္းပါ။ ပိုက္ဆံေပးပါ့မယ္ ေပါ့။ ေျပာလာတယ္။ ဘုရားစူးရပါေစ့။ ေစ်းကြက္ထဲမွာ စပါးနဲ႔ပတ္သက္ၿပီး ျပည့္ျပည့္စံုစံု ေရးထားတဲ့စာအုပ္ တစ္အုပ္ကမွ မရိွပါဘူး ခင္ဗ်ာ။ ကြ်န္ေတာ့္မိတ္ေဆြ အေပါင္းအသင္း စိုက္ပ်ိဳးေရးပညာရွင္ေတြ လိုက္ေမးေတာ့လည္း ၀ယ္လို႔ရတဲ့စာအုပ္ေတာ့ မၾကားမိဘူး။ ဟိုလူ႔မွာေတာ့ ရိွတယ္။ လိုခ်င္ရင္ ေကာ္ပီဆဲြလို႔ရတယ္။ ဒီေနရာမွာေတာ့ ရိွမယ္ထင္တယ္ ဆုိတာေလာက္ပဲ သိခဲ့ရတယ္။ ကြ်န္ေတာ္တို႔တုိင္းျပည္မွာ စိုက္ပ်ိဳးေရးပညာရွင္ေတြ၊ ရိုးရိုးဘဲြ႔ရ။ မဟာဘဲြ႔ရ၊ ေဒါက္တာဘဲြ႔ရ၊ နည္းနည္းတတ္တ့ဲသူ၊ အရမ္းေတာ္တဲ့သူေတြ ရိုက္သတ္လို႔ မကုန္ပါဘူး။ ကြ်န္ေတာ္က စိုက္ပ်ိဳးေရးတကၠသိုလ္ရဲ့ ၀န္ထမ္းေဟာင္း တစ္ေယာက္ဆုိေတာ့ ဘယ္သူေတြေတာ့ျဖင့္ ဘယ္ႏုိင္ငံမွာ ဘာဘဲြ႔ေတြ သြားယူေနတယ္ ဆုိတာ အျမဲလိုလို သတင္းေတြ ၾကားေနရပါတယ္။ ေစ်းကြက္မွာရိွတဲ့ စာအုပ္ေတြက ဘာပန္းပင္စိုက္နည္း၊ မီးဖိုေခ်ာင္သံုး သီးႏွံမ်ားစိုက္နည္း ဆိုၿပီး လယ္သမားေတြ သိၿပီးသား နည္းပညာေတြေလာက္ပဲ ေရးထားတာမ်ားပါတယ္။ ကြ်န္ေတာ္လည္း လွည္းတန္းနဲ႔ ရန္ကုန္ၿမိဳ႔ထဲ က စာအုပ္ဆိုင္ေတာ္ေတာ္မ်ားမ်ားမွာ လုိက္ရွာၾကည့္တာပဲ။ မေတြ႔ခဲ့ဘူး။ အဲဒီေတာ့ ျမန္မာျပည္မွာ အတတ္ပညာပိုင္းဆိုင္ရာ စာအုပ္စာတမ္းေတြ အမ်ားႀကီးလိုေနတယ္။ ဘာသာရပ္တုိင္း အတြက္ကို လိုတာ။ ဒီေတာ့ ကြ်န္ေတာ္ကလည္း အင္ဂ်င္နီယာ ဆိုေတာ့ ကိုယ္သိထားတာေလးေတြ၊ တတ္ထားတာေလးေတြ။ ေလ့လာမိထားတာေလးေတြကို ရႏုိင္တတ္သမွ် စာအုပ္စာတမ္းေတြ ရွာေဖြၿပီး
  119. 119. ဘာသာျပန္။ တကယ့္ကို အင္ဂ်င္နီယာေတြ အားကိုးအားထားျပဳရမဲ့ စာအုပ္ေတြ ေရးမယ္လို႔ ဒီလိုပဲ စိတ္ကူးမိတယ္။ ကြ်န္ေတာ့္ ပထမစာအုပ္ “အနာဂတ္တစ္ခု ဖန္တီးတည္ေဆာက္ျခင္း” ထုတ္တာ အုပ္ေရ ၁၅၀၀ ကို သိန္း ၅၀ ရင္းရတယ္။ အဲဒီပိုက္ဆံ အရင္းေက်ဘို႔ တစ္ႏွစ္ေက်ာ္ၾကာေအာင္ ေစာင့္ရတယ္။ ကုန္ေတာ့သာ တလံုးတခဲတည္း သြားဟဲ့ သိန္း ၅၀ ဆိုၿပီး ကုန္သြားတာ။ ျပန္၀င္လာေတာ့ ၁ သိန္း၀င္၊ ၂ သိန္း၀င္။ ငါးေသာင္းရတဲ့ အခါမ်ားေတာင္ ရိွတယ္။ ပိုက္ဆံ ဆိုတာမ်ိဳးက နည္းနည္းစီ၀င္လာလုိ႔ကေတာ့ အသံုးစရိတ္ထဲ ၀င္သြားတာမ်ိဳးကို။ ကုန္ေတာ့သာ account ထဲက စင္ကာပူ ေဒၚလာ ၇၀၀၀ ျပတ္ျပတ္သားသားထြက္သြားတယ္။ တစ္ႏွစ္ၾကာလို႔ အရင္းသာေၾကသြားေရာ၊ အဲဒီ ၇၀၀၀ ဟာ ျပန္မ၀င္ လာေတာ့ပါဘူး ခင္ဗ်ာ။ ကိုယ္ေတြ႔ပါ။ ဒါေပမဲ့ လူမႈေရးတာ၀န္ေတာ့ အရမ္းေက်သဗ်ိဳ႔။ မိတ္ေဆြေတြေတြ႔ရင္ ေဟာတစ္အုပ္၊ ေဟာတစ္အုပ္။ လက္မွတ္ကေလး ထိုးထိုးေပးလိုက္ရတာ။ ဟန္ကိုက်လို႔။ ဟိုစာၾကည့္တိုက္က လာအလႉခံတယ္။ သြားေရာ့ တစ္အုပ္။ ဟိုကေလးေတြကို ဆုေပးခ်င္တယ္။ သြားေရာ့ သံုးအုပ္။ စသျဖင့္။ ဒီေတာ့ ေနာက္စာအုပ္ေတြကို ကုိယ့္ဟာကိုယ္ ထုတ္ရမွာ အေတာ္ႀကီးကို လက္တြန္႔သြားတယ္။ ကြ်န္ေတာ့္ အစ္မႀကီးကလည္း ခပ္အင္အင္ပဲ။ က

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