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Dynamic positioning

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Dynamic Positioning for Marine and Off-shore

Dynamic Positioning for Marine and Off-shore

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  • 1. For intermediat professional Index Page 1. Information from Wikipedia 2011 1-14 2. Information from KONSBERG 15-16 (Manufacturer) 3. Video Presentation (YOUTUBE) 17 4. Published BOOKS (Amazone) 18-19 5. Some Manufacturers 20 6. Web Information: IMO & DP Committee 21-22 7. Conference 2011 23-29 8. The End
  • 2. Offshore Support Vessel Toisa Perseus with, in the background, the fifth-generation deepwater drillship Discoverer Enterprise, over the Thunder Horse Oil Field. Both are equipped with DP systems. Dynamic positioning From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Dynamic positioning (DP) is a computer controlled system to automatically maintain a vessel's position and heading by using its own propellers and thrusters. Position reference sensors, combined with wind sensors, motion sensors and gyro compasses, provide information to the computer pertaining to the vessel's position and the magnitude and direction of environmental forces affecting its position. Examples of vessel types that employ DP include, but are not limited to, ships and semi-submersible Mobile Offshore Drilling Units (MODU) and Oceanographic Research Vessels. The computer program contains a mathematical model of the vessel that includes information pertaining to the wind and current drag of the vessel and the location of the thrusters. This knowledge, combined with the sensor information, allows the computer to calculate the required steering angle and thruster output for each thruster. This allows operations at sea where mooring or anchoring is not feasible due to deep water, congestion on the sea bottom (pipelines, templates) or other problems. Dynamic positioning may either be absolute in that the position is locked to a fixed point over the bottom, or relative to a moving object like another ship or an underwater vehicle. One may also position the ship at a favourable angle towards wind, waves and current, called weathervaning. Dynamic positioning is utilized by much of the offshore oil industry, for example in the North Sea, Persian Gulf, Gulf of Mexico, West Africa, and off the coast of Brazil. There are currently more than 1000 DP ships.[citation needed] Contents 1 History 2 Comparison between position-keeping options 3 Applications 4 Scope 5 Requirements 6 Reference systems 6.1 Position reference systems 6.2 Heading reference systems Dynamic positioning - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dynamic_positioning 1 of 14 9/9/2011 10:47 AM Page 1
  • 3. 6.3 Reference systems 7 Control systems 8 Power and propulsion systems 9 Class Requirements 10 NMD 11 Redundancy 12 DP Operator 13 IMCA 14 References 15 External links History Dynamic positioning started in the 1960s for offshore drilling. With drilling moving into ever deeper waters, Jack-up barges could not be used any more and anchoring became less economical. In 1961 the drillship Cuss 1 was fitted with four steerable propellers, in an attempt to drill the first Moho well. It was possible to keep the ship in position above the well off La Jolla, California, at a depth of 948 meters. After this, off the coast of Guadalupe, Mexico, five holes were drilled, the deepest at 183 m (601 ft) below the sea floor in 3,500 m (11,700 ft) of water, while maintaining a position within a radius of 180 meters. The ship's position was determined by radar ranging to buoys and sonar ranging from subsea beacons. Whereas the Cuss 1 was kept in position manually, later in the same year Shell launched the drilling ship Eureka that had an analogue control system interfaced with a taut wire, making it the first true DP ship. While the first DP ships had analogue controllers and lacked redundancy, since then vast improvements have been made. Besides that, DP nowadays is not only used in the oil industry, but also on various other types of ships. In addition, DP is not limited to maintaining a fixed position any more. One of the possibilities is sailing an exact track, useful for cablelay, pipelay, survey and other tasks. Comparison between position-keeping options Other methods of position-keeping are the use of an anchor spread and the use of a jack-up barge. All have their own advantages and disadvantages. Comparison position-keeping options Dynamic positioning - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dynamic_positioning 2 of 14 9/9/2011 10:47 AM Page 2
  • 4. Jack-up Barge Anchoring Dynamic Positioning Advantages: No complex systems with thrusters, extra generators and controllers. No chance of running off position by system failures or blackouts. No underwater hazards from thrusters. Advantages: No complex systems with thrusters, extra generators and controllers. No chance of running off position by system failures or blackouts. No underwater hazards from thrusters. Advantages: Manoeuvring is excellent; it is easy to change position. No anchor handling tugs are required. Not dependent on waterdepth. Quick set-up. Not limited by obstructed seabed. Disadvantages: No manoeuvrability once positioned. Limited to water depths of ~150 meters. Disadvantages: Limited manoeuvrability once anchored. Anchor handling tugs are required. Less suitable in deep water. Time to anchor out varies between several hours to several days. Limited by obstructed seabed (pipelines, seabed). Disadvantages: Complex systems with thrusters, extra generators and controllers. High initial costs of installation. High fuel costs. Chance of running off position by system failures or blackouts. Underwater hazards from thrusters for divers and ROVs. Higher maintenance of the mechanical systems. Although all methods have their own advantages, dynamic positioning has made many operations possible that were not feasible before. The costs are falling due to newer and cheaper technologies and the advantages are becoming more Dynamic positioning - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dynamic_positioning 3 of 14 9/9/2011 10:47 AM Page 3
  • 5. SBX underway compelling as offshore work enters ever deeper water and the environment (coral) is given more respect. With container operations, crowded ports can be made more efficient by quicker and more accurate berthing techniques. Cruise ship operations benefit from faster berthing and non-anchored "moorings" off beaches or inaccessible ports. Applications Important applications include: Servicing Aids to Navigation (ATON) Cable-laying Crane vessels Cruise ships Diving support vessels Dredging Drillships FPSOs Flotels Landing Platform Docks Maritime research Mine sweepers Pipe-laying ship Platform supply vessels Rockdumping Sea Launch Sea-based X-band Radar Shuttle tankers Survey ships Scope A ship can be considered to have six degrees of freedom in its motion, i.e., it can move in any of six axes. Three of these involve translation: surge (forward/astern) sway (starboard/port) heave (up/down) Dynamic positioning - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dynamic_positioning 4 of 14 9/9/2011 10:47 AM Page 4
  • 6. GPS satellite in orbit. and the other three rotation: roll (rotation about surge axis) pitch (rotation about sway axis) yaw (rotation about heave axis) Dynamic positioning is concerned primarily with control of the ship in the horizontal plane, i.e., the three axis surge, sway and yaw. Requirements A ship that is to be used for DP requires: to maintain position and heading, first of all the position and heading need to be known. a control computer to calculate the required control actions to maintain position and correct for position errors. thrust elements to apply forces to the ship as demanded by the control system. For most applications, the position reference systems and thrust elements must be carefully considered when designing a DP ship. In particular, for good control of position in adverse weather, the thrust capability of the ship in three axes must be adequate. Reference systems Position reference systems There are several means to determine a ship's position at sea. Most traditional methods used for ships navigation are not accurate enough. For that reason, several positioning systems have been developed during the past decades. Producers of DP systems are: Kongsberg, Navis Engineering Oy, Converteam, EMI, Deep Down Marine Technologies, L3, MT-div.Chouest, Rolls Royce, Nautronix, and others. The applications and availability depends on the type of work and water depth. The most common Position reference/Measuring systems /Equipment (PRS/PME) are: DGPS, Differential GPS. The position obtained by GPS is not accurate enough for use by DP. The position is improved by use of a fixed ground based reference station (differential station) that compares the GPS position to the known position of the station. The correction is sent to the DGPS receiver by long wave radio frequency. For use in DP an even higher accuracy and reliability is needed. Companies such as Fugro or C&C Technologies supply differential signals via satellite, Dynamic positioning - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dynamic_positioning 5 of 14 9/9/2011 10:47 AM Page 5
  • 7. enabling the combination of several differential stations. The advantage of DGPS is that it is almost always available. Disadvantages are degrading of the signal because of sunspots or atmospheric disturbances, blockage of satellites by cranes or structures and deterioration of the signal at high altitudes.[1] There are also systems installed on vessels that use various different Augmentation systems, as well as combining GPS position with GLONASS.[2] Acoustics. This system consists of one or more transponders placed on the seabed and a transducer placed in the ship's hull. The transducer sends an acoustic signal (by means of piezoelectric elements) to the transponder, which is triggered to reply. As the velocity of sound through water is known (preferably a soundprofile is taken regularly), the distance is known. Because there are many elements on the transducer, the direction of the signal from the transponder can be determined. Now the position of the ship relative to the transponder can be calculated. Disadvantages are the vulnerability to noise by thrusters or other acoustic systems. Furthermore, the use is limited in shallow waters because of ray bending that occurs when sound travels through water horizontally. Three types of HPR systems are commonly used: Ultra- or Super- Short Base Line, USBL or SSBL. This works as described above. Because the angle to the transponder is measured, a correction needs to be made for the ship's roll and pitch. These are determined by Motion Reference Units. Because of the nature of angle measurement, the accuracy deteriorates with increasing water depth. Long Base Line, LBL. This consists of an array of at least three transponders. The initial position of the transponders is determined by USBL and/ or by measuring the baselines between the transponders. Once that is done, only the ranges to the transponders need to be measured to determine a relative position. The position should theoretically be located at the intersection of imaginary spheres, one around each transponder, with a radius equal to the time between transmission and reception multiplied by the speed of sound through water. Because angle measurement is not necessary, the accuracy in large water depths is better than USBL. Short Baseline, SBL. This works with an array of transducers in the ship's hull. These determine their position to a transponder, so a solution is found in the same way as with LBL. As the array is located on the ship, it needs to be corrected for roll and pitch.[3] Riser Angle Monitoring. On drillships, riser angle monitoring can be fed into the DP system. It may be an electrical inclinometer or based on USBL, where a riser angle monitoring transponder is fitted to the riser and a remote inclinometer unit is installed on the Blow Out Dynamic positioning - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dynamic_positioning 6 of 14 9/9/2011 10:47 AM Page 6
  • 8. Light Taut Wire on the HOS Achiever Preventer (BOP) and interrogated through the ship’s HPR. Light Taut Wire, LTW. The oldest position reference system used for DP is still very accurate in relatively shallow water. A clumpweight is lowered to the seabed. By measuring the amount of wire paid out and the angle of the wire by a gimbal head, the relative position can be calculated. Care should be taken not to let the wire angle become too large to avoid dragging. For deeper water the system is less favourable, as current will curve the wire. There are however systems that counteract this with a gimbal head on the clumpweight. Horizontal LTW’s are also used when operating close to a structure. Objects falling on the wire are a risk here. Fanbeam and CyScan. These are laser based position reference systems. They are very straightforward system, as only a small prism needs to be installed on a nearby structure or ship. Risks are the system locking on other reflecting objects and blocking of the signal. Range depends on the weather, but is typically more than 500 meters.[4] Artemis. A radar based system. A unit is placed on a nearby structure and aimed at the unit on board the ship. The range is several kilometres. Advantage is the reliable, all-weather performance. Disadvantage is that the unit is rather heavy.[5] DARPS, Differential, Absolute and Relative Positioning System. Commonly used on shuttle tankers while loading from a FPSO. Both will have a GPS receiver. As the errors are the same for the both of them, the signal does not need to be corrected. The position from the FPSO is transmitted to the shuttle tanker, so a range and bearing can be calculated and fed into the DP system. RADius [6] and RadaScan. These are radar based system, but have no moving parts as Artemis. Another advantage is that the transponders are much smaller than the Artemis unit. The range is typically 500 – 1000 meters. Inertial navigation is used in combination with any of the above reference systems, but typically with gnss (Global Navigation Satellite System) and Hydroacoustics (USBL, LBL, or SBL). Heading reference systems Dynamic positioning - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dynamic_positioning 7 of 14 9/9/2011 10:47 AM Page 7
  • 9. Gyrocompasses are normally used to determine heading. More advanced methods are: Ring-Laser gyroscopes Fibre optic gyroscopes Seapath, a combination of GPS and inertial sensors. Reference systems Besides position and heading, other variables are fed into the DP system through sensors: Motion Reference Units, Vertical Reference Units or Vertical Reference Sensors, VRU's or MRU's or VRS's, determine the ship's roll, pitch and heave. Wind sensors are fed into the DP system feed-forward, so the system can anticipate wind gusts before the ship is blown off position. Draught sensors, since a change of draught influences the effect of wind and current on the hull. Other sensors depend on the kind of ship. A pipelay ship may measure the force needed to pull on the pipe, large crane vessels will have sensors to determine the cranes position, as this changes the wind model, enabling the calculation of a more accurate model (see Control systems). Control systems In the beginning PID controllers were used and today are still used in the simpler DP systems. But modern controllers use a mathematical model of the ship that is based on a hydrodynamic and aerodynamic description concerning some of the ship's characteristics such as mass and drag. Of course, this model is not entirely correct. The ship's position and heading are fed into the system and compared with the prediction made by the model. This difference is used to update the model by using Kalman filtering technique. For this reason, the model also has input from the windsensors and feedback from the thrusters. This method even allows not having input from any PRS for some time, depending on the quality of the model and the weather. The accuracy and precision of the different Dynamic positioning - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dynamic_positioning 8 of 14 9/9/2011 10:47 AM Page 8
  • 10. Block diagram of control systemPRS’s is not the same. While a DGPS has a high accuracy and precision, a USBL can have a much lower precision. For this reason, the PRS’s are weighted. Based on variance a PRS receives a weight between 0 and 1. Power and propulsion systems To maintain position azimuth thrusters (L-drive or Z-drive), azipods, bow thrusters, stern thrusters, water jets, rudders and propellers are used. DP ships are usually at least partially diesel-electric, as this allows a more flexible set-up and is better able to handle the large changes in power demand, typical for DP operations. The set-up depends on the DP class of the ship. A Class 1 can be relatively simple, whereas the system of a Class 3 ship is quite complex. On Class 2 and 3 ships, all computers and reference systems should be powered through a UPS. Class Requirements Based on IMO (International Maritime Organization) publication 645[7] the Classification Societies have issued rules for Dynamic Positioned Ships described as Class 1, Class 2 and Class 3. Equipment Class 1 has no redundancy. Loss of position may occur in the event of a single fault. Equipment Class 2 has redundancy so that no single fault in an active system will cause the system to fail. Loss of position should not occur from a single fault of an active component or system such as generators, thruster, switchboards, remote controlled valves etc., but may occur after failure of a static component such as cables, pipes, manual valves etc. Equipment Class 3 which also has to withstand fire or flood in any one compartment without the system failing. Loss of position should not occur from any single failure including a completely burnt fire sub division or flooded watertight compartment. Classification Societies have their own Class notations: Description IMO Equipment Class LR Equipment Class DNV Equipment Class GL Equipment Class ABS Equipment Class Dynamic positioning - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dynamic_positioning 9 of 14 9/9/2011 10:47 AM Page 9
  • 11. Manual position control and automatic heading control under specified maximum environmental conditions - DP(CM) DYNPOS-AUTS - - Automatic and manual position and heading control under specified maximum environmental conditions Class 1 DP(AM) DYNPOS-AUT DP 1 DPS-0, DPS-1 Automatic and manual position and heading control under specified maximum environmental conditions, during and following any single fault excluding loss of a compartment. (Two independent computer systems). Class 2 DP(AA) DYNPOS-AUTR DP 2 DPS-2 Automatic and manual position and heading control under specified maximum environmental conditions, during and following any single fault including loss of a compartment due to fire or flood. (At least two independent computer systems with a separate backup system separated by A60 class division). Class 3 DP(AAA) DYNPOS-AUTRO DP 3 DPS-3 NMD Where IMO leaves the decision of which Class applies to what kind of operation to the operator of the DP ship and its client, the Norwegian Maritime Directorate (NMD) has specified what Class should be used in regard to the risk of an operation. In the NMD Guidelines and Notes No. 28, enclosure A four classes are defined: Class 0 Operations where loss of position keeping capability is not considered to endanger human lives, or cause damage. Dynamic positioning - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dynamic_positioning 10 of 14 9/9/2011 10:47 AM Page 10
  • 12. Class 1 Operations where loss of position keeping capability may cause damage or pollution of small consequence. Class 2 Operations where loss of position keeping capability may cause personnel injury, pollution, or damage with large economic consequences. Class 3 Operations where loss of position keeping capability may cause fatal accidents, or severe pollution or damage with major economic consequences. Based on this the type of ship is specified for each operation: Class 1 DP units with equipment class 1 should be used during operations where loss of position is not considered to endanger human lives, cause significant damage or cause more than minimal pollution. Class 2 DP units with equipment class 2 should be used during operations where loss of position could cause personnel injury, pollution or damage with great economic consequences. Class 3 DP units with equipment class 3 should be used during operations where loss of position could cause fatal accidents, severe pollution or damage with major economic consequences. Redundancy Redundancy is the ability to cope with a single failure without loss of position. A single failure can be, amongst others: Thruster failure Generator failure Powerbus failure (when generators are combined on one powerbus) Control computer failure Position reference system failure Reference system failure For certain operations redundancy is not required. For instance, if a survey ship loses its DP capability, there is normally no risk of damage or injuries. These operations will normally be done in Class 1. For other operations, such as diving and heavy lifting, there is a risk of damage or injuries. Depending on the risk, the operation is done in Class 2 or 3. This means at least three Position reference systems should be selected. This allows the principle of voting logic, so the failing PRS can be found. For this reason, there are also three DP control computers, three gyrocompasses, three MRU’s and three wind sensors on Class 3 ships. If a single fault occurs that jeopardizes the redundancy, i.e., failing of a thruster, generator or a PRS, and this cannot be resolved immediately, the operation should be abandoned as quickly as possible. Dynamic positioning - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dynamic_positioning 11 of 14 9/9/2011 10:47 AM Page 11
  • 13. To have sufficient redundancy, enough generators and thrusters should be on-line so the failure of one does not result in a loss of position. This is left to the judgement of the DP operator. For Class 2 and Class 3 a Consequence Analyses should be incorporated in the system to assist the DPO in this process. Disadvantage is that a generator can never operate at full load, resulting in less economy and fouling of the engines. The redundancy of a DP ship should be judged by an failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) study and proved by FMEA trials.[8] Besides that, annual trials are done and normally DP function tests are completed prior to each project. DP Operator The DP operator (DPO) judges whether there is enough redundancy available at any given moment of the operation. IMO issued MSC/Circ.738 (Guidelines for dynamic positioning system (DP) operator training) on 24-06-1996. This refers to IMCA (International Marine Contractors Association) M 117[9] as acceptable standard. To qualify as a DP operator the following path should be followed: a DP Induction course1. a minimum of 30 days seagoing DP familiarisation2. a DP Advanced course3. a minimum of 180 days watchkeeping on a DP ship4. a statement of suitability by the master of a DP ship5. When the watchkeeping is done on a Class 1 DP ship, a limited certificate will be issued; otherwise a full certificate will be issued. The DP Training and Certification scheme is operated by The Nautical Institute (NI). The NI issue logbooks to trainees, they accredit training centres and control the issuance of certification. With ever more DP ships and with increasing manpower demands, the position of DPO is gaining increasing prominence. This shifting landscape led to the creation of The International Dynamic Positioning Operators Association (IDPOA) in 2009. www.dpoperators.org IDPOA membership is made up of certified DPO's who qualify for fellowship (fDPO), while Members (mDPO) are those with DP experience or who may already be working within the DP certification scheme. IMCA The International Marine Contractors Association was formed in April 1995 from the amalgamation of AODC (originally the International Association of Offshore Diving Contractors), founded in 1972, and DPVOA (the Dynamic Positioning Vessel Owners Association), founded in 1990.[10] It represents offshore, marine and underwater engineering contractors. Acergy, Allseas, Heerema Marine Dynamic positioning - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dynamic_positioning 12 of 14 9/9/2011 10:47 AM Page 12
  • 14. Contractors, Helix Energy Solutions Group, J. Ray McDermott, Saipem, Subsea 7 and Technip have representation on IMCA's Council and provide the president. Previous presidents are: 1995-6 - Derek Leach, Coflexip Stena Offshore 1997-8 - Hein Mulder, Heerema Marine Contractors 1999/2000 - Donald Carmichael, Coflexip Stena Offshore 2001-2 - John Smith, Halliburton Subsea/Subsea 7 2003-4 - Steve Preston, - Heerema Marine Contractors 2005 - Frits Janmaat, Allseas Group (2005 Vice-President - Knut Boe, Technip) While it started with the collection and analysis of DP Incidents,[11] since then it has produced publications on different subjects to improve standards for DP systems. It also works with IMO and other regulatory bodies. References ^ "IMCA M 141, Guidelines on the Use of DGPS as a Position Reference in DP Control Systems" (http://www.imca-int.com/divisions/marine /publications/141.html) . http://www.imca- int.com/divisions/marine/publications/141.html. 1. ^ "Veripos DP system can be installed with several Augmentation systems as well as GLONASS support, they can disable any satellite or service via Ultra corrections received via Spotbeam or Inmarsat links." (http://www.veripos.com/s_ultra.php) . http://www.veripos.com/s_ultra.php. 2. ^ "IMCA M 151, The Basic Principles and Use of Hydroacoustic Position Reference Systems in the Offshore Environment" (http://www.imca- int.com/divisions/marine/publications/151.html) . http://www.imca-int.com/divisions/marine /publications/151.html. 3. ^ "IMCA M 170, A Review of Marine Laser Positioning Systems" (http://www.imca-int.com /divisions/marine/publications/170.html) . http://www.imca-int.com/divisions/marine /publications/170.html. 4. ^ "IMCA M 174, A Review of the Artemis Mk V Positioning System" (http://www.imca-int.com /divisions/marine/publications/174.html) . http://www.imca-int.com/divisions/marine /publications/174.html. 5. ^ "RADius relative positioning system" (http://www.youtube.com /watch?v=GmwRBzwDlf4) . http://www.youtube.com /watch?v=GmwRBzwDlf4. 6. ^ "IMO MSC/Circ.645, Guidelines for vessels with dynamic positioning systems" (http://www.imo.org/includes/blastDataOnly.asp /data_id%3D10015/MSCcirc645.pdf) . http://www.imo.org/includes/blastDataOnly.asp /data_id%3D10015/MSCcirc645.pdf. 7. ^ "IMCA M 166, Guidelines on Failure Modes & Effects Analyses (FMEAs)" (http://www.imca- int.com/divisions/marine/publications/166.html) . http://www.imca-int.com/divisions/marine /publications/166.html. 8. ^ "IMCA M 117, The training and experience of key DP personnel" (http://www.imca-int.com 9. Dynamic positioning - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dynamic_positioning 13 of 14 9/9/2011 10:47 AM Page 13
  • 15. /divisions/marine/publications/117.html) . http://www.imca-int.com/divisions/marine /publications/117.html. ^ "IMCA DP History" (http://www.imca-int.com /documents/core/imca/promotion/IMCA- MarineDPHistory.pdf) . http://www.imca-int.com /documents/core/imca/promotion/IMCA- 10. MarineDPHistory.pdf. ^ "IMCA M 181, Analysis of Station Keeping Incident Data 1994-2003" (http://www.imca- int.com/divisions/marine/publications/181.html) . http://www.imca-int.com/divisions/marine /publications/181.html. 11. External links List of all offshore vessels (http://myship.com/all-offshore-vessels) IMO, International Maritime Organization (http://www.imo.org) Introduction to Dynamic Positioning (http://www.imca-int.com/divisions/marine /reference/intro.html) by the International Marine Contractors Association (IMCA) NMD, Norwegian Maritime Directorate (http://www.sjofartsdir.no/english.asp) OPL Oilfield Seamanship Series - Volume 9: Dynamic Positioning - 2nd Edition (http://www.oilpubs.com/v_catalog /homewelcome.asp?orderdetail=69) by David Bray NI, The Nautical Institute (http://www.nautinst.org) The Dynamic Positioning Committee of The Marine Technology Society (http://www.dynamic-positioning.com/) The International Dynamic Positioning Operators Association (IDPOA) (http://www.dpoperators.org) Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dynamic_positioning" Categories: Navigation | Navigational equipment This page was last modified on 29 June 2011 at 20:34. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. See Terms of use for details. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. Dynamic positioning - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dynamic_positioning 14 of 14 9/9/2011 10:47 AM Page 14
  • 16. Jobs About us Login Corporate web Home Products Contact us Training Support News » Search Product area Bridge systems Product group Automatic identification systems - AIS Dynamic positioning - DP systems Electronic logbooks, K-Log GPS and reference systems GPS tracking system Integrated workstations Joystick control system Navigator safety system Radar and navigation systems Reference systems for dynamic positioning Refit / Retrofit / Conversions Ship information systems Thruster control system Voyage data recorders Products Compact Dynamic Positioning - DP System Dynamic positioning - DP system, K-Pos DP11/12 Dual redundant dynamic positioning - DP system, K-Pos DP-21/22 Dynamic positioning - DP system - Triple modular redundant K-Pos DP31/32 Position mooring system Riser management system Home / Products / Products by product area / Bridge systems / Dynamic positioning - DP systems Dynamic positioning - DP systems A full range of systems We offer a full range of dynamic positioning systems to keep the vessel within specified position and heading limits. These systems are designed to minimise fuel consumption and wear and tear on the propulsion equipment. The K-Pos operator station is available in single, dual or triple configurations. More than 1200 dynamic positioning - DP systems have been supplied to oil and gas related vessels. Typical applications for dynamic positioning systems Drill ships Cable-laying vessels Crane vessels Cruise ships Diving support vessels Dredging FPSO's Flotels Maritime research vessels Mega yachts Mine sweepers Pipe laying vessels Platform supply vessels Rock dumping vessels Survey ships Supply vessels Shuttle tankers The dynamic positioning systems controller The dynamic positioning systems controller calculates the resulting force to be exerted by the thrusters/propellers in order for the vessel to remain on station. In station-keeping operations, the K-Pos Controller can be working in several of the following modes, all with special characteristics: High Precision control: The High Precision dynamic positioning systems control provides high accuracy station-keeping in any weather condition at the expense of power consumption and exposure to wear and tear of machinery and thrusters. Relaxed control: The Relaxed dynamic positioning systems control uses the thrusters more smoothly, at the expense of station-keeping accuracy. However, this type of control cannot guarantee that the vessel will stay within its operational area, and is mainly applicable for calm weather conditions. Green DP® control: Kongsberg has developed a unique dynamic positioning control system (GreenDP® control), which reduces fuel consumption, and hence also CO2 emissions, by as much as 20 percent. The GreenDP® control secures the vessel, allowing it to stay within a specified area of operation. This new approach is based on forecasting the vessel's motion, rather than acting on present conditions, using a method called 'nonlinear model predictive control', which optimises the predicted vessel offset against the use of thrusters. By doing so, small and short-term disturbances that do not force the vessel out of its operational boundary are 'filtered out'. This allows for very smooth control, dramatically lowering peak loads and significantly reducing the wear and Phone: +47 32 28 50 00 Request more information Find local representative Tell a friend View newsletters Related information Basic principles Modes and functions Redundancy principles IMO DP Classifications Extensions and upgrades Operator interface KBIMS - Kongsberg Becker Intelligent Monitoring System DP Reference Systems Group on LinkedIn Available training courses Wikipedia about Dynamic positioning Product publications Brochure - Dynamic positioning systems - general Brochure - Dynamic positioning systems - Offshore Support Vessel Brochure - Kongsberg Maritime products for work boats Brochure - Mega yachts brochure Data sheet - K-Pos dynamic positioning operator station 650 Newsletter - Cruise newsletter Certificates (PDF) American Bureau of Shipping - Design Assessment American Bureau of Shipping - Design Assessment China Classification Society - Type Approval Det Norske Veritas - Type Approval Det Norske Veritas - Type Approval Det Norske Veritas - Type Approval - New Det Norske Veritas - Type Approval - New Related news Voyage of Discovery 22. July 2011 A Reliable Partner 24. June 2011 Dynamic positioning - DP systems - Kongsberg Maritime http://www.km.kongsberg.com/ks/web/nokbg0240.nsf/AllWeb/1... 1 of 2 9/9/2011 10:53 AM Page 15
  • 17. tear on thrusters and is part of KONGSBERG's Grenn Ship Strategy. Stand alone or integrated systems Stand-alone dynamic positioning systems interface with other systems, such as power plant and thrusters, via conventional signal cables and serial lines Integrated dynamic positioning systems communicate with other KONGSBERG systems such as K-Chief (Marine Automation) and K-Thrust (Thruster Control) via a dual Ethernet LAN Basic forces and motions A seagoing vessel is subjected to forces from wind, waves and current as well as from forces generated by the propulsion system. The vessel's response to these forces, i.e. its changes in position, heading and speed, is measured by the position-reference systems, the gyrocompass and the vertical reference sensors. Reference systems readings are corrected for roll and pitch using readings from the vertical reference sensors. Wind speed and direction are measured by the wind sensors. The K-Pos control system calculates the forces that the thrusters must produce in order to control the vessel's motion in three degrees of freedom - surge, sway and yaw - in the horizontal plane. More information Request more information about this product Find local representative Offshore Vessels Go Green 1. June 2011 Go back Print page Copyright ©2011 Kongsberg Maritime AS - All rights reserved Legal notice | Contact information | Website feedback Dynamic positioning - DP systems - Kongsberg Maritime http://www.km.kongsberg.com/ks/web/nokbg0240.nsf/AllWeb/1... 2 of 2 9/9/2011 10:53 AM Page 16
  • 18. DP Operator information & Persentation available at YOUTUBE http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JSEpV4HIAGY And many links Page 17
  • 19. Choose a Department to enable sorting Hello. Sign in to get personalized recommendations. New customer? Start here. FREE 2-Day Shipp Your Amazon.com | Today's Deals | Gifts & Wish Lists | Gift Cards Your Digital Items Search "Dynamic Positioning" ""Dynamic Positioning"" Showing 1 - 16 of 35 Results 1. Dynamic Positioning (Oilfield Seamanship) by D. J. Bray (Paperback - Sep 1, 2003) - Import 7 used from $497.84 Books: See all 35 items 2. DYNAMIC POSITIONING SECOND 2ND EDITION by EDITORS (Paperback - 2003) 1 used from $530.00 Books: See all 35 items 3. DYNAMIC POSITIONING SYSTEMS by Fay (Paperback - 2009) 1 used from $180.00 Books: See all 35 items 4. Dynamic positioning treatment: A new approach to customized therapeutic equipment for the developmentally disabled by Eileen Cox (Paperback - 1987) 1 new from $28.00 6 used from $11.34 Books: See all 35 items 5. Shop All Departments Cart Amazon.com: dynamic positioning http://www.amazon.com/s/ref=nb_sb_noss?url=search-alias=ap... 1 of 6 9/9/2011 11:20 AM Page 18
  • 20. Dynamic Positioning of Offshore Vessels by Max J. Morgan (Hardcover - Jun 1978) 8 used from $45.90 Books: See all 35 items 6. Dynamic Positioning Operator Training by D. J. Bray (Spiral-bound - Jan 1, 1999) Out of Print--Limited Availability Books: See all 35 items 7. Dynamic positioning of mobile servers on networks by Oded Berman (Unknown Binding - 1977) Out of Print--Limited Availability Books: See all 35 items 8. Dynamic positioning operator training: Meeting the need (Monograph) by M Williams (Unknown Binding - 1984) Out of Print--Limited Availability Books: See all 35 items 9. Dynamic Positioning Systems by Hubert Fay (Hardcover - Jan 1989) 4 new from $101.99 10 used from $90.60 Books: See all 35 items 10. Zeevaartkunde: Scheepsnavigatie, Zeemanschap, Standaardkompas, Grootcirkel, Cardanische ophanging, Scheepsstabiliteit, Dynamic positioning (Dutch Edition) by Bron: Wikipedia (Paperback - Jul 29, 2011) Buy new: $19.99 Amazon.com: dynamic positioning http://www.amazon.com/s/ref=nb_sb_noss?url=search-alias=ap... 2 of 6 9/9/2011 11:20 AM Page 19
  • 21. Manufacturers Page 20
  • 22. The Dynamic Positioning System (Detailed Info) By IMO Website http://www.imca-int.com/divisions/marine/reference/intro.html Page 21
  • 23. The Dynamic Positioning Committee of The Marine Technology Society Page 22
  • 24. Dynamic Positioning Conference 2011 ADVANCEPROGRAMADVANCEPROGRAM 50 YEARS OF D P dDynamic Positioning Committee Marine Technology Society 50 YEARS OF D P Houston, Texas, USA Conference - October 11-12, 2011 Workshop - Monday October 10, 2011 Houston, Texas, USA Conference - October 11-12, 2011 Workshop - Monday October 10, 2011 Opportunity runs deep™ marine technology S O C I E T Y IMCA North American Arctic Exploration Shell Upstream Americas Ocean NewsOcean News& Technology& Technology& Technology& Technology Page 23
  • 25. ABOUT THE CONFERENCE LOCATION As Dynamic Positioning marks its 50th anniversary, the DP Committee of the Marine Technology Society celebrates its 15th year of consecutive conferences. Recognized as the leading DP Conference in the world, this event provides an annual forum for the discussion and exchange of knowledge, experience, new techn ology and technological know-how associated with the application and evolution of Dynamic Positioning. a session focused on solving the challenges of DP on Ice , and a session covering New Applications. 2011 provides the opportunity to attend an optional full-day Workshop on Monday October 10. This Workshop is focused on the MTS DP Operational Guidance released this year. Note that there is limited space available for the workshop, so please register early if you wish to participate. Register by September 12, 2011 for the early registration Conference discounted rate of $450 for MTS members and $525 for nonmembers ($100 if you are an ACTIVELY SERVING DP Operator). Registration includes technical sessions, lunch both days, evening receptions and online access to the Proceedings. The optional Workshop is offered at $100 per person (free for ACTIVELY SERVING DP Operators registered for the Conference). Please see the next page for more information. Westchase Hilton 9999 Westheimer Houston, TX 77042 713/974-1000 The hotel is located in West Houston at the corner of Westheimer and Briarpark, about half a mile east of the Sam Houston Tollway. Accommodation is available at discounted rates ($149 a night) (Web: http://www.hilton.com, Booking Code MTDP) Visit the website at www.dynamic-positioning.com/hotel.html for a direct link Two days of cutting-edge presentations, exhibits, opportunities for informal discussions, social gatherings and comprehensive Proceedings published on the Internet continue to make the DP Conference a must-attend eventfor DP professionals. From the outstanding number of abstracts received, the Technical Committee has developed an excellent and well-balanced program which will suit the interests of DP professionals, including designers, operators, support staff and vessel managers/owners. This year’s Conference will again provide with advanced reservations. . If booking by phone, state that you are attending the MTS DP Conference. . EARLY REGISTRATION DISCOUNT (BookingCodeMTDP) The Conference is a volunteer-run event and all funds in excess of those required to stage the conference are used for student scholarships and other DP related activities. DYNAMIC POSITIONING CONFERENCE 2011 CONFERENCE SCHEDULE Monday October 10, 2011 Tuesday October 11, 2011 Wednesday October 12, 2011 Workshop Early Bird Reception EARLY REGISTRATION – DP Conference Conference - Day One Awards Luncheon / Operations Workshop Review Evening Cocktail Reception Conference - Day Two Luncheon: United States Coast Guard – Perspective on future DP Operations Conference Wrap up DP COMMITTEE Committee Chairman Howard Shatto, Shatto Engineering Committee Vice Chairman Pete Fougere, Transocean Conference Chairman Chuck Richards, C.A. Richards & Associates Technical Program Chairman - Richard Simpson, bp Vice Chairman - Stephen Browne, Veripos/Subsea 7 Treasurer Dietmar Deter, Nautex Arrangements Brenda Wolak, IHC Merwede America Audio/Video Ted Murphey, Kongsberg Exhibits Stephen Browne, Veripos/Subsea 7 Publicity Liz Stansfeld, Stansfeld & Fairbrother Registration Keith Wyatt, Converteam 50 YEARS OF D P dDynamic Positioning Committee Marine Technology Society 50 YEARS OF D P Advance Program - Subject to change SPONSORS Conference Lunches Cocktail Reception Breakfast Sponsor - Refreshment Breaks Thank you to our sponsors who include: BP North American Arctic Exploration Shell Kongsberg - Workshop DNV - Tuesday IHC Merwede - Wednesday ABB Converteam L-3 Communications Veripos ABS Tuesday & Wednesday Braemar Wavespec C-MAR Group GL Noble Denton Page 24
  • 26. DP 2011 - OPERATIONS WORKSHOP - MONDAY OCTOBER 10, 2011 MTS DP Operations Guidance Document MTS DP Operations Guidance Document consists of the following sections: Part 1 - DP Operations Guidance Part 2 - Appendix 1 - DP MODUs Part 2 - Appendix 2 - Project/Construction Vessels Part 2 - Appendix 3 - Logistical Vessels These documents may be downloaded free of charge from the DP website via: http://www.dynamic-positioning.com Advance Program - Subject to change In response to feedback from attendees of previous DP Conferences, the MTS DP CONFERENCE will be preceded by a one-day workshop focused on the implementation of the MTS DP Operational Guidance. The event will be held at the Westchase Hilton. Attendance is limited to 50 people. Registration for this workshop is separate from the registration for the main Conference and is $100 per attendee (Free for ACTIVELY SERVING DPOs already registered for the DP Conference). Master Mariners and DPOs Consultants Representatives from Vessel Owners’/Contractors’ Technical department (with accountability for DP Operations) Representatives from Operators (Oil Companies) responsible for DP Assurance activities/Project Delivery Training Institutions (Vendor Community) Regulators This session will outline the methodology for developing Activity-Specific Operating Guidelines for DP vessels, embodying the principles provided in the This segment of the workshop is designed as a coaching event. It will provide participants with an awareness and knowledge of what needs to be considered during the development of the ASOG, why it is relevant and how it should be used while executing offshore operations. Industry recognized experts/ specialists will be at hand to work with small teams (6 to 8 participants per team) to provide focused coaching and mentoring. - Sponsored by The second session will take the form of a focused topical discussion. Participants will engage in a brainstorming session with the objective of identifying core elements which contribute to this particular topic. Representative elements are: Complexity of Operations Consequences (Regulatory and Operational) Role of Shore-based Teams Training and Competence Resourcing Constraints Participants will be divided into small teams (6 to 8 participants per team). These teams will address these elements with a view to identifying themes and providing a plan to address the issues. This workshop is structured to be of particular interest to: ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! MTS DP Operations Guidance Document. Kongsberg Early registration for the DP Conference and a reception will be held immediately following the conclusion of the Workshop. 8:00 AM 11:30 AM 1:00 PM 4:30 PM MORNING SESSION - DEVELOPMENT OF ACTIVITY SPECIFIC OPERATING GUIDELINES (ASOG LUNCHEON AFTERNOON SESSION - DECISION SUPPORT DURING EXECUTION OF OFFSHORE PROJECTS CONCLUSION OF WORKSHOP Page 25
  • 27. 7:00 AM Registration Opens/Breakfast 7:15 AM Speakers’ Breakfast 8:00 AM - Howard Shatto, Committee Chair 8:20 AM 8:45 AM Steve Savoy, Cameron Craig (Ensco Offshore) Saurabh Shah, Roberto Costa, Kamal Garg (Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories) Jan Fredrik Hansen, John Lindtjørn, Klaus Vanska (ABB Marine) 9:45 AM Refreshment Break sponsored by Braemar Wavespec 10:15 AM Dr. Richard Stephens (Converteam, UK David Russell (Veripos, USA) Sam Hanton (Nautronix) 12:00 Suman Muddusetti (Shell) 1:30 PM Rudolf Houben (Klingelnberg GmbH) Jukka Varis (ABB Marine) Lars-Erik Saarinen (Rolls Royce) 3:00 PM Refreshment Break - sponsored by MDL 3:30 PM Eduardo Tannuri (Univ. of São Paulo), Carlo Campos, Allan de Oliveira, Diego Corrêa, João Luis da Silva (Petrobras) Nina Gundersen, Rob Heijman, Arne Rinnan (Kongsberg Seatex) Xiaobing Shi (American Global Maritime) Torbjorn Hals (Kongsberg) 5:00 PM ; , - - - - - - - - - - 50 Years of DP/15th Year of the Annual Conference Retrofit and Design of a DP-2 Medium Voltage Protective Relay and Control System - Onboard DC Grid for Enhanced DP Operation of Ships with Low Voltage Power and Propulsion Systems Wind Feed Forward - Blowing Away the Myths Location, Location, Location - Antenna Installation SBL and LBL INS Integration - Options, Challenges and Benefits DP Operations Guidance Document: Workshop Results New Dimensions in Bevel Gear Production Good Experiences in DP Drilling Operation - Electrical Pod Thrusters are aiming for Extended Maintenance Intervals Condition Monitoring for Rolls-Royce Azimuth Thrusters Utilization of Numerical Simulation Tools for Aiding DP Operations Decisions Qualification of a SIMOPS Management Tool Operability Study for DP Vessel Operation at a Deepwater Spar - A Decision Support Tool INTRODUCTION KEYNOTE SPEAKER - Robert Patterson - Vice President, Projects - Shell America Upstream POWER SENSORS 1 LUNCHEON & AWARDS THRUSTERS NEW APPLICATIONS COCKTAIL RECEPTION - Sponsored by: (Session Chair: Jonathan Davis, BP) (Session Chair: Dietmar Deter, Nautex) (Session Chair: Brian Haycock, DP Expertise) (Session Chair: Steve Cargill, GL Noble Denton) - ) BP North American Arctic Exploration DP 2011 - DAY ONE - TUESDAY OCTOBER 11, 2011 Advance Program - Subject to change AUTOMATION, INC. - MARINE DIVISION communications Dynamic Positioning and Control Systems 3 Page 26
  • 28. 7:00 AM sponsored by 7:15 AM 8:15 AM - Nagi Abdussamie (Alfateh University, Tripoli, Libya) - Anawat Pongpunwattana (L-3 Communications) - Jin Woo Choi (DSME) 9:45 AM sponsored by the C-MAR Group 10:15 AM - James Millan (Institute for Ocean Technology, National Research Council Canada) - Torbjørn Hals (Kongsberg Maritime) Fredrik Efraimsson (Stena Rederi) 11:30 AM 1:00 PM - Ian Giddings (IMCA) - Chris Jenman (Global Maritime) - Einar Ole Hansen (Rolls-Royce Marine) 2:30 PM sponsored by GL Noble Denton 3:00 PM - Mark Carter (Sonardyne International) - Arne Rinnan (Kongsberg Seatex) - Suman Muddusetti, (Shell) 4:45 PM - Howard Shatto, DP Committee Chair Registration/Breakfast - Speakers’ Breakfast Refreshment Break - Refreshment Break - CDR Josh Reynolds (USCG) 4:00 PM CONTROLS ICE TESTING LUNCHEON OPERATIONS SENSORS 2 DESIGN GUIDANCE (Session Chair: Nick Cranch, DP Technical Authority, BP Shipping) (Session Chair: Marco Wigny, ExxonMobil Development Company) (Session Chair: Alan Adamson (Chevron) (Session Chair: Trent Martin, Transocean) CONFERENCE WRAP UP Criticality Analysis of DP OSV using Fuzzy Logic Approach DP Control Compensation for Actuator Failure and Saturation Simulation of Vessel DP Operations inline with Ballast Control System Ice Force Estimation for DP Control Systems DP Ice Model Test of Arctic Drillship DP Operations - A United States Coast Guard Perspective - Annual Dynamic Positioning Trials for Dynamically Positioned Vessels DP, Past, Present and Future DP Dependability DP-INS - A Paradigm Shift? Operational GNSS Integrity MTS DP Design Guidance Introduction 2011 DP Conference Wrap Up - - sponsored by IHC Merwede DP 2011 - DAY TWO - WEDNESDAY OCTOBER 12, 2011 Shell Upstream Americas GL Noble Denton Advance Program - Subject to change AMERICA jj M R DE EE W Page 27
  • 29. SPONSOR PACKAGE EXHIBIT PACKAGE DELIVERY AND SHIPPING Please consider adding your company name to the list of sponsors. Lunch Sponsors ($3000), Evening Reception Sponsors ($2000) and Breakfast Sponsors ($1,000) are still available. All sponsors are recognized on the web site, in the printed Conference material and at the Conference. To become a sponsor, please contact Liz Stansfeld at (512) 301- 2744 Two connected areas of exhibit space adjacent to the conference room provide maximum exposure to conference delegates and generous booth spaces for exhibitors. Refreshment breaks and the cocktail reception are all hosted in and around the exhibit areas. 1 C & C Technologies 2 & 3 Kongsberg 4 Veripos 5 L-3 DP&CS 6 Thrustmaster of Texas 7 MDL 8 & 9 Fugro 10 Converteam 11 Guidance Navigation 12 Sonardyne 13 Marine Cybernetics 14 GL Noble Denton 15 Braemar Wavespec 16 Rolls-Royce 17 Beier Radio 18 SEL 19 Siemens Oil &Gas Company 20 PREVCO 21 Forum Energy 22 C-MAR 23 Nautronix 24 ADC 25 & 26 ABB Two full conference passes Generous space with ample traffic room 110 VAC electric power. Exhibitors should bring their own power strips and cords, Tables, two chairs and drapes provided. Access to proceedings and attendee list following the conference. Recognition in printed material, at the Conference and on the web site. Conference exhibit space for 2011 is sold out. Ship exhibit material to: Westchase Hilton, 9999 Westheimer Houston, TX 77042 Attn: Do not ship materials to arrive earlier than October 10, 2011. To sponsor or for more information, contact Liz Stansfeld, Stansfeld & Fairbrother (512) 301-2744, or Hold For DP Conference 2011 EXHIBITORS Exhibitors info@dynamic- positioning.com ! ! ! ! ! ! SPONSORING AND EXHIBITING AT DP 2011 Advance Program - Subject to change REFRESHMENTS MEETING ROOM 5 6 7 8 9 4 3 2 10 11 1 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 WESTWIND EXHIBIT HALL OMNI A REFRESHMENTS Booked - Space is now sold out Page 28
  • 30. Register by September 12, 2011 to take advantage of the early registration discount Full Conference Registration One-Day Registration Workshop Registration (limited to first 50 paid registrants) Register online at:and pay http://www.dynamic-positioning.com: If you wish to pay by credit card, please pay online through the web site at http://www.dynamic-positioning.com Members of MTS $450.00 After : $550.00 Nonmembers:* After : $625.00 *Nonmembers’ registration fee includes a one-year membership to the Marine Technology Society. check payable to to: MTS DP Committee c/o Stansfeld & Fairbrother, Inc. 9300 Sandstone St. Austin, TX 78737 Name: ____________________________________________________________________________________________ Company: ____________________________________________________________________________________________ Street Address: ____________________________________________________________________________________________ City: ____________________________________State/Province:_________________Postal Code_________________ Country: __________________________________________________ Day Phone: __________________Fax:___________________ Email:________________________________________ Full Conference One day (If one day, state day:________________________) Workshop To access the Proceedings on line, please specify a user name (must be an email address) and password: (You do need to complete this if you already have a user name and password). Email__________________________________Password:____________________ If paying by check, make check payable to DP Committee. and mail to: MTS DP Committee By September 12, 2011 September 12 By September 12, 2011 September 12 Licensed and active DPOs, $100.00 Lifetime MTS Members $100.00 Full-time Students $ 50.00 Members of MTS: $250.00 By September 12, 2011 After September 12: $300.00 Nonmembers:* $325.00 By September 12, 2011 After September 12: $375.00 Licensed and active DP Operators No Charge All other attendees: $100.00 or mail this form with a c/o Stansfeld & Fairbrother, Inc. 9300 Sandstone St. Austin, TX 78737 $525.00 MTS DP Committee Conference Attendance: Registration Information: Please check all that apply: not MTS Member DP Operator (Vessel Name:_________________________) Studentq q q q q q 777 N. Eldridge Pkwy., Suite 280 Houston, Texas 77079 ONLINE REGISTRATION www.dynamic-positioning.com/registration.cfm The fastest and easiest way to register is online at REGISTRATION FOR DP 2011 Advance Program - Subject to change 50 YEARS OF D P dDynamic Positioning Committee Marine Technology Society 50 YEARS OF D P Page 29
  • 31. Credit: Unitech Control & Engineering Pte Ltd & AHTES Have a nice days The End

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