Effective Implementation ofMeaning-focused Output Activitiesfor Japanese EFL LearnersMari Yamauchi & Takako HashimotoChiba...
• Producing a meaningful output (or trying to doit) can help learners to“stretch their inter-language.”(cf.Swain 1995,Swai...
• Blogging was used to give more opportunities forstudents not ready for communication in English to useEnglish meaningful...
Why BloggingMore naturalthan submittinga compositionEasier forshier studentsthan oralcommunicationBlogging can help builda...
• Blogging was used to give more opportunities forstudents not ready for communication in English touse English meaningful...
Language exerciseadapted fromStudents’ postsgiven as a form ofcorrective feedbackBlogpostF-on-F13年6月7日金曜日
• Basic word order :S +V + α• Predicate structures :BE + -ing,voice, to-infinitive,etc.• Conjunctions & subordinate clause...
1)My golden week is spring tennis tournament.However, 2)I am seldom pleasure. 3)Because,its gose to yamanashi prefecture 4...
• Blogging was used to give more opportunities forstudents not ready for communication in English touse English meaningful...
Self-introductionGWFree timeEclipseJapan (Video)Places to visit (SonicPics)Sightseeing toursTravelSummer vacationIndiaScho...
Blogging & In-class ActivitiesReadingWatchingPairworkF-on-FTopicAReadingWatchingPairworkF-on-FTopicBBlogpostBlogpost13年6月7...
Blogging & In-class ActivitiesReadingWatchingPairworkF-on-FTopicAReadingWatchingPairworkF-on-FTopicBBlogpostBlogpostClass1...
Blogging & In-class ActivitiesReadingWatchingPrepin PairTopic C (A Sonic Pics Project)F-on-FPrepBlogpostRecordingin PairCo...
Blogging & In-class ActivitiesReadingWatchingPrepin PairTopic C (A Sonic Pics Project)F-on-FPrepBlogpostClass1 Class2Home ...
Prepin PairRecordingin PairBlogpost13年6月7日金曜日
SonicPics (1)Makea storyboard& look for goodimages(in pair)Prepin PairRecordingin PairBlogpost13年6月7日金曜日
SonicPics (1)Makea storyboard& look for goodimages(in pair)SonicPics (2)Use the appto add the images& record the talkPrepi...
SonicPics (1)Makea storyboard& look for goodimages(in pair)SonicPics (2)Use the appto add the images& record the talkSonic...
Results & Discussion13年6月7日金曜日
Satisfied with bloggingSatisfied with pairworkSatisfied with making moviesBlogging helps improve my English0 5 10 15 20489...
Look up words more often nowProductive vocabulary increasedMore aware of grammar nowMore used to using English nowWant to ...
05101520Satisfied with grammar exercises5662112345602.557.510Preferred types of corrective feedback15104Implicit FB in Eng...
Items ComparedInitial(Ave. of1st & 2nd)FinalIndividuals whoshowed changesNumber ofTokens / Entry52.7 96.4Increased :21 (/2...
Items ComparedInitial(Ave. of1st & 2nd)FinalIndividuals whoshowed changesNumber ofTokens / Entry52.7 96.4Increased :21 (/2...
Items ComparedInitial(Ave. of1st & 2nd)FinalIndividuals whoshowed changesNumber ofTokens / Entry52.7 96.4Increased :21 (/2...
Items ComparedInitial(Ave. of1st & 2nd)FinalIndividuals whoshowed changesNumber ofTokens / Entry52.7 96.4Increased :21 (/2...
Items ComparedInitial(Ave. of1st & 2nd)FinalIndividuals whoshowed changesNumber ofTokens / Entry52.7 96.4Increased :21 (/2...
Items ComparedInitial(Ave. of1st & 2nd)FinalIndividuals whoshowed changesNumber ofTokens / Entry52.7 96.4Increased :21 (/2...
Hi, my name is *** ***. / Please call me ***. / Im from Chiba inFunabashi. / My hobby is listen to music and playing socce...
Hi, my name is *** ***. / Please call me ***. / Im from Chiba inFunabashi. / My hobby is listen to music and playing socce...
I want to read comic or novel and to watch PC, to go totrip. / I usually read long story comic and old comic. / Forexample...
I want to read comic or novel and to watch PC, to go totrip. / I usually read long story comic and old comic. / Forexample...
0246810Over20% 0-20% ±0 0-20% Over20%Decreased Increased# of SsChanges in Ratio ofT-Units with Errors /TotalT-Units13年6月7日...
❖Survey shows:• Students were generally satisfied with output activities• They feel blogging helps improve their English• ...
Blog Data Analysis ToolDeveloped to make this error analysis moreprecise and efficient enough to be conductedon a regular ...
• Developing Environment• Java + Scala• IntelliJ• Two jar files: ReadXML.jar & BlogMorpho.jarReadXML.jarBlogMorpho.jarXMLfil...
ReadXML.jarOutput : CSV format fileID, Key-Tag,Title, Name(Author),BodyText,Tags (Labels) for each entryXML filefrom Blogger...
BlogMorho.jar(1) Keyword List(2) Term Matrix(3) Summary for Analysis 113年6月7日金曜日
(4) Summary for Analysis 2Formanualchecking13年6月7日金曜日
AcknowledgementThis work was supported by a kakenhi Grant-in-Aid forScientific Research (23520696) from the Japan Societyf...
References•Campbell, C., Kikuchi, A. & Palmer, R. (2006). Bridging the Gap Between CLT Theoryand Practice in a Japanese Ju...
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Effective Implementation of Meaning-focused Output Activities for Japanese EFL Learners

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  1. 1. Effective Implementation ofMeaning-focused Output Activitiesfor Japanese EFL LearnersMari Yamauchi & Takako HashimotoChiba University of CommerceJALTCALL 2013, June 1, Matsumoto 13年6月7日金曜日
  2. 2. • Producing a meaningful output (or trying to doit) can help learners to“stretch their inter-language.”(cf.Swain 1995,Swain & Lapkin 1997)• Less emphasis has traditionally been placed onoutput activities than input activities. (Sakamoto2005)• Explanation of grammar, decontextualizeddrill exercise, word-to-word translation seemto be still widely used in EFL classrooms.(Sakamoto 2005, Cambell & Kikuchi 2006,Nishino 2011)Why Focus on Output13年6月7日金曜日
  3. 3. • Blogging was used to give more opportunities forstudents not ready for communication in English to useEnglish meaningfully/productively (outside class)• Language-focused exercises were given in place ofcorrective feedback to their writing shared on thestudent blog (in class)• Topics for blogging were used also for simpleconversation tasks (in class)• Creating movies in pair (with iPad & SonicPics) wasused as multi-skill activities including searching,reading, writing & speaking (in & outside class)•Meaningful Output & F-on-F13年6月7日金曜日
  4. 4. Why BloggingMore naturalthan submittinga compositionEasier forshier studentsthan oralcommunicationBlogging can help builda learner community, promotingmore active participation in class13年6月7日金曜日
  5. 5. • Blogging was used to give more opportunities forstudents not ready for communication in English touse English meaningfully/productively (outside class)• Language-focused exercises were given in place ofcorrective feedback to their writing shared on thestudent blog (in class)• Topics for blogging were used also for simpleconversation tasks (in class)• Creating movies in pair (with iPad & SonicPics) wasused as multi-skill activities including searching,reading, writing & speaking (in & outside class)Meaning-focused Output & F-on-F13年6月7日金曜日
  6. 6. Language exerciseadapted fromStudents’ postsgiven as a form ofcorrective feedbackBlogpostF-on-F13年6月7日金曜日
  7. 7. • Basic word order :S +V + α• Predicate structures :BE + -ing,voice, to-infinitive,etc.• Conjunctions & subordinate clauses• Adjectival phrases/clausesGrammar Points Stressed throughout the CourseF-on-F13年6月7日金曜日
  8. 8. 1)My golden week is spring tennis tournament.However, 2)I am seldom pleasure. 3)Because,its gose to yamanashi prefecture 4)when theworst in order to play a game. Otherwise, 5)itworks from a byte. (26)I 6)went to the Golden Week holidays in Ibaraki.I went in there one night and two days becausethere is a friends house. I went to 7)takebamboo shoots can be taken because there wasa forest near a friends house. In addition, weenjoyed going out shopping 8)to sightseeingMito. Holiday was enhanced. However, I wouldlike 9)to slowly break now so cold. (62)1) SV2) Predicate3) Subordinate3) SV3) Predicate4) ?? (Subordinate)5) SV6) Predicate7) Predicate8) to-Infinitive?Conjunctions?9) ?? (Predicate)Examples of ErrorTypes Counted inWritingAnalysis13年6月7日金曜日
  9. 9. • Blogging was used to give more opportunities forstudents not ready for communication in English touse English meaningfully/productively (outside class)• Language-focused exercises were given in place ofcorrective feedback to their writing shared on thestudent blog (in class)• Topics for blogging were used also for pair worke.g. conversation & interviews (in class)• Creating movies in pair (with iPad & SonicPics) wasused as multi-skill activities including searching,reading, writing & speaking (in & outside class)Meaning-focused Output & F-on-F13年6月7日金曜日
  10. 10. Self-introductionGWFree timeEclipseJapan (Video)Places to visit (SonicPics)Sightseeing toursTravelSummer vacationIndiaSchool FestivalWatching moviesMovie Review (SonicPics)Winter vacationYear 2012Topics covered13年6月7日金曜日
  11. 11. Blogging & In-class ActivitiesReadingWatchingPairworkF-on-FTopicAReadingWatchingPairworkF-on-FTopicBBlogpostBlogpost13年6月7日金曜日
  12. 12. Blogging & In-class ActivitiesReadingWatchingPairworkF-on-FTopicAReadingWatchingPairworkF-on-FTopicBBlogpostBlogpostClass1 Class2 ClassHome Home13年6月7日金曜日
  13. 13. Blogging & In-class ActivitiesReadingWatchingPrepin PairTopic C (A Sonic Pics Project)F-on-FPrepBlogpostRecordingin PairComment13年6月7日金曜日
  14. 14. Blogging & In-class ActivitiesReadingWatchingPrepin PairTopic C (A Sonic Pics Project)F-on-FPrepBlogpostClass1 Class2Home HomeRecordingin PairCommentClass313年6月7日金曜日
  15. 15. Prepin PairRecordingin PairBlogpost13年6月7日金曜日
  16. 16. SonicPics (1)Makea storyboard& look for goodimages(in pair)Prepin PairRecordingin PairBlogpost13年6月7日金曜日
  17. 17. SonicPics (1)Makea storyboard& look for goodimages(in pair)SonicPics (2)Use the appto add the images& record the talkPrepin PairRecordingin PairBlogpost13年6月7日金曜日
  18. 18. SonicPics (1)Makea storyboard& look for goodimages(in pair)SonicPics (2)Use the appto add the images& record the talkSonicPics (3)Share the videowith the scriptin a blog postPrepin PairRecordingin PairBlogpost13年6月7日金曜日
  19. 19. Results & Discussion13年6月7日金曜日
  20. 20. Satisfied with bloggingSatisfied with pairworkSatisfied with making moviesBlogging helps improve my English0 5 10 15 204894123352637112412301 2 3 4 5 61. S’s were generally satisfied with output activitiesStrongly disagree ................................. Strongly agree4.854.454.654.7013年6月7日金曜日
  21. 21. Look up words more often nowProductive vocabulary increasedMore aware of grammar nowMore used to using English nowWant to learn English more0 5 10 15 2000000143211296910771199Agree Sort ofAgree Sort of Disagree Disagree2.Positive changes in how they use & learn English13年6月7日金曜日
  22. 22. 05101520Satisfied with grammar exercises5662112345602.557.510Preferred types of corrective feedback15104Implicit FB in English in a commentExplicit FB in JapaneseImplicit FB in rev.worksheetOther3.Satisfied with F-on-F; Want explicit correction4.6613年6月7日金曜日
  23. 23. Items ComparedInitial(Ave. of1st & 2nd)FinalIndividuals whoshowed changesNumber ofTokens / Entry52.7 96.4Increased :21 (/22)Ratio ofT-Units with Errors/TotalT-Units27.5% 20.7%Decreased:15 (/22)4. Changes in Students’Writing (Preliminary)13年6月7日金曜日
  24. 24. Items ComparedInitial(Ave. of1st & 2nd)FinalIndividuals whoshowed changesNumber ofTokens / Entry52.7 96.4Increased :21 (/22)Ratio ofT-Units with Errors/TotalT-Units27.5% 20.7%Decreased:15 (/22)4. Changes in Students’Writing (Preliminary)Notes(1) Ss were encouragedto write as much as they could,- 50 words or more at the initial stage- 80 words or more at the final stage13年6月7日金曜日
  25. 25. Items ComparedInitial(Ave. of1st & 2nd)FinalIndividuals whoshowed changesNumber ofTokens / Entry52.7 96.4Increased :21 (/22)Ratio ofT-Units with Errors/TotalT-Units27.5% 20.7%Decreased:15 (/22)4. Changes in Students’Writing (Preliminary)Notes(1) Ss were encouragedto write as much as they could,- 50 words or more at the initial stage- 80 words or more at the final stageNotes(2) The initial writing was done at homeThe final writing was done as a part ofthe term-end exam (in approx.20 mins)13年6月7日金曜日
  26. 26. Items ComparedInitial(Ave. of1st & 2nd)FinalIndividuals whoshowed changesNumber ofTokens / Entry52.7 96.4Increased :21 (/22)Ratio ofT-Units with Errors/TotalT-Units27.5% 20.7%Decreased:15 (/22)4. Changes in Students’Writing (Preliminary)13年6月7日金曜日
  27. 27. Items ComparedInitial(Ave. of1st & 2nd)FinalIndividuals whoshowed changesNumber ofTokens / Entry52.7 96.4Increased :21 (/22)Ratio ofT-Units with Errors/TotalT-Units27.5% 20.7%Decreased:15 (/22)4. Changes in Students’Writing (Preliminary)13年6月7日金曜日
  28. 28. Items ComparedInitial(Ave. of1st & 2nd)FinalIndividuals whoshowed changesNumber ofTokens / Entry52.7 96.4Increased :21 (/22)Ratio ofT-Units with Errors/TotalT-Units27.5% 20.7%Decreased:15 (/22)4. Changes in Students’Writing (Preliminary)13年6月7日金曜日
  29. 29. Hi, my name is *** ***. / Please call me ***. / Im from Chiba inFunabashi. / My hobby is listen to music and playing soccer. /My favorite artist is Superfly and BUMP OF CHIKEN. / I wasmember of the soccer club for nine years. / But, soccer is notgood ...I went to the Golden Week holidays in Ibaraki. / I went inthere one night and two days because there is a friendshouse. / I went to take bamboo shoots can be taken becausethere was a forest near a friends house. / In addition, weenjoyed going out shopping to sightseeing Mito. / Holidaywas enhanced. / However, I would like to slowly break now socold.#1 Self Introduction : 48 wds, Ratio of T-units w/ errors = 2/7#2 GW Holidays: 62 words, Ratio of T-units with errors = 5/6Positive Changes in a Student’s Writing13年6月7日金曜日
  30. 30. Hi, my name is *** ***. / Please call me ***. / Im from Chiba inFunabashi. / My hobby is listen to music and playing soccer. /My favorite artist is Superfly and BUMP OF CHIKEN. / I wasmember of the soccer club for nine years. / But, soccer is notgood ...I went to the Golden Week holidays in Ibaraki. / I went inthere one night and two days because there is a friendshouse. / I went to take bamboo shoots can be taken becausethere was a forest near a friends house. / In addition, weenjoyed going out shopping to sightseeing Mito. / Holidaywas enhanced. / However, I would like to slowly break now socold.#1 Self Introduction : 48 wds, Ratio of T-units w/ errors = 2/7#2 GW Holidays: 62 words, Ratio of T-units with errors = 5/6Initial WritingWords : 110/2 = 55Ratio of T-units w/ E : 7/13 = 54%Positive Changes in a Student’s Writing13年6月7日金曜日
  31. 31. I want to read comic or novel and to watch PC, to go totrip. / I usually read long story comic and old comic. / Forexample, One Piece and Hagane no Renkinzyutusi. (0.5) Iwas impressed by these books. /I like to watch PC every day. / My favorite website isNico Nico Douga. / I belonged premium member last year. /I watched vocaloid and official animations. /I like to go to trip in my free time. / I belongedYouthHostel club. / I went to Okinawa and Hokkaido last year. / Ithink I want to go to Kagawa and Kouchi in this year./ Because Iwant to see Setonaikai.(0.5) / This river is very nice view./But I have never gone this river. / Next year has to findwork. / So I want to go to several good place and nice viewplace.“My favorite things”:132 words,Ratio ofT-units w/ errors = 2/16 = 13 %Positive Changes in a Student’s Writing13年6月7日金曜日
  32. 32. I want to read comic or novel and to watch PC, to go totrip. / I usually read long story comic and old comic. / Forexample, One Piece and Hagane no Renkinzyutusi. (0.5) Iwas impressed by these books. /I like to watch PC every day. / My favorite website isNico Nico Douga. / I belonged premium member last year. /I watched vocaloid and official animations. /I like to go to trip in my free time. / I belongedYouthHostel club. / I went to Okinawa and Hokkaido last year. / Ithink I want to go to Kagawa and Kouchi in this year./ Because Iwant to see Setonaikai.(0.5) / This river is very nice view./But I have never gone this river. / Next year has to findwork. / So I want to go to several good place and nice viewplace.“My favorite things”:132 words,Ratio ofT-units w/ errors = 2/16 = 13 %Final WritingWords : 132Ratio of T-units w/ E : 2/16 = 13%Positive Changes in a Student’s Writing13年6月7日金曜日
  33. 33. 0246810Over20% 0-20% ±0 0-20% Over20%Decreased Increased# of SsChanges in Ratio ofT-Units with Errors /TotalT-Units13年6月7日金曜日
  34. 34. ❖Survey shows:• Students were generally satisfied with output activities• They feel blogging helps improve their English• Positive changes in how they use &learn English werereported• They were satisfied with language exercises,butwantedexplicitcorrection directly to their output❖Preliminary analysis of their initial and final writingdata indicates some reduction in the percentage of T-units with stressed error types• ErrortypesshouldbebetterdefinedSummary13年6月7日金曜日
  35. 35. Blog Data Analysis ToolDeveloped to make this error analysis moreprecise and efficient enough to be conductedon a regular basis13年6月7日金曜日
  36. 36. • Developing Environment• Java + Scala• IntelliJ• Two jar files: ReadXML.jar & BlogMorpho.jarReadXML.jarBlogMorpho.jarXMLfileCSVfileKeyword listTerm matrixSummary (type1)Summary (type2)13年6月7日金曜日
  37. 37. ReadXML.jarOutput : CSV format fileID, Key-Tag,Title, Name(Author),BodyText,Tags (Labels) for each entryXML filefrom BloggerCSV file13年6月7日金曜日
  38. 38. BlogMorho.jar(1) Keyword List(2) Term Matrix(3) Summary for Analysis 113年6月7日金曜日
  39. 39. (4) Summary for Analysis 2Formanualchecking13年6月7日金曜日
  40. 40. AcknowledgementThis work was supported by a kakenhi Grant-in-Aid forScientific Research (23520696) from the Japan Societyfor the Promotion of Science.13年6月7日金曜日
  41. 41. References•Campbell, C., Kikuchi, A. & Palmer, R. (2006). Bridging the Gap Between CLT Theoryand Practice in a Japanese Junior High School. 関西大学外国語教育研究, 12, 1-20.•坂本優美子. (2005) 日本の公立高校英語教師のCLTと伝統的な教授法に対する態度, 摂南大学教育研究, 1, 53-74.•Swain, M. (1995). Three functions of output in second language learning in Cook, G.& Seidelhofer, B. (Eds.), Principle and Practice in Applied Linguistics: Studies in Honorof H. G. Widdowson/Oxford University Press, pp.125-144.•Swain, M. and Lapkin, S. (1995). Problems in output and the cognitive processes theygenerate. step towards second language learning. Applied Linguistics, 16, 371-391.•Yamauchi, M. (2011). Effective Implementation of a Class Blog in the TraditionalClassroom Setting: Toward More Learner-centered EFL Instruction. GloCALL 2011,Manila. October 29, 2011.•Yamauchi, M., Stout, M. (2012) Effective Implementation of Student Blogging.CONAPLIN 5, Bandung. September 24, 2012•山内真理, 内田充美. (2011). 日本人英語学習者の中間言語にみられるL1の痕跡. 千葉商大紀要 49(1), 43-55.13年6月7日金曜日

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