Overcoming Barriersto Student Engagement in Using English Online        Mari Yamauchi & Mitsumi Uchida            JALT CAL...
LEARN ENGLISH BY USING IT•   English is a tool, not just a subject to study•   6 years of learning only in school = 900   ...
GOALS OF THE ONGOING RESEARCH• To   create opportunities for non-English majors to use English outside of school• Topropos...
PLATFORMS BEING CONSIDERED            Teacher’s Cellphone               Multi-   Organized Freer          Closed    Open  ...
CUC 2B• Themes     covered in textbook    U6 See You in Cyberspace!    U7 Love in the Virtual World    U8 The Wonderful Wo...
MOODLE COURSE: CUC 2B                                                    25 2nd-year students                             ...
Networked* forums for interschool                                           discussions (Moodle Project)                  ...
CUC 1D• Themes    covered in textbook     U7    How are you feeling?     U8    I have sprained my ankle     U9    Take me ...
MOODLE COURSE: CUC 1D                                      33 1st-year students                      Preparations for the ...
OPU B2• Themes    covered in textbook     Ch8 Water     Ch9 The Marsh Arabs     Ch10 Stepping Out     Ch11 Medicine     Ch...
MOODLE COURSE: OPU              25 1st-year students                              Writing assignments (Individual)• uchida
POSSIBLE BARRIERS TO STUDENT  PARTICIPATION IN AN ONLINE ENGLISH-          USING ENVIRONMENT(1) Students’ limited computer...
TO OVERCOME THE POSSIBLE BARRIERS      TO STUDENT PARTICIPATION(1) Students’ limited computer experience(2) The classroom ...
(1) & (2) ← EASY-TO-FOLLOW                       INSTRUCTIONS & HELP• In-class instructions + a projector + handouts• Onli...
Learning Support System (OPU)                 Students are enrolled to all their                    moodle courses by defa...
Learning Support System (OPU)             Help/Manuals are            provided on the site
Hands-on Instruction using iPad           (OPU)
TO OVERCOME THE POSSIBLE BARRIERS       TO STUDENT PARTICIPATION(1) Students’ limited computer experience(2) The classroom...
(3) ← LANGUAGE HELP : EXAMPLES
(3) ← LANGUAGE HELP : PARAPHRASES
(3) ← LANGUAGE HELP : FEED-BACK MEMOS (OPU)• Uchida
(3) ← LANGUAGE HELP : VOCABULARY
(3) ← LINK BETWEEN CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES &              FORUM POSTING                                  Post the prep work  ...
TO OVERCOME THE POSSIBLE BARRIERS      TO STUDENT PARTICIPATION(1) Students’ limited computer experience(2) The classroom ...
(4) ← 2-WEEK UNITS TO ENCOURAGE INTERACTION            AMONG STUDENTS (OPU)                                  week 1: posti...
(4) ← FORCED SUBSCRIPTION TO GIVE POSITIVE PRESSURE                       (OPU)                                     They k...
(4) ← GROUP WORK TO PROMOTE COMMUNICATION              AMONG STUDENTS
OUTCOMES (& 2011 IMPROVEMENTS)(1) Students’ limited computer experience    → The biggest challenge(2) The classroom with l...
PARTICIPATION: MOODLE FORUM POSTING              CUC 1D                               CUC 2B                        OPUTop...
COMPUTER SKILLS - BIGGEST CHALLENGE OPU: All the 37 students enrolled by admin CUC: Enrollment was difficult               ...
MOODLE MAY NOT BE VERY USER-FRIENDLY          FOR SOME STUDENTS                                    Was Moodle easy to use?...
I don’t often use computers.   Wish I could have used my phone!                                             I don’t want t...
Which would you like to use         Which do you think is easier  for online discussions?             to use, Moodle or SN...
CLASSROOM SETTING WOULDN’T MATTER       ONCE THEY HAVE JOINED                   Want to do more              Feel a bit em...
CLASSROOM SETTING WOULDN’T MATTER       ONCE THEY HAVE JOINED     Very good idea           4%                          Goo...
STUDENTS WANTED MORE LANGUAGE   HELP AND LANGUAGE EXERCISEComment on the content           Correct mistakes               ...
STUDENTS WANTED MORE LANGUAGE   HELP AND LANGUAGE EXERCISE    /01)II0*34*5"J)?408E;)*58""     A=4BB08C"@)16F=762GEH26II62"...
MANY ENJOYED INTERACTIONS WITH PEOPLE  Getting comments motivate me to write      Want comments from many people          ...
MANY ENJOYED INTERACTIONS WITH PEOPLE        I"29F8=25"-9:21/6;9<"@-:>"E28E02"G184"                   8:>21"79-.213-;23"  ...
STUDENTS ARE INTERESTED IN INTERACTION                                        Writing Topics Writing   1   2   3    4    5...
OTHER MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS:                 INTRINSIC & EXTRINSICTopic 1                                                  ...
?@/31"6)>"/(*5451*5:"/("                 ;55:<.3+"=4>"*85"*5.3854"                     6(*54.37(",/*8"*854"               ...
OTHER MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS:          INTRINSIC & EXTRINSICOnce they have joined, they will like it. To get themstarted, ex...
?@/31"6)>"/(*5451*5:"/("                 ;55:<.3+"=4>"*85"*5.3854"                     6(*54.37(",/*8"*854"               ...
SUMMARY1. Moodle is great for for creating a secure online environment  where students are engaged in activities controlle...
2011 IMPROVEMENTS• Easy   start with email posting (Blogger)• Moodle     Quizzes• Focus-on-form    sessions in class• Feed...
20110605 kurume jaltcall_yamauchi_uchida.key
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  • 20110605 kurume jaltcall_yamauchi_uchida.key

    1. 1. Overcoming Barriersto Student Engagement in Using English Online Mari Yamauchi & Mitsumi Uchida JALT CALL 2011 Kurume June 5, 2011
    2. 2. LEARN ENGLISH BY USING IT• English is a tool, not just a subject to study• 6 years of learning only in school = 900 hours → not enough• Using English outside of school is necessary
    3. 3. GOALS OF THE ONGOING RESEARCH• To create opportunities for non-English majors to use English outside of school• Topropose practicable ways to connect learning between in and outside of class - esp. where there’s limited access to ICT in the classroom
    4. 4. PLATFORMS BEING CONSIDERED Teacher’s Cellphone Multi- Organized Freer Closed Open Grading readiness compatibility media activities activities community community Moodle BloggerPosterous TumblrFacebook Twitter Mixi
    5. 5. CUC 2B• Themes covered in textbook U6 See You in Cyberspace! U7 Love in the Virtual World U8 The Wonderful World of English(es) U10 Be Critical News Consumer U11 Whats Your Carbon Footprint? U12 Ecotourism• Topics for Moodle forum activities 1. How was your vacation? Moodle Project 2. On social networking 1. Ban smoking 3. On online dating 2. Cellphones for high schoolers 4. Will you need English in the 3. Business hours for convenience stores future? 4. Mr. Fuji for World Heritage 5. What’s your carbon footprint? 5. Toll-free expressways 6. Digital publication 7. Lower the voting age 8. English for business communications 9. Use more SNS 10. Increase classes in English
    6. 6. MOODLE COURSE: CUC 2B 25 2nd-year students Writing assignments (Individual)“Moodle Project” : Cross-school Discussions (Individual) Preparations for the next unit (Group)
    7. 7. Networked* forums for interschool discussions (Moodle Project) *MNet (Moodle Network)A Practical Study on Collaborative Foreign Language Learning by Linking Multiple LMS’s(2009-2011, <Kakenhi> (C) 215205820001, Harashima)
    8. 8. CUC 1D• Themes covered in textbook U7 How are you feeling? U8 I have sprained my ankle U9 Take me out to the movies U10 To read a book or not? U11 From earth with love U12 Go with chopsticks U13 Shall we dance? U14 What is “Yellow day” for?• Topics for Moodle forum activities 1. How was your vacation? 2. School festival/ My favorite movie 3. Travel abroad/ My reading experience 4. 24-hour convenience store operations 5. What does your family do for fun in the winter time? 6. How inconvenient would it be if there were no mobile phones?
    9. 9. MOODLE COURSE: CUC 1D 33 1st-year students Preparations for the next unit (Group)• yamauchi Writing assignments (Individual)
    10. 10. OPU B2• Themes covered in textbook Ch8 Water Ch9 The Marsh Arabs Ch10 Stepping Out Ch11 Medicine Ch12 The Saami Ch13 Penguin Feather Fabric• Topics for Moodle forum activities 1. About myself 2. How was your vacation? 3. Plans for winter vacation 4. Christmas and new year at home 5. Travel abroad/ My reading experience 6. New year’s resolutions 7. How inconvenient would it be if there were no mobile phones?
    11. 11. MOODLE COURSE: OPU 25 1st-year students Writing assignments (Individual)• uchida
    12. 12. POSSIBLE BARRIERS TO STUDENT PARTICIPATION IN AN ONLINE ENGLISH- USING ENVIRONMENT(1) Students’ limited computer experience(2) The classroom with limited access to ICT(3) Students’ negative feelings about learning/ using English(4) Students’ uneasiness to share their opinions
    13. 13. TO OVERCOME THE POSSIBLE BARRIERS TO STUDENT PARTICIPATION(1) Students’ limited computer experience(2) The classroom with limited access to ICT(3) Students’ negative feelings about learning/ using English(4) Students’ uneasiness to share their opinions
    14. 14. (1) & (2) ← EASY-TO-FOLLOW INSTRUCTIONS & HELP• In-class instructions + a projector + handouts• Online tutorials slides
    15. 15. Learning Support System (OPU) Students are enrolled to all their moodle courses by default• Uchida OPU (1)(2)
    16. 16. Learning Support System (OPU) Help/Manuals are provided on the site
    17. 17. Hands-on Instruction using iPad (OPU)
    18. 18. TO OVERCOME THE POSSIBLE BARRIERS TO STUDENT PARTICIPATION(1) Students’ limited computer experience(2) The classroom with limited access to ICT(3) Students’ negative feelings about learning/ using English(4) Students’ uneasiness to share their opinions Underdeveloped interlanguage → A huge gap between what they can say and what they want to say
    19. 19. (3) ← LANGUAGE HELP : EXAMPLES
    20. 20. (3) ← LANGUAGE HELP : PARAPHRASES
    21. 21. (3) ← LANGUAGE HELP : FEED-BACK MEMOS (OPU)• Uchida
    22. 22. (3) ← LANGUAGE HELP : VOCABULARY
    23. 23. (3) ← LINK BETWEEN CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES & FORUM POSTING Post the prep work Discussion about the topic Comment on the posts Vocabulary Reading (+ F on F) Think & write about the topic Post the writing on the topic Follow up (F on F) Listen & write about the topic Grammar Prep for the next unit (Group) Post the prep work Comment on the posts
    24. 24. TO OVERCOME THE POSSIBLE BARRIERS TO STUDENT PARTICIPATION(1) Students’ limited computer experience(2) The classroom with limited access to ICT(3) Students’ negative feelings about learning/ using English(4) Students’ uneasiness to share their opinions
    25. 25. (4) ← 2-WEEK UNITS TO ENCOURAGE INTERACTION AMONG STUDENTS (OPU) week 1: posting passages week 2: making comments on classmates’ postings
    26. 26. (4) ← FORCED SUBSCRIPTION TO GIVE POSITIVE PRESSURE (OPU) They keep getting email notifications
    27. 27. (4) ← GROUP WORK TO PROMOTE COMMUNICATION AMONG STUDENTS
    28. 28. OUTCOMES (& 2011 IMPROVEMENTS)(1) Students’ limited computer experience → The biggest challenge(2) The classroom with limited access to ICT → Challenging until they start to participate(3) Students’ negative feelings about learning/using English → More (explicit) language help might be desirable(4) Students’ uneasiness to share their opinions → Communicative activities preferred to languageexercises(5) Other motivational factors
    29. 29. PARTICIPATION: MOODLE FORUM POSTING CUC 1D CUC 2B OPUTopic 1 Topic 1 Topic 1Topic 2 Topic 2 Topic 2Topic 3 Topic 3 Topic 3Topic 4 Topic 4 * Topic 4Topic 5 Topic 5 Topic 5Topic 6 Moodle Project 0 8 15 23 30 Topic 6 0 8 15 23 30 Topic 7 0 10 20 30 40 Contributed Not contributed
    30. 30. COMPUTER SKILLS - BIGGEST CHALLENGE OPU: All the 37 students enrolled by admin CUC: Enrollment was difficult Enrolled within a week Took longer or Never enrolled for some, esp. freshmen (1D) OPU I’m not good at using computers - I couldn’t even log in easily. (CUC 2B) CUC 2B CUC 2B MoodleProjectOh, did I have to access the site CUC 1D on a computer? (CUC 1D) 0 10 20 30 40 Some hands-on sessions may be desirable
    31. 31. MOODLE MAY NOT BE VERY USER-FRIENDLY FOR SOME STUDENTS Was Moodle easy to use?CUC 1D N = CUC 1D: 14, CUC 2B: 24, OPU: 37 Very easy to useCUC 2B Easy to use Don’t know A little difficult to use OPU Very difficult to use 0 10 20 30 40 Some hands-on sessions may be desirable Forced subscription would help
    32. 32. I don’t often use computers. Wish I could have used my phone! I don’t want to be asked forWebsites incompatible with cellphones the password every time. are inconvenient. Sometimes I didn’t know how to work on MoodleIt would’ve been easier with a smartphone! How about using cellphones for such online activities? Cellphone-compatible ways should be explored
    33. 33. Which would you like to use Which do you think is easier for online discussions? to use, Moodle or SNSs? (CUC 2B, N = 24) (CUC 2B, N = 24 ,:>:" ;+:</=" 7891:." 4.&56" 012/3&&*" ,&&-./"%&()"*&+" !" #" $!" $#" For online discussions, more familiar tools might be a better choice
    34. 34. CLASSROOM SETTING WOULDN’T MATTER ONCE THEY HAVE JOINED Want to do more Feel a bit embarrassed Don’t feel like doing itFun to read what others have written Using English will be beneficial 0 8 15 23 30 What do you think of sharing information or opinions in English online? (OPU, N=37)
    35. 35. CLASSROOM SETTING WOULDN’T MATTER ONCE THEY HAVE JOINED Very good idea 4% Good idea Very good idea Don’t know 83% Good idea Don’t know 13% Not very good Not good at all What do you think of sharing information or opinions in English online? (CUC, N=24)
    36. 36. STUDENTS WANTED MORE LANGUAGE HELP AND LANGUAGE EXERCISEComment on the content Correct mistakes Give marks Quick comment Quick grading OPU Others CUC iD 0 8 15 23 30 What would you want from the teacher? (OPU, N=37 CUC, N=14)
    37. 37. STUDENTS WANTED MORE LANGUAGE HELP AND LANGUAGE EXERCISE /01)II0*34*5"J)?408E;)*58"" A=4BB08C"@)16F=762GEH26II62" A=4BB08C"D48,0*4*5E"/0634*5"" @40.4*5"208)=2108" ;<624*5"52)=>"61:?4:08" 9200".24:*5" /01)234*5",67-8" ()*+,"-*)." !" #" $" %" &" !" #" $" %"What types of activities would you like to do using Moodle? (CUC 2B, N = 24)
    38. 38. MANY ENJOYED INTERACTIONS WITH PEOPLE Getting comments motivate me to write Want comments from many people Don’t care about comments Don’t want comments OPU CUC 1D Others 0 8 15 23 30 What do you think of receiving comments from classmates? (OPU, N = 37; CUC 1D, N = 14)
    39. 39. MANY ENJOYED INTERACTIONS WITH PEOPLE I"29F8=25"-9:21/6;9<"@-:>"E28E02"G184" 8:>21"79-.213-;23" ?>2"E18F26:"@/3"G17-H70"A26/732"I"68705" >2/1"./1-873"8E-9-893J"3>/12"K98@025<2J" /95"522E29":>2"5-36733-893" D8"8E-9-89" ?>212"@8705"A2"98"5-B212962"A2:@229" -9C60/33"/95"-9:2136>880"5-36733-893" ,-./01-23"4/52"5-36733-893"-9:2123;9<" /95"48;./:25"42":8":1=">/15" !" #" $" %" &" " (" )" *" +" #!"What do you think of the online discussions among 4 universities? (CUC 2B, N = 24; *15 joined one or more discussions)
    40. 40. STUDENTS ARE INTERESTED IN INTERACTION Writing Topics Writing 1 2 3 4 5 MP 1. How was your Viewers 25 20 15 17 20 19* vacation? 2. On social networking Contrib. 24 17 12 6 19 15 3. Will you need English in the future? Views 522 124 191 129 182 4. What’s your Carbon Posts 63 17 14 13 24 45 Footprint? 5. Travel experience MP = Moodle Project Students accessed just to (CUC 2B) view others’ posts over and over
    41. 41. OTHER MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS: INTRINSIC & EXTRINSICTopic 1 ?@/31"6)>"/(*5451*5:"/("Topic 2 ;55:<.3+"=4>"*85"*5.3854"Topic 3 6(*54.37(",/*8"*854"Topic 4 1*9:5(*1"Topic 5 23451""Topic 6 -.(+/(01"Topic 7 &()*"+(,"Topic 8 !" #" $!" $#" %!" 0 2 4 6 8 Which topics were easy to write What do you think motivate you to join? Difficult (CUC 2B, N = 24) Easy about, or which topics were not? (OPU, N = 37 ; CUC, N = 14) Topics would matter to increase participation
    42. 42. ?@/31"6)>"/(*5451*5:"/(" ;55:<.3+"=4>"*85"*5.3854" 6(*54.37(",/*8"*854" 1*9:5(*1" 23451"" -.(+/(01" &()*"+(," !" #" $!" $#" %!" What do you think would motivate you to join? (Class) N = 24TOPICS WOULD MATTER TO INCREASE THE PARTICIPATION
    43. 43. OTHER MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS: INTRINSIC & EXTRINSICOnce they have joined, they will like it. To get themstarted, extrinsic motivation would be desirable.• Make the activities a compulsory part of the course• Give them rewards for participation and good work• Peer pressure can help less motivated students towork First I felt reluctant but later on I found it really interesting.
    44. 44. ?@/31"6)>"/(*5451*5:"/(" ;55:<.3+"=4>"*85"*5.3854" 6(*54.37(",/*8"*854" 1*9:5(*1" 23451"" -.(+/(01" &()*"+(," !" #" $!" $#" %!" What do you think would motivate you to join? (Class) N = 24TOPICS WOULD MATTER TO INCREASE THE PARTICIPATION
    45. 45. SUMMARY1. Moodle is great for for creating a secure online environment where students are engaged in activities controlled/managed by the teacher2. A few hands-on sessions may be desirable for those who feel uncomfortable to use computers3. Keitai lovers may find Moodle less user-friendly4. In-class/online language help, group work and links between in- class & online activities can help encourage students to use English5. Students appear to want to interact with others and share their opinions or information online6. Selecting good topics will increase student participation
    46. 46. 2011 IMPROVEMENTS• Easy start with email posting (Blogger)• Moodle Quizzes• Focus-on-form sessions in class• Feedback given both online and in class• Topics selected on the surveys• Explicitlinks between in- and out-of-class activities (Moodle Quiz, Lesson organization)• Extrinsic motivation
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