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Number Title Page
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The objectives of the experiment A and B is:-
1. To determine the pressure drop over the distillation column for various boil-up rates in
2. To determine mixture compositions by using refractrometer.
3. To observe the degree of forming on trays for each power increment
4. To plot the curve relating pressure drop and boil-up rate
5. To determine the refractive index for unknown concentration of
methylcyclohexane/toluene from the distillation column for each power increment.
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This apparatus and material in this experiment is:-
1. The Continuous Distillation Column Model UOP3CC
2. 100 ml Measuring cylinder
3. Automatic digital Refractometer
4. Stop watch
5. Distilled water
Figure 5.1:- The figure shown that the Continuous Distillation Column Model UOP3CC
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Figure 5.2:- The figure shown that the flow diagram of Continuous Distillation Column
Figure 5.3:- The figure shown that the automatic digital Refractometer
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Figure 6.4:- The figure shown that the 100ml measuring cylinder
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6.0 EXPERIMENT PROCEDURE
Experiment A: Determining column pressure drop
1. All of the valve on the equipment must be closed. Valve V10 on the reflux pipe is opened
2. Make sure all the valves on the equipment are closed and open valve V10 on the reflux
3. Then, replace the filler cap on the top of the reboiler. Turn on the the power to the control
panel. Set the temperature selector switch to T9, the temperature in the reboiler and open
valve V5 admitting the cooling water to the condenser at a flow rate on F11 of
approximately 3 litres/min.
4. Turn the power on the controller panel for the reboiler heating element fully anti-
clockwise and switch turning is switched on the power to the heating element to “power
on” position. Then, illuminate another red lamp indicating the heating element is on.
Then, the power controller is turned until a reading of approximately 0.75kW is obtained
on the digital wattmeter. Warm up the contents of the reboiler and observe the
temperature readout meter.
5. Open valves V6 and V7 which connect base and top of the distillation column,
respectively, to the manometer.
6. The boil up rate can be measured by operating valve V3 so that all the condensate is
diverted into a measuring cylinder and the time observed to collect a set quantity.
Partially open valve V3 and drain the condensate when taking a sample from the reflux
system until a steady flow is obtained. Make sure that the liquid remains in the flexible
connecting tube to prevent vapour from escaping.
7. Start sample collection and timing at the same time. A sizeable amount is collected
approximately 90mL in 100mL measuring cylinder. Pour the first nonrepresentative
collected amount in a bottle labelled “recyclable MHC/toluene”.
8. Take the readings of pressure drops over both the rectifying (top) and the stripping
(bottom) sections by opening the valves V6 and V7 on the manometer.
9. Make sure always to open valve V6 then V7 to prevent vapour from the column entering
the manometer. These readings are repeated until two in a row agree fairly closely. Allow
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5 to 10 minutes between each set of measurements before starting the next set in order for
the system to reach equilibrium again.
10. Repeat the experiment by increasing the power to 0.75kw, 1.00kW and 1.25kW. Before
collect the sample and take the time taken, allow the distillation to run for 5 to 10 minutes.
11. Graph of pressure drop versus boil-u rate is plot base on the result.
EXPERIMENT B – DETERMINING THE MIXTURE COMPOSITOINS
1. Set up the equipment.. The refractive index (R.I) of pure methylcyclohexane, MCH and
2. Take the small quantities of methylcyclohexane, MCH approximately 25 mol percent, 50
mol percent and 75 mol percent and the refractive index is measured.
3. The volume of constituent to use using the formula.
For 25 mol percent methylcyclohexane; 75 mol percent toluene
Molecular weight methylcyclohexane= 98.19
Molecular weight toluene= 92.15
Density methlcyclohexane=0.774 g/mL
Density toluene=0.867 g/mL
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Thus for 100 mL of mixture, quantities required will be
28.49 mL methylcyclohexane
71.51 mL toluene
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1. Transport Processes and Separation Process, Christie John Geankoplis, Fourth
Edition, page 700-702.
2. Laboratory manual, Chemical Engineering Laboratory II, (CPE 524), faculty Of
Chemical Engineering, Uitm.
3. Unit Operation of Chemical Engineering, McGrawhill 7th edition, Warren L Mccabe,
4. Julian C.Smith, Peter Harriot.
Figure 13.1:- The figure shown that the Continuous Distillation Column Model UOP3CC
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Figure 13.2:- The figure shown that the automatic digital Refractometer
Figure 13.3 - Distillation Collumn Figure 13.4 - Collecting distillate
Figure 13.5 - Pressure drop indicator