1.ABSTRACT:The experiment which is to prepare the soap and detergent had been conducted on 20thMay 2013.This experiment is conducted to prepare soap and compare its properties to that of asynthetic detergent. Basically, the experiment used to prepare the soap and thus, to compare theproperties between the soap that had been prepared early with the synthetic detergent in the formof precipitation, emulsification and cleaning abilities. Based on the experiment that had beenconducted, it can be concluded that the soap has the properties of emulsifying oil whereas thedetergent has not. This is because the soap has the abilities of forming precipitates and it can beseen clearly in the soap solution while doing the experiment. Whereas the detergent has notforms precipitates at all. Thus, the experiment is completed and successfully conducted.
2. IntroductionSoaps and detergents are used frequently in our daily day our life.We use them in manykind of ways such as wash hand,clean clothes,bathing and other.But we still do not payingattention on how they work and the background of them. First of all, it is hard to explain whowas first invented the soap.Some hypothesize believe that the soap had been invented by the Babylonian in 2800 BCwhere soap have been excavated in clay cylinders and the Phoenicians around 600 BC. By 1500BC Egyptians medical scrolls recommend a soap made from alkaline salt and animals andvegetables oil for skin conditions. In the early history, soap was used for the purpose of cleaningtextile fibres such as wool and cotton in preparation for the dyeing process instead of personalhygiene.In today’s progressive world of science and technology, soap is manufactured much like it wasback then where the fats and oils are technically heated with the presence of strong base whichcommonly used is sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide to produce fatty acid salts andglycerol in a process termed as saponification process. As a matter of fact, the salt of a fatty acidis the soap, which is a soft and waxy material that brush up the ability for cleaning purpose ofwater. While processing of soap, a positive ion, usually Na+or K+and a negative ion usually theanions of long-chained carboxylic acids yielded by the hydrolysis of either animals or vegetablesfats.Soap is a generic term for the sodium or potassium salts of long-chain organic acids (fatty acids)made from naturally occurring esters in animal fats and vegetable oils. All organic acids containthe RCO2H functional group, where R is shorthand notation for methyl, CH3-, ethyl CH3CH2-,propyl, CH3CH2CH2-, or more complex hydrocarbon chains called alkyl groups. Chemists usethe R shorthand notation because these groups can be very large and the hydrocarbon chain haslittle effect on the compounds chemical reactivity. All esters contain the RCO2R functionalgroup.The R groups in soaps are hydrocarbon chains that generally contain 12 to 18 carbon atoms.Sodium fatty acids such as lauric (vegetable oil), palmitic (palm oil), and stearic (animal fat)acids are just a few examples of soaps.
CH3(CH2)10COONa sodium laurateCH3(CH2)16COONa sodium stearateThe hydrocarbon chain in soaps may contain saturated (no double bonds) or unsaturated(contains double bonds) chains. Sodium salts are usually solid therefore; most bars of soap are ofsodium salts. Potassium salts are the basis of liquid soaps, shaving creams, and greases. Fats andvegetable oils are triglycerides. Triglycerides are esters derived from three fatty acids. Atriglyceride made from three lauric acid molecules is shown in Figure 7-1.Saponification is the basic hydrolysis of an ester producing a carboxylic acid salt and an alcohol(Eq.7-1). A lone pair of electrons on the OH-is attracted to the partially positively charged Catom in the C=O bond in the ester (Eq.3-1). The C-OR bond breaks generating a carboxylic acid(RCO2H) and an alcohol (ROH). In the presence of NaOH carboxylic acids are converted totheir sodium salts (RCO2-Na+).When a triglyceride is saponified, three fatty acid salts (soaps) and glycerol are produced asshown in Equation 7-2. The R groups in the triglyceride may or may not have the same chainlength (same number of carbons). Thus, different types of soaps may be produced from thesaponification of a particular triglyceride.Figure 0-1: A Triglyceride molecule made from lauric acid and glycerol
3. Objectives of the ExperimentTo prepare a soap and a synthetic detergent. Besides, the experiment is conducted tostudy and compare the properties between the soap and synthetic detergent in the form ofprecipitation, emulsification and also cleaning abilities.
4. TheoryFrom lab engenerring chemical lab:-Soap is a mixture of sodium salts of various naturally occuring fatty acids. Air buublesadded to a molten soap will decrease the density of the soap thus it will float on the water. If thefatty acid salt has potassium rather than a sodium, a softer lather is the result. This is because thebar soap produced in the presence of sodium hydroxide while the liquid soap is formed in thepresence of potassium hydroxide.Soap is the salt of a weak acid. Most organic acids arc weakacids. Consequently, hydrolysis occurs to some extent when soap dissolves in water. Soapsolutions tend to be slightly alkaline (basic) due to partial hydrolysis of the acid . Theorytically,the soap is produced by a saponification or basic hydrolysis reaction of a fat or oil. Currently,sodium carbonate or sodium hydroxide is used to neutralize the fatty acid and convert it to thesalt.(Equation 4-3)The cleansing action of soaps results from two effects. Soaps are wetting agents thatreduce the surface tension of water, allowing the water molecules to encounter the dirty object.They are also emulsifying agents. "Dirt" frequently consists of a grease or oil along with otherorganic species. In general, organic compounds are nonpolar. Water is a polar species. These twosubstances will not dissolve in each other because of their dissimilar characteristics (the "LikeDissolves Like" rule). Soaps cross the boundary between polar and nonpolar because theycontain a polar hydrophobic (water-hating) end and a polar hydrophilic (water loving) end asshown in figure (4-2).
Figure 4-2: a) A molecular line drawing and b) a skeletal representation of sodium stearate.Soaps have both polar and nonpolar molecular regions, hence they are soluble in bothpolar and nonpolar species. The hydrophobic (nonpolar) portion of soap is soluble in non polarcompounds like grease and oils and the hydrophilic (polar) end dissolves in water. Soapmolecules surround grease and oils and break them up into microscopic droplets, which canremain suspended in water. These suspended microscopic droplets are called micelles(Figure 4-3).Micelles contain very small amounts of oil or grease in their center. Thus oil or greasedissolved in water forms an emulsion; a form of suspension in water.Figure 4-3: Formation of micelle
Water supplies in certain areas are acidic as a result of acid rain or pollution, or "hard"due to dissolved mineral content. Both acidic and "hard" water reduce the cleansing action ofsoap. Soap is the salt of a weak acid and in the presence of a stronger acid, the sodium salt isconverted to an insoluble organic acid (Equation 4-4).(Equation 4-4)"Hard water" contains dissolved Ca2+, Mg2+and Fe 3+ions from the minerals that the waterpasses over. Normally, soaps made from sodium and potassium fatty acid salts are soluble inwater. However, in the presence of these metal ions, the Na+and K+convert to insoluble Ca2+,Mg2+and Fe 3+salts (Equation 4-5).(Equation 4-5)In either acidic or "hard" water, the soluble soaps form insoluble salts which leavescummy rings on bathtubs and black areas on shirt collars. The cleansing ability of soap isreduced because soap molecules are removed from solution. There are several techniques used tocircumvent the problems generated by hard water. Water can be "softened" via removing hardwater ions from solution using ion exchange techniques or by adding water-softening agents,such as sodium phosphate (Na3PO4) or sodium carbonate (Na2CO3). Water-softening agents reactwith the Ca2+, Mg2+and Fe 3+removing them from water (Equations 4-6 and 4-7) and preventingthe reaction of these ions with soap (Equations 4-4 and 4-5).
3Ca2+(aq) + 2 PO43-(aq) → Ca3(PO4)2 (S) (Equation 4-6)Mg2+(aq) + CO32-(aq) → MgCO3 (S) (Equation 4-7)Thus “Syndets” were developed to overcome the soap “hard water” problem. Syndetsdiffer from soaps in that the nonpolar fatty acids groups are replaced with alkyl or aryl sulfonicacids (ROSO3H). The alkyl or aryl sulfonic acids have long hydrophobic carbon chains and ahydrophilic sulfonate end. The difference in polar groups is one of the key distinctions between asoap and a synthetic detergent. Syndets form micelles and cleanse in the same manner as soaps.Two examples of synthetic detergents are shown in Figure (4-8).Figure 4-8: Examples of synthetics detergentsSulfonic acids are stronger than carboxylic acids, hence Syndets do not precipitate inacidic solutions. Furthermore, alkyl and aryl sulfonates do not form insoluble salts in thepresence of typical hard water ions. Thus, synthetic detergents remain soluble in both acidic and"hard" water.Overall theory in these experiment is in the other words, soap is a generic term for thesodium or potassium salts of long-chain organic acid which is fatty acid that are made fromnaturally occuring esters in animal fats and also the vegetable oils. All organic acid contain theRCOOH functional group, where R is the shorthen notation for the complex hydrocarbon whichfamously known as alkyl group. The term for R is used because the group can be very large and
for the addition for each chain has a litter effect for the chemical reactivity. While for the ester itcontain RCOOR functional group.A soap is the sodium or potassium salt of a long chain fatty acid. The fatty acid usuallycontain 12 to 18 carbon atoms which can be expressed as term R.Furthermore, the hydrocarbonchain in the soap may contain saturated and unsaturated chains. Sodium salts are usually solidtherefore, most bars of soap are sodium salts. While potassium salts are the basis of liquid soaps,shaving cream, and greases. Triglycerides is formed by the combination of three molecules offatty acid which are fats and vegetable oils. Triglycerides included in the ester group which isRCOOR which derived from three fatty acids. A triglyceride made from three lauric acidmolecules which shown as below:General overall hydrolysis reaction:Fat + NaOH glycerol + sodium salts/ fatty acidFigure 4-9 - The Hydrolysis of Triglycerides
For the figure above, it formed by the saponification of a triglyceride with the sodiumhydroxide. Actually, saponification is a process that produce soap usually from fats and lye. Inthe other words, saponification involves base hydrolysis of triglycerides, which are esters of fattyacid to produce a product which is sodium salt od a carboxylate. Besides, saponificationprocesses also produce glycerol.The mechanism by which esters are cleaved by base involves nucleophilic acylsubstitution. Then the hydroxide anion, OH-adds to attacks the carbonyl group of the ester. Thenthe intermediate product is formed is orthoester.Figure 4-10 - The Mechanism of Ester (1)At this stage, the alkoxide is more basic than the conjugate base of the carboxylic acid,and hence the proton is transfer rapidly and directly it form a stabe carboxylic acid compound.Figure 4-11 - The Mechanism of Ester (2)After that, it continue by reaction between the RCOOH with the alkoxide anion and thenformed a product of carboxylic anion and a alcohol. But with the presence of NaOH, thecarboxylic acida are converted to their sodium salts which is RCOO-Na+.
The saponification of triglyceride produced 3 fatty acid which is soap and the glycerolbut the alkyl group in the triglyceride may or may not have the same chain length which knownas the number of carbons.Figure 4-12 - The Hydrolysis of TriglyceridesSince the cleansing action of soaps depend upon the fact that they ionize readily inwater,.thus, the soap would no longer clean and emulsify the oil and dirt. This is because due tothe hard water contain metal cations such as Ca2+and Mg2+that will react with the charged endsof the soaps and directly form the insoluble salts.As the conclusion, the synthetic detergent were developed to overcome this kind ofproblems. The difference in polar groups is one of the key distinctions between a soap and asynthetic detergent. The synthetic detergent form micelles and cleanse in the same manner assoaps but if it released into rivers and lakes it can cause explosive growth of algae. Thus, it cancause decay of the aquatic ecosystem due to deoxygenation from the decomposition of deadalgae.A micelle is a spherical shape that is formed resulting from the negatively charged headson the soap molecules. They then orient between them, where the non polar tails rearrangetowards the centre of the micelle and then the hydrophilic site facing the water. In the presenceof oil and dirt, the non-polar head interact with them and gathered it to the centre of the micelle.In fact, this is how mechanicms the soap works. When rinsed with water, the micelle together
qith the dirt washed away. Soap is theoretically acting as an emulsifying agent, where emulsionis the dispersion of a liquid in asecond immiscible liquid.Figure 4-13 - The Micelle of the SoapThe structure below is a sodium lauryl sulfonate that contain in the synthetic detergent. In factsthe sulfonic acids are more stronger than carboxylic acids, hence the synthetic detergent does notform any precipitate in the acidic solution. Besides, in the hard water, the detergent do not forminsoluble salts compare with the soap. As a conclusion, the synthetic detergents remain soluble inboth acidic and hard water.Figure 4-14 - the structure for synthetic detergent
5. Apparatus and MaterialThe figure in shown in appendix.Reagent ApparatusVegetable oilEthanolSodium HydroxideSaturated Sodium Chloride (NaCl)Synthetic detergent (dynamo)Mineral oil1% CaCl2solution1% MgCl2solution1% FeCl2 solutionTomato SauceDistilled water1M hydrochloric acidIce bathMagnetic stirermagnetic stirring bar250-mL Erlenmeyer flaskVacuum Filtration ApparatusBeakerTest tube with racksCloth stripMeasuring cylinderDropperGlass rodPh meter electronicRetord stand and ClampPetric dishMass weight electronicErlenmeyer Flask
6. Methodology6.1 .Part A Soap preparation1. 12.5 ml of vegetable is placed in a 250 ml Erlenmeyer flask. 10mL of ethanol and12.5mL of 6M sodium hydroxide solution are added to the flask. The mixture is stirredusing a stirring bar to mix the contents of the flask. The alcohol is carefully smelled bywafting it towards our nose.2. The 250 mL of flask is heated in a 600mL boiling water bath.Figure 6.1heating the mixture in the boiling water bath3. The mixture is stirred continuously during the heating process to prevent the mixturefrom foaming. If the mixture should foam to the point of nearly overflowing, the flask isremoved from the boiling water until the foaming subsides, then the heating is continued.The mixture is heated for 20-30 minutes or until the alcohol odor is no longer detectable.4. The paste like mixture is removed from the water bath and the flask is cooled in a icebath fro 10-15 minutes.
Figure 6.2-Cooled in ice bath.5. While the flask is cooling, the vacuum filtration apparatus is assembled as shown in thefigure below. The vacuum filtration secured to a ring stand with a utility clamp to preventthe apparatus from toppling over.Figure 6.3- the vacuum filtration apparatus6. A piece of filter paper is weighed to the nearest 0.001g and the mass is recorded. Thefilter paper is placed inside the Buchner funnel. The paper is moistered with water so thatit fits flush in the bottom of the funnel.7. Once the flask has cooled, 150 mL of saturated sodium chloride NaCl solution is added tothe flask to “salt out” the soap.8. The water at the aspirator is slowly turned on. The mixture from the flask is poured intothe Buchner funnel. Once all of the liquid has filtered through the funnel, the soap was
washed with 10 mL of ice-cold water. The suction filtration is continued until all of thewater is removed from the soap.9. The soap is removed from the funnel and pressed between two paper towels to dry it. Thefilter paper and dried soap are weighed and the mass is recorded to the nearest 0.001 gand the mass of the soap determined by difference and then the mass is then recorded.Figure 6.4 :-Weight using the weight electronic lab.6.2 PART B: COMPARISON OF SOAP AND DETERGENT PROPERTIES(PRECIPITATION AND EMULSIFYING )1. A stock soap solution is prepared by dissolving 2g of the prepared soap in 100 mL ofboiling distiiled water. The mixture is stirred until the soap has dissolved and the solutionis allowed to cool.2. Step 1 is repeated using 2 g of synthetic detergent. When both solution are cool, the pHof each solution is determined using pH meter.3. Three test tubes are labelled as test 1, 2 and 3. 4 drops of minerals oil are added to eachtest tube. 5 mL of distilled water is added to test tube 1. 5 mL of stock solution is addedto test 2 and 5 mL of synthetic detergent is added to test tube 3.4. Each solution is mixed by shaking and let stand for three to five minutes. The solution, ifany that emulsifies the oil by forming a single layer is noted.
5. The mixtures are poured into the Waste Container. The three test tubes are cleaned anddried.6. Three more test tubes are labelled as test tube 1,2 and 3. 2mL of stock solution is placedin each of the three test tubes. 2mL 1% CaCl2 solution is added to test 1. 2mL of 1%MgCl2 solution is added to test tube 2 while 2mL of 1% FeCl2 solution is added to testtube 3. Each test tube is shaken to mix the solutions. The observations are recorded.7. 4 drops of mineral oils are added to each of the test tubes in step 6. Each test tube isshaken to mix the solutions and the solutions are left to stand for three to five minutes.The solutions, if any, that emulsifies the oil by forming a single layer is noted.8. Step 6-7 is repeated using 2 mL of stock detergent solution. The solutions thatprecipitated are observed.9. The solution, if any, that emulsifies the oil by forming a single layer is noted.10. The mixtures are poured into the Waste Container. The test tube are cleaned and dried.11. 5 mL of stock soap solution is poured in cine clean test tube and 5 mL of stock detergentsolution in a second test tube. 1M HCl is added one drop at a time to both solution untilthe pH in each tube is equal to 3. The number of drops of acid added to each mixture iscounted. Any precipitate formed in either mixture is observed.12. 1 drop of mineral oil is added to each test tube in step 11. Each test tube is shaken to mixthe solution. Any emulsification formed in either mixture is observed.6.3 PART C: COMPARISON OF CLEANING ABILITIES OF SOAP ANDDETERGENT.1. The three beakers are cleaned, dried and labeled. Then 20 mL of stock soap solution thatfrom step 1 is placed in the first beaker. After that, 20 mL of stock detergent solutionfrom step 2 is placed in the second beaker. 20 mL of tap water is added in a third beaker.2. Three cloth test strips that have been soaked in tomato souce are obtained and then onestrip is placed in each of the beakers. Repeatedly, each solution is stirred with a stirrer barfor 5 minutes.3. The cloth strips is removed from the soap and detergent solution and then the excesswater is squeezed out. Each cloth strip is observed and compared to determine theirrelative cleanliness.
7. Results and Calculations7.1 A.Soap preparationMass of Filter (g) 0.5938Mass of filter paper + soap (g) 71.4169Mass of soap recovered (g) 24.8127.2 B.Comparison of soap and detergent propertiesTest (1) : The comparison of the pH value of soap and detergent.Brand name of synthetic detergent DynamopH of soap solution 11.85pH of synthetics detergent solution 8.90Name of the sample Soap prepared DynamoMass 2.0 g 2.0 gpH value 11.85 8.90Conclusion: The soap that had been prepared is more basic that thedetergent because the pH value of soap is more than the detergent Based on the result above, between soap and detergent, the pH value of detergent is 8.90while the soap is 11.85. Thus, the soap prepared is more basic compare to the detergent.
Test (2) : The comparison of emulsification of soap and detergentBefore reaction with minerals oil and testsolutionAfter reaction reaction with mineralsoil and test solutionName Test 1 Test 2 Test 3Sample Distilled water Stock soap Stock detergentTest 4 drops mineral oils + 5 mLdistilled water4 drops mineral oils + 5 mLstock soap4drops mineral oils+ 5 mL syntheticdetergentObservation The solution 2 layer form. Thebottom layer part is colorless watermeanwhile upper part layer is oil.The solution become halfcloudy and singles any layer.The solution iswhite solution formandsingle layer.Emulsification No Yes Yes
Emulsification can be described as the solution that form is in a single layer. Thus, basedon the test above, the emulsification had occured in the stock soap solution and stockdetergent. . While the distilled water do not occur any emulsification because there areoil layer at the upper part of the solution samples.System Emulsification OccurredDistilled water NOSoap YESdetergent YES7.3 Hard and acidic Test(3) : The comparison of properties of soap and detergent in hard solutionThe solution of soap solution with 1) Cacl2,2) MgCl2 and 3) FeCl2.The solution of detergent solution with 1)Cacl2, 2) MgCl2 and 3) FeCl2.
System Precipitate Oil emulsifiedSoap SyntheticdetergentSoap Synthetic detergent2 mL CaCl2 + 4drops mineral oilsColourless withwhite precipitateNo,colourchange to paleblueYes Form single layer.2 mL MgCl2 + 4drops mineral oilsMilky and have awhite precipitateNo,colourchange to paleblueNo Form single layer.2 mL FeCl2 + 4drops mineral oilsOrange in solutionand have orangeprecipitateNo,colourchange toyellowishNo Form single layer.SystemPrecipitate Oil emulsifiedSoapSyntheticdetergentSoap Synthetic detergentCaCl2 YES NO YES YESMgCl2 YES NO NO YESFeCl3 YES NO NO YES
Based on the test above, the soap have the precipitate of properties if compare with thesynthetic detergent that does not formed any precipitate although react with either CaCl2,MgCl2 nor FeCl2. From the result above, we can observe that when soap mixed with CaCl2, the soapsolution change to colourless with the present of white precipitate and oil emulsionmeanwhile the synthetic detergent change colour into pale blue and and have oil emulsified. When mixed with MgCl2, the soap become milky solution and also presence the whiteprecipitate while but no emlusion of oil .But,for the synthetic detergent only change paleblue colour and consist oil emulsification in the form of 1 layers. Lastly, the soap change into orange colour in solution with the presence of orangeprecipitate and no emulsion of oil.But, compare to the synthetic detergent does not formany precipitate it only change into yellowish colour and also have oil emulsion.Test (4) : The comparison of soap and detergent in acidic solution by using 1M HClSample Soap Synthetic detergentInitial pH 7.2 6.88Final pH 2.96 2.53Drops of 1M HCl 8 drops 3 dropsObservations The solution becomemilky while droping theHCl solution.The solution is clear and notform any precipitateAdd the mineral oil for both samplesObservations Form white precipitate Not change For the test in the acidic solution we can observe that the soap has a high value of pHreading compare with the synthetic detergent and the soap formed the precipitate whenreact with the acid and not for the synthetic detergent.
7.4 Cleaning comparison of a soap and detergentsTest (5) : Cleaning comparison of a soap and detergentThe cleaning ability by 1) soap, 2) synthetic detergent and 3) distilled waterSamples Tap water SyntheticdetergentSoapCleanliness Not clean Very clean Slightly cleanObservation The solution seenhave a precipitateNot effect thesolutionNot effect thesolution For the test above, it more concentrate to determine the relative cleanliness for the tapwater, synthetic detergent and soap. Based on experiment conducted, the synthetic detergent shown the high relativecleanliness compare with the soap and the tap water. The relative cleanliness can be conclude as:tap water < soap < synthetic detergent
8. Discussion. This experiment was performed successfully and the objective was achieved. Theobjective of this experiment is to prepare soap and compare its properties to that of a syntheticdetergent. The first procedure was conducted on 20 March 2013. Then the experiment wascompleted on 31 March 2013 followed by the second and third experimental procedure. Thereare 3 parts in these experiments. The first part which is part A is about preparation of soap. PartB is about comparison of soap and detergent properties to test precipitation and emulsifyingconducted on 31 March 2013 followed by the part C is comparison of cleaning abilities of soapand detergent. In this experiment, for the part B and part C there are 5 tests for two of thecleaning agents (soap and syndets).Part B only have 4 tests which is test 1, 2, 3 and 4.But for partC is test 5.After the preparation of soap in these experiment part A,will followed by the partB.This procedure was conducted to compare the soap properties with the synthetic detergent byobserving the precipitation and emulsification that occurs. For this process, we are using the soapproduced in the first procedure in part A. During the soap preparation, saponification processoccur where the fatty acid carboxylate ions are formed in the presence of the strong base whichis used sodium hydroxide, NaOH for this experiment. Then, these carboxylate ions are theconjugate bases of the fatty acids therefore, it is able to accept a proton to formed the stablecompound. When it placed into water, these conjugate bases are able to accept the proton fromany souces including the water.For test 1on this experiment is about to test the comparison of the pH value of soap anddetergent .For the ph of soap solution that was prepared on part A is 11.85 mean while the ph ofsynthetic detergent solution is 8.90.In overview,based on that what can conlcude is the ph valueof soap is more basic than synthethic detergent.For the test 2 is to comparison of emulsification of soap and detergent.Emulsification intest 2 ,occured only for test in soap and synthetics solution.But for distilled water noemulsification. Emulsification can be described as the solution that form is in a single layer.Thus, based on the test above, the emulsification had occured in the stock soap solution andstock detergent. . While the distilled water do not occur any emulsification because there are oillayer at the upper part of the solution samples.For the part B in the test 3 is comparison of properties of soap and detergent in hardsolution , it represents the water condition is in “hard water” which contains Ca2+, Mg2+and Fe 3+ions. The experiment was conducted using 3 different test tubes. By using our soap, precipitate
form in three of the test tubes. This is because the metal ions from the “hard water” will causethe soap to form an insoluble salt. That’s why the water does not mix with the soap formingprecipitate.Then, mineral oil was added to all of the three mixtures. In this process, the precipitatethat forms in the three of our test was dissolved for the soap test. The hydrocarbon ishydrophobic and soluble with grease or oil; micelles will still be form even though the metal ionscausing the soap to be insoluble with water. But, for the syndets tests, there are no precipitatesand oil emulsifications formed. Means, the syndet are suitable to be used in the “hard water”, soas the function to remove any grease or oil from cloth, since the formation micelles occur. Fromthe observations obtained from the experiement, the soap form the precipitate in all of thesolutions added which are CaCl2, MgCl2 and FeCl2 as well emulsifies the oil. So that, this maynot appear as a good characteristics for the soap as the cleaning agent if there formed precipitateand emulsifies oil on the cloth. In our daily day,what can applied is for the hard water, it can beknown as the water that consist of calcium ion, Ca2+and magnesium ions, Mg2+. These ions areleached from the ground water flowing over rock formations containing limestone and also otherminerals. Thus, the hard water interferes with the cleaning action of soap. That why when thesoap is react with the mineral ions that contain in the hard water, it will formed the precipitate.So that, the precipitate leaves a deposit on clothes, skin and hair.For the test 4, in these experiment test to the comparison of soap and detergent in acidicsolution by using 1M Hydrochloric Acid. For the soap solution test in acidic solution by using1MHydrochloric Acidwhat can conclude is the initial ph of soap is 7.2 change to 2.96 whichrequired only for 8 drops only and the observation is the solution become milky white precipitatewhen dropping the Hydrochloric Acidsolution.But, for the phsynthetic detergent solution testchange from is 6.88 change to 2.53 which required only for 3 drops only and the observation isthe solution is clear and not form any precipitate when dropping the Hydrochloric Acidsolution.For the test in the acidic solution we can observe that the soap has a high value of pH readingcompare with the synthetic detergent and the soap formed the precipitate when react with theacid and not for the synthetic detergent.For the part C in the final test (test 5), both of the cleaning agent are tested in the acidicwater condition. This experiment is conducted to determine the effectiveness of soap anddetergent in cleaning stain on the cloth strip. The cloth strips that have been soaked in tomatosauce are put into the beaker containing soap solution in detergent solution. Both solutions are
stirred repeatedly by using stirring rod for 5 minutes. Then, the cloth strips is removed from thesoap and detergent solution and the excess of water is squeeze out. The observation obtainedfrom this experiment is the cloth strip that soaked in the detergent is cleaner than in soap solutionand tap water. Thus the relative cleanliness can be concludetap water < soap < synthetic detergentBased on the theory, detergent is more effective cleaning agent than the soap as it iseffective in both hard and soft water. It is because detergent contains one or more surfactants thatincrease cleanliness. Surfactants is defined as surface active agents which functioned to modifythe surface of the liquid it is dissolved in, reducing the surface tension and allowing oils andwater to mix. As we know, water is the liquid commonly used for cleaning which has a propertycalled surface tension. In the body of water, each molecule is surrounded and attracted by otherwater molecules. At the surface, those molecules are surrounded by other water molecules onlyon the water side. A tension is created as the water molecules at the surface are pulled into thebody of the water. This tension causes water to bead up on surfaces which slows wetting of thesurface and inhibits the cleaning process. Therefore, more surfactants can reduce more surfacetension and increase the cleaning process.However, soap is also a good cleaning agent but the effectiveness of the soap willdecrease as it used in hard water. Hardness in water is caused by the presence of the mineral saltssuch as calcium, magnesium, iron and manganese. These mineral salts will react with the soapand forming an insoluble precipitate known as soap film or scum. The presence of the scum willdecrease the effectiveness of soap as it tends to remain behind and deposits on the cloth. Thisreduces the amount of soap available for cleaning. Thus, soap is less effective than detergent incleaning process.Therefore, as the result of this experiment is vice versa, experimental accepted duringconducting this experiment. The synthetic detergents have undeniably replaced soap for manycleaning jobs around the home. Thus, the development of synthetic detergent by chemist actuallywas a great advantage for people with relatively hard tap water in their homes.The syntheticdetergent have the advantages compare to the soap, but there is a significant issue regarding theuse of synthetic detergent that is the biodegradability of some of its components.
10. ConclusionIn conclusion, followed by the objectives of the experiment which are to prepared the soap andused to compare the properties of soap and detergent which are precipitation, emulsification andcleaning abilities. thus, the soap is succesfully prepared and all the comparison of properties hadbeen observed and recorded.For the test 1 ,the experiment acually want to deterime the comparison of oil emulsificationfor the 3 types of sample which are distilled water,soap solution and finally the syntheticdetergent.From the observation,the distilled water do not emulsified the oil meanwhile thesynthethic detergent emulsified the oil which formed the half cloudy solution and soapemulsified become white solutions.In fact,what can conclude is the soapThe pH value of the soap produced are higher that the synthetic detergent. Thus, this showsthat the soap is more alkali.Soap and synthetic detergent are soluble in water due to the presents of Hydrophilic polarend of the atomic structure. That’s why, no emulsification occur if water is added.Soap is not suitable to be used in “hard water”. It is because the presents of metal ionsmaking the soap become insoluble in water.By using soap in “hard water”, micelles will still occur due to the Hydrocarbon of thesoap structure.Soap is not suitable to be used in acidic water.The syndets are suitable to be used in “hard water” and also acidic water since thesyndets are remains soluble in the solution.
11. RECOMMENDATIONS:There are a few recommendations that will significantly produce better observations which willnot deviate much from the theoretical observations.Wear the gloves that have been provided when conduct the experiment to avoid anyerror occurs because the tip of our fingers is acidic.During filling the solution of mixture putting the paper to the same level of solution atthe back of measuring cylinder and flask to avoid the parallax error.Before conduct the experiment, make sure all apparatus in good condition especiallythe pH electrode and pH meter. Rinsed complete the pH electrode before used it toread the other pH of the solution using distilled water to neutralize to get accurateresult.All steps in the procedure should be following to get accurate result.The more important thing is use safety equipment and avoids any contact with anychemical reagents involved.Make sure the apparatus in the stable position.Take alert for any recorded change of result in the condition of physical conditionlikes the colour changes and other. Tabulated the data.Repeat the experiment for a few times to get a better and accurate result.
12. ReferencesEngineering Chemistry Lab (CHE 485).Chemistry The Central Science 11thedition, Pearson International Edition (2009);BROWN, LeMAY, BURSTEN, MURPHY.Mithu Majumdar. (2012). Cleansing Actionof Soap. Retrieved May 19,2013, fromhttp://education.fapsnewdelhi.net/cleansing-action-of-soap/Organic Chemistry(third editions), R.T.Morrison & R.N.Boyd,1973, Allyn andBacon,Boston.http://www.algebralab.org/passage/passage.aspx?file=Chemistry_Soaps.xml date accesed1/6/2013.AUS-e-TUTE .(n.d).Chemistry Tutorial : Soaps and Saponification. Retrieved May19,2013, fromhttp://www.ausetute.com.au/soaps.htmlCharles E. Ophardt. (2003). Soap. Retrieved May 19,2013, fromhttp://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/554soap.html
13. AppendixTest tube with RacksTomato saucedropper Ice Bath
Mass Weight Electronic Synthetic Detergent (dynamo)Ph meter electonic 1% FeCl2 Solution