IM veterans would initially enter the system – but by 1956 2M vets would have accessed post-secondary education through the GI Bill. This offered a significant social capital resource to the vet, the children of the vet and the grandchildren as each became exposed to the merits and means of post-secondary educational attainment.
Grant support makes grades 13 & 14 (community college) tuition essentially free for low income students. By and large community college tuition is tremendously less expensive than university. Cllinton Administration argued that grades 13 & 14 were made free by virtue of the Hope and Lifetime Learning tax credits. These credits however do not reach all taxpayers. Federal Aid was essentially introduced in 1965 with the HEA – but before that the WWII vets enjoyed the benefits of the GI Bill. These were largely limited to white males, however, and naturally increased the masculinity of the college campus. (Brock, 2010)
2006: High School completion has stagnated – with about 25% of students not completing a high school degree. This percentage increases among low-income, rural and minority students (U. S. Department of, 2006, p. 8).
Test truman commission presidential statement complete
The Truman Commission on Higher Education December 15, 1947 The Presidential Statement President Harry S. Truman’s inquiry: What is the purpose of higher education?
July 13, 1946 President Truman to his Commission on Higher Education, chaired by George F. Zook, American Council on Education <ul><li>“ It seems particularly important that we should now re-examine our system of higher education in terms of its objectives, methods, and facilities; and in the light of the social role it has to play.” </li></ul><ul><li>He also asked the Commission, “. . . to concern itself with the ways and means of expanding educational opportunities for all able young people: the adequacy of curricula, particularly in the fields of international affairs and social understanding; the desirability of establishing a series of intermediate technical institutes; and the financial structure of higher education with particular reference to the requirements for the expansion of physical facilities.” </li></ul>(Zook, 1947, p. 10)
“ . . . the need to insure that higher education shall take its proper place in our national effort to strengthen democracy at home and to improve our understanding of our friends and neighbors everywhere in the world.” <ul><li>A portion of Truman’s address to congress regarding the security of Greece and Turkey, March, 1974 </li></ul><ul><li>The seeds of totalitarian regimes are nurtured by misery and want. They spread and grow in the evil soil of poverty and strife. They reach their full growth when the hope of a people for a better life has died. </li></ul><ul><li>We must keep that hope alive. </li></ul><ul><li>The free peoples of the world look to us for support in maintaining their freedoms. </li></ul><ul><li>If we falter in our leadership, we may endanger the peace of the world--and we shall surely endanger the welfare of this Nation. </li></ul><ul><li>Great responsibilities have been placed upon us by the swift movement of events. </li></ul>Harry S. Truman: "Special Message to the Congress on Greece and Turkey: The Truman Doctrine," March 12, 1947. United States – Taking the Lead to Ensure World Peace Hear the full Congressional Address at: http:// www.presidency.ucsb.edu/mediaplay.php?id=12846&admin=33 (Harry S. Truman, 1947)
1947: Areas of concern noted by Truman Commission <ul><li>Strengthen higher education </li></ul><ul><li>Overcrowded facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Shortage of faculty with doctoral degrees </li></ul><ul><li>1 million veterans entering higher education </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain international peace and strengthen democracy and our nation </li></ul><ul><li>Support primary and secondary education </li></ul>Quonset hut housing at MSU. (Harry S. Truman, 1947; Dongbin & Rury, 2007, p. 305)
President Truman – Dec. 15, 1947 Commission on Higher Education <ul><li>Abandon European models of higher education, developing instead a U.S. model reflective of the needs of democracy. </li></ul><ul><li>Double college attendance by 1960. </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate vocational and liberal education. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide for free college attendance through the first two years, “for all youth who can profit from such education” (Truman statement, 1947). </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate racial and religious discrimination (Truman statement, 1947). </li></ul>10 Sweeping Recommendations (Harry S. Truman, 1947; Dongbin & Rury, 2007, p. 305)
President Truman – Dec. 15, 1947 Commission on Higher Education <ul><li>6. Revise the goals of graduate and professional school education, making it more effective in training well-rounded persons as well as research specialists and technicians </li></ul><ul><li>7. Expand Federal support for higher education to offer scholarship, fellowship and general aid. </li></ul><ul><li>8. Establish a system of community colleges. </li></ul><ul><li>Expand adult education programs. </li></ul><ul><li>Distribute “.. . federal aid to education in such a manner that the poorer states can bring their educational systems closer to the quality of the wealthier states. </li></ul>10 Sweeping Recommendations (Harry S. Truman, 1947; Dongbin & Rury, 2007, p. 305)
Landmark engagement in U. S. Higher Education <ul><li>The Truman Commission was an historic and unprecedented call for the examination of the purpose of higher education. </li></ul><ul><li>It focused attention on education as a means to strengthen the nation, and her economy. </li></ul><ul><li>and drew attention to: </li></ul><ul><li>Access, </li></ul><ul><li>Equality </li></ul><ul><li>Democracy </li></ul><ul><li>Quality, and </li></ul><ul><li>Relevance </li></ul>(Harry S. Truman, 1947; Dongbin & Rury, 2007; Gilbert & Heller, 2010)
Changing Enrollment in Higher Education over time: Overall postsecondary enrollments 1939-1980 <ul><li>2006: </li></ul><ul><li>14 Million Undergraduates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 out of 5 go to 2 year colleges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1/3 older than 24 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>40% enrolled part-time </li></ul></ul>(Dongbin & Rury, 2007, p. 304) (U. S. Department of, 2006) 11,569,899 8,004,696 3,639,847 2,659,021 1,494,203 Total Enrollment 5,887,022 3,258,495 1,307,230 805,953 600,953 Female 5,682,877 4,746,201 2,332,617 1,853,068 893,250 Male Students Enrolled 1979-80 1969-70 1959-60 1949-50 1939-40 Year
More Progress <ul><li>Access </li></ul><ul><li>Overall student population increased (800% increase by 1980) </li></ul><ul><li>Racial and religious discrimination illegal </li></ul><ul><li>Diverse student enrollment increased </li></ul><ul><li>Barrier remains: high school completion </li></ul>Institutions Community colleges tripled since 1950’s 1940: 456 colleges 1980: 1,265 colleges Increased construction of 4 year institutions 1940: 1,260 facilities 1980: 1,963 facilities Of Commuter Students . . . “ . . . Nonresidents, part-time, and working students reflected a significant change in the way post secondary education was experienced . . . gaining their initial collegiate experience in a setting that may not have differed much from high schools” (Kim and Rury, 2007, p. 312). Trend Over time the student population has relied to a greater extent on employment while attending school, and the student population has gotten older. (Dongbin & Rury, 2007; Higher Education Act, 1965; U. S. Department of, 2006)
More Progress Trend The High School Diploma is a critical barrier to college entry. By 1980 the college attendance rates of most demographic groups converged and were nearly equal among high school graduates. Exception: Hispanic populations enroll in post-secondary education at about half the rate of both black and white students. Regional Differences: The South nation’s lowest achieving region High School Graduation: 1940: 30% below nation 1980: 10% below nation College attendance for high school grads: 1940: nearly equal to rest of nation 1980: nearly equal to rest of nation Financial Support Higher Ed. Act of 1965 provided funds for: Grants, Fellowships, Student Loans, Work Study, Teacher Preparation Library, Institution and equipment Professional Development 2006 calls are for institutional efficiency Streamlined FAFSA application (Dongbin & Rury, 2007; Higher Education Act, 1965; U. S. Department of, 2006)
1947 Truman Commission - Progress Report Each of the concerns raised by the Truman Commission were addressed, some were accomplished, some took longer than expected and some still remain with work in progress or are a concern today. (Gilbert & Heller, 2010; Kim & Rury, 2007; Higher Education Act, 1965; U. S. Department of, 2006) Differentiate distribution of federal aid to aid state institutional development . 10 Expand adult education programs 9 Establish community colleges 8 Federal support for student and general aid 7 PROGRESS Revise graduate and professional study 6 Eliminate systemic racial and religious discrimination 5 Free college attendance through the first two years 4 PROGRESS Integrate vocational and liberal education 3 Double college attendance by 1960 (delayed until the 70’s) 2 Unique U. S. models of higher education 1 Goal Complete
2006: Areas of Concern noted by the Spellings Commission <ul><li>Higher education becoming “. . . risk adverse, . . . self-satisfied and unduly expensive.” </li></ul><ul><li>National college attainment fallen from 1st in the world to 12th and high school completion has fallen to 16th. </li></ul><ul><li>Post-secondary education needed by all, not necessarily a college degree. </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary schools need support – inspiration lacking, college access information absent. </li></ul><ul><li>High levels of student remediation required, graduates lack mastery of reading, writing, thinking and work skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Students challenged to persist through higher education. </li></ul><ul><li>Students experience an expectations gap between secondary and higher education. </li></ul>A Test of Leadership: Charting the Future of U.S. Higher Education (U. S. Department of, 2006)
2006: Remaining and Emerging Concerns Spellings Commission Human Capital Development – emerging concern 1947 – educated populous offered enhanced diplomacy, 2006 – an economic imperative 10 National strategy for Lifelong-Learning coupled with fluid and nimble educational opportunities 9 Attention to Globalization - adaptable to changing demographics 8 <ul><li>Cost of higher education mediated through greater efficiency (not additional student aid) </li></ul><ul><li>Restructure FAFSA for easier completion </li></ul>7 Value added measures for learning outcomes – reportable to students and parents 6 <ul><li>Age of target students advanced </li></ul><ul><li>Access to underrepresented populations – including educationally underprepared, economically disadvantaged and students lacking social capital </li></ul><ul><li>Community support needed </li></ul>5 <ul><li>Enhance course transferability from community college system </li></ul><ul><li>Dual enrollment while in high school </li></ul>4 Higher education redefined: includes public and private education, trade schools, on-line schools, professional training, technical college, community college, 4 year, graduate and professional programs. 3 <ul><li>All students need post-secondary education, not necessarily college degree </li></ul><ul><li>60% post-secondary degree attainment by 2025 </li></ul>2 Enhance educational models - include innovation and flexibility, hybrid, cafeteria style delivery, course transferability 1
Conclusion: <ul><li>The Truman Commission offered a landmark foray into the question of how higher education supports our nation and how it should receive support from the nation. </li></ul><ul><li>The Commission opened a dialog that found national value in developing a populous educated beyond high school as a means of preserving democracy and sustaining world peace. </li></ul><ul><li>It identified the function of higher education and set goals for enriching the educated population of the United states. </li></ul><ul><li>It specifically addressed racial and religious diversity, but significantly overlooked female student participation. </li></ul><ul><li>It offered a framework for future progress in the college access arena and set the stage for contemplation of human capital as a national resource and investment in our national higher educational system as a priority in support of this national resource. </li></ul><ul><li>Today’s dialogue in college access and economic strength in a globalized economy builds upon the strategic thinking captured within President Truman’s Commission on Higher Education. </li></ul>
References <ul><li>1944: Servicemen's Readjustment Act (GI Bill). (1944, June 22). [Legislation]. Retrieved January 19, 2012, from All American Patriots Web site: http://www.allamericanpatriots.com/american_historical_documents_1944_servicemens_readjustment_act_gi_bill </li></ul><ul><li>Brock, T. (2010). The changing landscape of higher education: 1965 - 2005. The Future of Children: a Collaboration of the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University and the Brookings Institution, 20(1), 109-132. Retrieved February 2, 2012, from The future of Children Web site: http://www.futureofchildren.org/futureofchildren/publications/journals/article/index.xml?journalid=72&articleid=523 </li></ul><ul><li>Dongbin, K., & Rury, J. (2007). The changing profile of college access: The Truman Commission and enrollment patters in the postwar era. History of Education Quarterly, 47(3), 302-327. </li></ul><ul><li>Harry S. Truman: "Special Message to the Congress on Greece and Turkey: The Truman Doctrine," March 12, 1947. Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=12846. </li></ul><ul><li>Harry S. Truman Library and Museum. (December 15, 1947). Statement by the President making public a report of the Commission on Higher Education [Public Papers of the Presidents: Harry S. Truman 1945-1953]. Available February 4, 2012, from Harry S. Truman Library and Museum Web site: http:// www.trumanlibrary.org / publicpapers / index.php?pid =1852&st=Commission+on+HIgher+Education&st1 = </li></ul><ul><li>Higher Education Act, 89 U.S.C. § 329 (1965). </li></ul><ul><li>Hutcheson, P. (2007). The Truman Commission's vision of the future. The NEA Higher Education Journal, Fall, 107-115. </li></ul><ul><li>U. S. Department of Education. (2006). A test of leadership: Charting the future of U. S. higher education (A report of the commission appointed by Secretary of Education Margaret Spellings). Retrieved February 4, 2012, from U. S. Department of Education Web site: http://www.ed.gov/about/bdscomm/list/hiedfuture/index.html </li></ul><ul><li>Zook, G. (1947). The President's Commission on Higher Education. Bulletin of the American Association of University Professors, 33 (1), 10-28. Retrieved February 5, 2012, from JSTOR Archive Web site: http://www.jstor.org/stable/40221180 </li></ul>