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Topic two

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  • 1. TOPIC TWO MEDIA FOR ELECTRONIC RECORDS KEEPING 8/27/2013 1By Mr.Rutta M.P
  • 2. MWOMBEKI RUTTA • He is a Records Management Officer at National Museum of Tanzania. • Currently, he is finalizing his first bachelor degree in Public Administration in Records and Archives Management at Mzumbe University. • He is an active member of Tanzania Records and Archives Management Professionals. 8/27/2013 By Mr.Rutta M.P 2
  • 3. Mwombeki Rutta 8/27/2013 By Mr.Rutta M.P 3
  • 4. Intro… • Electronic records must be stored as other paper based records so as to transact the purpose of their creation and to support the business of the organization. E-records are stored on digital media. Digital media can be divided into three main types: • Magnetic Media • Optical Media • Solid State Media 8/27/2013 4By Mr.Rutta M.P
  • 5. Access to the information • Based on the characteristics of the different types of media, access to the information is divided into two categories, sequential and random access. • Sequential. Sequential access requires the user to access specific information by accessing the preceding information on the medium. For example, if you want to view a specific portion of magnetic tape, you must first fast-forward through the preceding portion of the tape. 8/27/2013 5By Mr.Rutta M.P
  • 6. Access to the information • Random. Some digital media allow users to access the stored information from any physical place on the media. For example, when you connect a flash drive to your computer or insert a DVD, you can access any single file stored on the media without having to first access all the files that precede it. 8/27/2013 6By Mr.Rutta M.P
  • 7. MAGNETIC STORAGE MEDIA • Is a media which uses different patterns of magnetization to represent bits stored information. It is a storage device for electronic records which is coated by magnetic substances to alter the magnetic state of the device. • This media has come into use ever since the 1950s. 8/27/2013 7By Mr.Rutta M.P
  • 8. Magnetic tapes can be in terms of • Digital audio tape(DAT) • Video tape Magnetic media include the following • Hard or Floppy disks • Magnetic tapes 8/27/2013 8By Mr.Rutta M.P
  • 9. • HARD DISK • Is a stiff magnetic disk on which electronic records and computer programmes are stored. • • FLOPPY DISKS • Is a small magnetic disk that is used for electronic records and computer programmes. • 8/27/2013 9By Mr.Rutta M.P
  • 10. ADVANTAGES OF MAGNETIC MEDIA • Provide high capacity at lower costs • More reliable: can be trusted and works well • More available because it is not vulnerable to the vagaries of the market place. 8/27/2013 10By Mr.Rutta M.P
  • 11. DISADVANTAGES • It is vulnerable to the damages caused by high humidity and changes in temperature • Can be corrupted if exposed to other magnetic fields • It allows only serial access which is slow in nature(one after the other) 8/27/2013 11By Mr.Rutta M.P
  • 12. OPTICAL STORAGE MEDIA • Come into use since 1980s.Optical media makes use of the light form a lazer beam to records and retrieve machine readable information. • Most of optical devices are in disk forms. 8/27/2013 12By Mr.Rutta M.P
  • 13. TYPES OF OPTICAL STORAGE MEDIA • Re Writable Optical storage • Write once optic storage • Read Only Optical storage 8/27/2013 13By Mr.Rutta M.P
  • 14. Re Writable Optical storage • The user is able to write on these discs, erase them, and write to them again .Example :CDs rewritable, DVDs rewritable CHARACTERISTICS • Disks are re-usable. • Content can be modified 8/27/2013 14By Mr.Rutta M.P
  • 15. Write once optic storage • User is able to write on of these discs once but if unused space is available. But existing documents cannot be manipulated .Example: WORM(Write once, read many times),CD&DVD RECORDABLE(CD-R,DVD-R) • Characteristics • Recording is possible if there is un used space in the disk. • Existing documents can not be altered 8/27/2013 15By Mr.Rutta M.P
  • 16. Read Only Optical storage • User is not able to write to a -ROM disc.He is able to read only.eg.CR-ROM,DVD-ROM • Characteristics • User cannot write to disk but can only reed the content at the published document • 8/27/2013 16By Mr.Rutta M.P
  • 17. ADVANTAGES OF OPTIC MEDIA • Provide faster access to information than the magnetic media • Less vulnerable to high temperature and relative humidity • Are not affected by magnetic fields 8/27/2013 17By Mr.Rutta M.P
  • 18. DISADVANTAGES • Not so suitable for the storage of high volumes of information • Easily affected by careless handling practices which leads to abrasion and scratches • 8/27/2013 18By Mr.Rutta M.P
  • 19. SOLID STATE MEDIA • Solid state media is used in various removable devices utilizing flash memory including digital cameras, cell phones, computer games, music players, and video recorders. Small cards and “memory sticks” store images, games, music, data, programs, and video. Storage capacities of these cards or sticks are ever increasing; when they were originally introduced their size was between 32 MB and 512 MB; there are now models that can store over a terabyte. 8/27/2013 19By Mr.Rutta M.P
  • 20. SOLID STATE MEDIA • Memory cards and flash drives (memory sticks) can be connected to a computer via card reader or USB port to assist with data transfer between devices. The small size, portability, and no moving parts make solid state media attractive. Data is accessed randomly. All formats are re-writable. Long- term storage capabilities of solid state technology are still being studied. 8/27/2013 20By Mr.Rutta M.P
  • 21. Some examples of solid state media are listed below. • Flash Memory Cards. Memory cards are made in a variety of sizes and range from around an inch square to around a centimeter long. Larger cards are often used in digital cameras and smaller cards in cell phones. There is a great variety of card types in use as well as the storage size of the cards. • USB Flash Drives. Connected to a computer via a USB port, these ‘drives’ (storage devices) are a very portable option for data transfer. 8/27/2013 21By Mr.Rutta M.P
  • 22. Digital Media Capacity • various types of media store different amounts of data. Storage capacity and file size is measured in bytes, the basic unit of measurement. • 1,024 bytes make a kilobyte (KB) • 1,024 KBs make a megabyte (MB) • 1,024 MBs make a gigabyte (GB) • 1,024 GBs make a terabyte (TB) • 1,024 TBs make a petabyte (PB) 8/27/2013 22By Mr.Rutta M.P
  • 23. • To best determine what media you would like to store files on, you will need to understand the amount of storage you need now as well as in the future. This will help determine which storage option is the best for you. 8/27/2013 23By Mr.Rutta M.P
  • 24. Media Life Expectancy • All digital media has finite life spans which are dependent on a number of factors, including manufacturing quality, age and condition before recording, handling and maintenance, frequency of access, and storage conditions. Studies have indicated that under optimal conditions, the life expectancy of magnetic media ranges from 10 to 20 years for different types, while optical media may last as long as 30 years. However, in real life situations, most media life expectancies are significantly less. 8/27/2013 24By Mr.Rutta M.P
  • 25. SELECTION OF MEDIA • The following factors should be considered  LONGEVITY: The media should have a proven life of at least 10 years. Any longer life span is not necessary due to obsolescence of technology  CAPACITY: The media storage option should provide storage capacity as per the quantity of data to be stored. The volume of records that you can store on the medium will be a key consideration. Examine the volume of the records you now store, and try to determine what your needs may be in the future. Consider the official definition of a record and whether that definition will affect the records volume that you need to manage. 8/27/2013 25By Mr.Rutta M.P
  • 26. VIABILITY: The media chosen should support robuster error detection for both reading and writing data. Data recovery technology should be available in case of data loss. Media should be write once or should have mechanism to protect alteration of data OBSOLESCENCE: The media supporting the hardware and software to be used should be on its mature stage rather than leading edge technology. 8/27/2013 26By Mr.Rutta M.P
  • 27. COST: Consider the costs for purchasing the media and for maintaining the media(hardware and soft ware) SUSCEPTIBILITY: The media should have low susceptibility to physical damage and should sustain in a wider range of environment conditions without data loss. 8/27/2013 27By Mr.Rutta M.P
  • 28. SPEED OF ACCESS: When selecting a digital storage medium, consider how quickly you or authorized members of the public may need to access your records. You may find that some types of records require fast access, while others do not. For example, you may need fast access to key policy decisions, but not to employee records. • 8/27/2013 28By Mr.Rutta M.P

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