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US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
US History Review- THE BEAST
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US History Review- THE BEAST

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  • 1. The Beast An EOC Exam Prep
  • 2.  
  • 3. 1. What two issues did Washington warn America about in his farewell speech? Beware of permanent alliances with Europe and be wary of the disunity caused by political parties
  • 4. 2. What was the purpose of the Judiciary Act of 1789? To establish the structure of the Supreme Court and other federal courts
  • 5. 3. How did Marbury v. Madison establish the concept of judicial review? By giving the Supreme Court the right to review laws for constitutionality.
  • 6. 4. What effect did Chief Justice John Marshall have on the Supreme Court? The Supreme Court grew strong under his leadership
  • 7. 5. Why was Jefferson opposed to Hamilton’s proposal for a national bank? He thought it gave too much control to the federal government and the national elite
  • 8. 6. How did Hamilton gain Southern support for his financial policies? He agreed to place the nation’s capitol in the South
  • 9. 7. Why was the federal solution to the Whiskey Rebellion important? It was the first use of the army to enforce federal law within the states
  • 10. 8. What was the significance of the Erie Canal? It opened the Midwest to the Hudson River and international trade
  • 11. 9. Whose individual rights were abused by John Adams’ Alien and Sedition Act in the 1790s? All Americans: The Democratic-Republicans called the laws a violation of freedom of speech guaranteed by the First Amendment
  • 12. 10. What right did some white women have during the Federalist period? Women in New Jersey were accidentally given the right to vote when their constitution said “people” rather than “men” in 1776 but was rescinded in 1777.
  • 13. 11. Why was the election of 1800 considered a “political revolution”? Jefferson promised to return to the republican ideals of the people having the power as opposed to the strong central government policies of the Federalists
  • 14. 12. What was the significance of the invention of the cotton gin? It made the production of short-strand cotton extremely profitable, as long as the use of slave labor increased
  • 15. 13. What was the Federalist’s opposition to the Embargo Act of 1807? By banning exports to other countries, Jefferson hoped to force them to recognize America’s neutrality. Federalist’s thought it would hurt international relations and limit free trade
  • 16. 14. Who were Tecumseh and the Prophet? A Shawnee chief and his brother used by the British to interfere with American progress
  • 17. 15. What was America’s foreign policy before the War of 1812? Neutrality
  • 18. 16. In 1812, why did the U.S. go to war with England and not France? Because of the British policy of impressing American sailors into their navy
  • 19. 17. What was the significance of the 1815 Battle of New Orleans? Andrew Jackson gained fame by showing that Americans could defeat a superior military force (even though a peace agreement had been signed the previous month)
  • 20. 18. Where did America get its operating funds prior to 1860? Tariffs on imports, excise taxes, and the sale of land
  • 21. 19. What philosophical conflict did the Louisiana Purchase cause Jefferson and the Democrat-Republicans? The Constitution did not give the president the right to purchase land and they supported a strict interpretation of the Constitution
  • 22. 20. What was the objective of the journeys of Lewis and Clark? To explore Jefferson's new purchase to see what we had bought
  • 23. 21. What natural boundary separated the territory acquired from England at the end of the Revolutionary War from that of the Louisiana Purchase? The Mississippi River
  • 24. 22. What was the impact of the Treaty of Greenville on Native Americans from 1790 to 1820? It set the precedent of the U.S. of buying Native American lands for much less than they were worth
  • 25.  
  • 26. 23. What artistic trend closely followed American nationalism? The Hudson River School of Art
  • 27. 24. What were the characteristics of the Hudson River School of Art? Paintings of the Hudson River Valley landscape and other American themes
  • 28. 25. How were the conflicts with Native Americans resolved before the 1820s? By buying their lands at a cheap price and moving them westward
  • 29. 26. What were the qualifications to vote prior to 1820? You had to be a white male property owner
  • 30. 27. What was Pinckney’s treaty all about? Spain gave up all claim to lands east of the Mississippi (except Florida) and opened New Orleans and the Mississippi river to American trade traffic
  • 31. 28. What did the Virginia-Kentucky Resolutions, the Hartford Convention, and the Webster-Hayne debate have in common? They were all states rights issues
  • 32. 29. What region of the country did early protective tariffs tend to harm? The South and its farmers
  • 33. 30. What effects did the Transcendental Movement have on American society? Ralph Waldo Emerson popularized the idea of living the simple life outside any organized system of belief, a philosophy that became distinctly American
  • 34. 31. Who played a prominent role in education reform in the early 1800s? Horace Mann
  • 35. 32. What did Dorothea Dix accomplish? She helped reform prisons and the institutions for the mentally ill with the idea of rehabilitation
  • 36. 33. What religious movement was led by Charles Grandison Finney? The Second Great Awakening
  • 37. 34. Who was Elizabeth Cady Stanton? How about Susan B. Anthony? They were all about fighting for women’s rights, especially the right to vote
  • 38. 35. How did William Lloyd Garrison’s newspaper The Liberator increase tensions in a divided America? His ideas of immediate emancipation with no compensation were opposed by many whites
  • 39. 36. What was the result of Andrew Jackson’s 1830 Indian Removal Act? Native Americans were forcibly removed from the east and relocated to the Oklahoma Territory, often on a “trail of tears”
  • 40. 37. In the case of Worchester v. Georgia , who did the Supreme Court side with? Worchester and the Cherokee Indians
  • 41. 38. Why was John C. Calhoun considered the champion of state’s rights? Andrew Jackson’s vice president devised the theory of nullification , the idea that states could question the legality of federal laws
  • 42. 39. How did Andrew Jackson respond to South Carolina’s nullification of the Tariffs of Abomination of 1828 and 1832? With the Force Acts and the threat of federal troops
  • 43. 40. What was the relationship between the invention of the cotton gin and the institution of slavery? The gin made the processing of short-strand cotton an extremely profitable pursuit when powered by the labor of slaves
  • 44. 41. What crucial political issue of America in the antebellum years was caused by America’s expansion westward? The expansion of slavery into the new territories
  • 45. 42. Why did Americans bring their families and their slaves to Northern Mexico? For the Mexican promise of free land
  • 46. 43. What caused the delay in annexing the Republic of Texas into the United States? The North did not want to bring in another slave state and upset the Senate balance between free and slave states
  • 47. 44. What conflict was behind the “54-40 or Fight” slogan? The question of who owned the Oregon Territory that was jointly controlled by the U.S. and England was settled peaceably in 1854
  • 48. 45. Why did the Mormons move west? Religious persecution in the East
  • 49. 46. What was the justification for the U.S. declaration of war against Mexico in the 1840s? Manifest Destiny , America’s belief in its god-given right to the continent from ocean to ocean
  • 50. 47. How did the question of sectionalism arise in Mexican-American war? Northerners feared that newly acquired lands would be used to expand slavery and its political power
  • 51. 49. What led to the diversification of the population of California in the late 1840s? The California gold rush
  • 52. 50. How did the Compromise of 1850 most benefit the South? The Fugitive Slave Act called for authorities in the North to actively work to return escaped slaves
  • 53. 51. Who was to decide the slavery question in the new territories of Utah and New Mexico? The people, by Popular Sovereignty .
  • 54. 52. What was the Brooks-Sumner Affair? Congressman Preston Brooks of South Carolina cane-whipping of Charles Sumner on the floor of the Senate, after Sumner disparaged the honor of Brooks’ uncle.
  • 55. 53. What political party of the 1850s believed in the favoring of native-born Americans? The Know-Nothing party
  • 56. 54. What did the Free-Soil party oppose? The expansion of slavery into the territories, limiting the opportunities of free men
  • 57. 55. What contribution did the Dred Scott Supreme Court decision make on sectionalism? It negated the Missouri Compromise and focused the slavery issue as a matter of property
  • 58. 56. How did the Dred Scott Supreme Court case address slavery and the Missouri Compromise? It ruled that African Americans were not and could never be citizens and negated the Missouri Compromise as unconstitutional
  • 59. 57. What was at issue in the Lincoln-Douglas debates? Expansion of slavery into the territories. Douglas believed in popular sovereignty (the people’s choice) while Lincoln thought slavery was politically and morally wrong
  • 60. 58. What was the result of the Harper’s Ferry raid? It increased Southern fears of slave revolt and resulted in tighter control on slaves
  • 61. 59. What was Lincoln’s position on the issue of slavery? He believed that slavery was morally and politically wrong
  • 62. 60. What was the immediate cause of the secession of South Carolina from the Union? The election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860
  • 63. 61. What four candidates ran for president in the 1860 election? Abraham Lincoln as a Republican, Stephen Douglas as a Northern Democrat, John Breckinridge as a Southern Democrat, and John Bell as a Constitutional Union candidate
  • 64. 62. What was Lincoln’s stated goal at the start of the Civil War? To preserve the Union
  • 65. 63. How did the loss of the Battle of Gettysburg most damage Southern efforts to win the Civil War? Lee gave up hopes of invading the North and Southern plans for European support were weakened
  • 66. 64. Why was the fall of Vicksburg considered one of the turning points of the Civil War? It completed one of the goals of the Anaconda Plan by cutting the South in half at the Mississippi
  • 67. 65. How did the Civil War end the debate over the nullification issue? The war forever settled the question of the federal government’s supremacy in America
  • 68. 66. What was Lincoln’s plan for Reconstruction? The lenient 10 Percent Plan
  • 69. 67. What action abolished slavery in the U.S.? The Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution
  • 70. 68. What were black codes? Local laws in the South meant to place restrictions on freed slaves similar to slavery
  • 71. 69. What was the purpose of the Civil Rights Act of 1866? Gave African Americans citizenship and forbade black codes (but was vetoed by Johnson)
  • 72. 70. What constitutional amendment promised equal protection under the law while guaranteeing freed slaves citizenship rights? The Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution
  • 73.  
  • 74. 71. Why did large numbers of African American families leave the South after 1865? To escape the plantation/slavery lifestyle and to look for opportunities for a new life
  • 75. 72. Who did share-cropping and tenant farming benefit the most? Landowners (rarely the black farmers doing the work)
  • 76. 73. Why did the Radical Republicans try to impeach Johnson? Because he believed Reconstruction should welcome the South back into the Union with open arms, a position that conflicted with the Radical Republican's desire to punish the rebels
  • 77. 74. Why did Congress pass the Reconstruction Act of 1867? To wrest control from President Johnson so they could punish the South for the war and provide for the freed slaves
  • 78. 75. How were Southern state governments controlled in the South during Reconstruction? Southern Democrats were forcibly removed from power by the military governors and replaced by Republicans
  • 79. 76. What were the failures of Reconstruction? It failed to make real progress against discrimination and the plight of the freed slaves and delayed the reconciliation of the Union
  • 80. 77. What event marked the end of Reconstruction in the South? The Compromise of 1877
  • 81. 78. What president terminated Reconstruction to get elected? Rutherford B. Hayes
  • 82. 79. How did Democrats regain power in the South after Reconstruction? After redemption , by restricting the rights of freed African Americans with grandfather clauses, poll taxes, and literacy tests
  • 83. 80. How were the conflicts with Native Americans resolved after the Civil War? By forcing them onto smaller and smaller reservations and pushing assimilation
  • 84. 81. What was the purpose of the Morrill Land Grant Act? To help finance agricultural colleges to help farmers succeed in the West
  • 85. 82. How did the invention and widespread use of barbwire change the West? It ended the era of open range ranching
  • 86. 83. How did Native Americans pass tradition and culture to their children? Through stories, myths, games, and good examples
  • 87. 84. How did the Central Pacific railroad company treat Chinese workers? They were paid less than whites, and suffered miserable working conditions
  • 88. 85. What was the leading characteristic of a bonanza farm? They were huge, single-crop farms
  • 89. 86. What was the Dawes Act of 1887? It encouraged the assimilation of Native Americans into white culture by giving them land in an effort to turn them into farmers
  • 90. 87. How did the U.S. dictate changes in the lives of Native Americans? Persecution and forced assimilation
  • 91. 88. What factor most changed life for the Plains Indians? Destruction of the buffalo
  • 92. 89. What last major battle brought the Indian wars to a bitter end? The massacre at Wounded Knee
  • 93. 90. How did a strong military presence in the West cause incidents such as the Massacre at Sand Creek? The military mission was to spare no effort to ensure Native Americans did not interfere with white expansion west
  • 94. 91. What technology had the greatest impact on settling the West? The Railroad
  • 95. 92. What act encouraged farmers to pack up and join the expansion West? The Homestead Act of 1862
  • 96. 93. How did railroads change farming practices in the expansion westward? It gave farmers the ability to economically transport their goods to the hungry markets back east
  • 97. 94. What was the greatest economic grievances of farmers in the South and the West in the late 19th century? Abuse by banks and the railroad and lack of political power and a shortage of money
  • 98. 95. Who took advantage of farmers in the late 1800s? Everyone, including bankers, the railroads, and politicians
  • 99. 96. What group supported the Interstate Commerce Act? Farmers represented by the Grange and other farmer alliances
  • 100. 97. In the late 1800s, why did acreage increase while the number of farmers decrease within the agricultural community? Improved farming practices and equipment
  • 101. 98. Why did the Populist movement decline in America? The loss of support for farmers by voters in the industrial Midwest in the election of 1896
  • 102. 99. What business practices of John D. Rockefeller drew criticism? He reaped huge profits while paying extremely low wages. He also stifled free competition with his use of trusts.
  • 103. 100. Who led America in the fields of oil, steel, and railroads? John D. Rockefeller, Andrew Carnegie, and William Vanderbilt
  • 104. 101. What new theory of the late 19 th Century explained Andrew Carnegie’s success? Social Darwinism
  • 105. 102. What was the target of the Sherman Anti-trust Act? Companies like Rockefeller’s Standard Oil who attempted to stifle free competition
  • 106. 103. What stimulated the growth of labor unions during the Industrial Age of the late 1800s? The successes of business leaders drove workers to join together to improve poor working conditions, long hours, unsafe jobs, and poor wages
  • 107. 104. What resulted from the Haymarket Square Riots? The violence caused the public to turn against the labor movement in the late 1800s
  • 108. 105. What did Eugene V. Debs, Samuel Gompers, and Mother Jones have in common? They were all early labor leaders
  • 109. 106. What late 19th Century policy was seen as a violation of the 14th Amendment? “Separate but equal”, which seemed to violate the 14 th Amendment’s idea of equal protection under the law
  • 110. 107. How did the Plessey v. Ferguson affect the nation? It set America on a 54-year policy of ‘separate but equal” enforced by Jim Crow laws
  • 111. 108. What were the immigration trends of the late 1800s and the early 1900s? Immigrants came from southern and eastern Europe into the East and from China and Japan into the West
  • 112. 109. What was the criticism against Chinese immigrants in the 1880s? Nativism sparked fears that the Chinese would take jobs at lower wages, resulting in the Chinese Exclusion Act limiting immigration
  • 113. 110. What late 1800s development assisted in selling U.S. manufactured products? Imperialism opened markets to American goods all over the world
  • 114. 111. How was the concept of Social Darwinism used to justify U.S. imperialism? It was thought that the strongest had the right to dictate to the weaker how the world was going to be
  • 115. 112. What did Poncho Villa do? He was one of the leaders in the Mexican Revolution whose raids into U.S. border towns forced military intervention by the Americans
  • 116. 113. Why did Alfred T. Mahan think it essential that America expand its borders in the Imperialism era? He thought that America as a strong naval power was necessary to compete in the land-grabbing Imperialism era
  • 117. 114. How did America acquire Alaska? The territory was purchased from Russia in 1867 for $7.2 million (around 2 cents and acre)
  • 118. 115. Why did Teddy Roosevelt build the Great White Fleet? To project American power throughout the world
  • 119. 116. How and why did the U.S. annex Hawaii? American sugar plantation owners seized power from the queen of Hawaii, then quickly got the U.S. to annex the territory. The islands were needed as a strategic gas station for the U.S. Navy halfway across the Pacific
  • 120. 117. What was the American motivation behind its open door policy with China? An equal sharing of trading rights with no monopolies
  • 121. 118. What country did the Platt Amendment attempt to control? Cuba, after it gained its freedom from Spain following the Spanish-American War of 1898
  • 122. 119. What territories did America acquire as a result of the Spanish-American War of 1898 Cuba, Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines
  • 123. 120. What and who were the muckrakers of the Progressive era? Investigative journalists who attempted to expose social ills such as Ida Tarbell, Upton Sinclair, and Lincoln Steffens
  • 124. 121. Why was the passing of the 17th Amendment important? It provided for the direct election of U.S. senators, taking power away from state governments and giving it to the voters
  • 125. 122. What muckraker exposed the cutthroat methods used by Standard Oil to eliminate competition? Ida Tarbell
  • 126. 123. How did the Pendleton Civil Service Act solve the problem of patronage? By requiring most federal jobs to be filled by merit and testing
  • 127. 124. How were William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer leaders in yellow journalism? They lured and enraged readers with their sensationalist style of reporting in their newspapers, inciting America to go to war with Spain in 1898
  • 128. 125. What did Teddy Roosevelt feel was the federal government’s role in the economy? He felt that the president should be a powerful leader in national affairs like the economy to prevent big business from exploiting the workers
  • 129. 126. What theme was portrayed by the Ashcan School of Art? Urban life and working people with gritty realism and no frills
  • 130. 127. What was the purpose of the Roosevelt Corollary ? Adding to the Monroe Doctrine , he warned that disorder in Latin America might force the U.S. to act as an international police power to protect America’s economic interests
  • 131. 128. What effect on the Progressive Movement was brought about by the popularity of the referendum? It allowed voters, rather than legislators, to propose and vote directly on new laws, winning political power for ordinary citizens
  • 132. 129. What were the goals of the Social Gospel movement in America? As a reform movement, they preached salvation through service to the poor, especially in urban slums with settlement houses
  • 133. 130. What woman stands out as the most influential member of the Social Gospel movement in Chicago? Jane Addams
  • 134. 131. What was President Taft’s role in the Progressive Era? Taft’s conservative and cautious approach to reform was thought to lose many of the gains under Roosevelt
  • 135. 132. What played a major influence on the election of 1912? Teddy Roosevelt’s Bull Moose Party split the Republican vote with Taft, allowing Woodrow Wilson to win
  • 136. 133. How did W.E.B. Du Bois differ from Booker T. Washington on the issue of African-American education? Washington believed that racism would gradually end when blacks acquired useful labor skills. Du Bois insisted they needed a liberal arts education.
  • 137. 134. What are political machines? Organized groups that controlled a political party in a city, offering services to voters and businesses in exchange for political or financial support
  • 138. 135. What presidential reforms came during the Progressive movement? Trustbusting, health and the environment, and conservation
  • 139. 136. Who was behind the Eighteenth Amendment responsible for Prohibition? The Women’s Christian Temperance Movement and the Anti-Saloon League led by Frances Willard and Carry Nation
  • 140. 137. What were the four main causes of the European conflict called the Great War? Militarism, Alliances, Imperialism, and Nationalism
  • 141. 138. What event led directly to U.S. involvement in World War One? Germany’s declaration of unrestricted submarine warfare against the United States
  • 142. 139. What was the primary form of battle during WWI? Trench Warfare
  • 143. 140. What American politicians found the Treaty of Versailles the least acceptable? Some like Herbert Hoover thought the treaty too harsh. Some ethnic groups were unhappy with the new territorial boundaries.
  • 144. 141. What was the main reason the Senate rejected the Treaty of Versailles after WWI? They feared that membership in the League of Nations would interfere with U.S. foreign policy
  • 145. 142. What effect did England and France’s threat of higher tariffs have on the passage of the Treaty of Versailles? The threats were ignored
  • 146. 143. How did the Treaty of Versailles set the stage for the coming of WWII in thirty short years? Germany was stripped of all economic and military power and was embarrassed by having to accept all responsibility for the war. It set the stage for Germany’s takeover by the little Austrian
  • 147. 144. What was responsible for the rise of nativism in the early 20th century? American involvement in the vast destruction of WWI caused a wave of nativism and calls for isolationism
  • 148. 145. What was the Justice Department’s reaction to post-WWI fears about communism? The “ Red Scare ” was fought by the U.S. Attorney General with his Palmer Raids against communists and anarchists and led to the prosecution of Sacco and Vanzetti
  • 149. 146. What was the result of the 1920s Red Scare? Deportation of radicals and limits on immigration
  • 150. 147. What economic impact was realized by Henry Ford’s introduction of the moving assembly line? It sped up production by improving efficiency but required workers to perform like machines
  • 151. 148. How did the advent of the mail-order catalogue change advertising? It greatly improved the availability of goods to consumers, resulting in the targeting of these consumers of specific products by advertisers
  • 152. 149. What significant event damaged President Harding’s reputation? The Teapot Dome Scandal, among other scandals, significantly damaged the reputation of Harding’s administration
  • 153. 150. What did flappers symbolize in the 1920s? A new, more assertive kind of women who embraced the new fashions and urban attitudes of the day
  • 154. 151. What was the result of the rise of fundamentalism in the 1920s? The clash over evolution and the failure of prohibition were evidence of changing morals in a changing America
  • 155. 152. What was the significance of the Scopes Monkey Trial? A case of the science of evolution versus the fundamental beliefs of many Christians in the infallible truth of the Bible questioned the governments right to control religious influences in America
  • 156. 153. What were Calvin Coolidge’s policies on business practices? He was pro-business, favoring policies that kept taxes down and profits up
  • 157. 154. Give three of Harlem Renaissance artists. Zora Neale Hurston, Claude McKay, Langston Hughes, Paul Robeson, Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, and Bessie Smith
  • 158.  
  • 159. 155. What contributions did Marcus Garvey make in the 1920s? He founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association to promote black pride, economic independence, and reverence for Africa
  • 160. 156. Who led the Harlem Renaissance in literature? Novelist Claude McKay and poet Langston Hughes
  • 161. 157. Who, where, and what made up the movement called the Harlem Renaissance? The Harlem neighborhood of New York City led this literary and artistic movement celebrating African American culture
  • 162. 158. What were the reasons for the Stock Market crash of 1929? A farm crisis, living on credit, the uneven distribution of wealth, and poor investment practices
  • 163. 159. Name four causes of the Great Depression Crisis in the farm sector, easy credit, a drop in foreign trade caused by tariffs and war debt, and an unequal distribution of wealth
  • 164. 160. Why did the WWI veterans of the Bonus Army march on Washington, D.C.? In an attempt to get the government to give them an early payment on a promised war bonus
  • 165. 161. What new relationship developed between the federal government and individual citizens as a part of FDR’s New Deal? Roosevelt believed in a large, powerful government that would help the people, transforming the way American government works
  • 166. 162. What steps did FDR take to help American’s regain confidence in the banking system? He closed and inspected banks for stability and set up insurance for deposits (FDIC)
  • 167. 163. How did FDR’s new Deal programs help the farmer? The Agricultural Adjustment Act brought up prices by lowering production while the Tennessee Valley Authority created jobs while providing electricity to farm regions
  • 168. 164. What was the purpose of FDR’s New Deal program, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)? The TVA created jobs and provided flood control and hydroelectric power in impoverished areas
  • 169. 165. Why did the U.S. stay out of European affairs during the 1930s? Isolationists wanted to avoid the constant conflicts that had plagued Europe for centuries. World War I was just the most recent and deadliest of these.
  • 170. 166. What commitment was made between England and America with the Atlantic Charter? A 1941 joint declaration of war aims, to include speeding the entrance of the U.S. into the conflict
  • 171. 167. How did FDR get around congressional prohibitions against helping England? “Cash and Carry” and the Lend-Lease Plan
  • 172. 168. What was the relationship between the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and American isolationism? America’s desire to stay neutral seemed to blind many to the threat posed by the Axis Powers
  • 173. 169. What was the U.S. strategy for driving the Japanese back to its home islands? After Midway, the Allies planned to systematically win back territory island by island, called island hopping
  • 174. 170. Why was the Battle of Midway considered the turning point of WWII in the Pacific theater? It stopped the Japanese offensive and started the island hopping process on the way to the Japanese home islands
  • 175. 171. What battle was the turning point on the Eastern Front during WWII? The Battle of Stalingrad
  • 176. 172. What did the U.S. use to protect naval shipping during WWII? The convoy system, using naval ships to protect groups of transport as a shepherd guards his sheep
  • 177. 173. How was Rosie the Riveter an example of changing family life during WWII? It was an example of how women did their part in non-typical industrial work during the war
  • 178. 174. What was the result of Patton’s victory at the Battle of the Bulge? The battle would prove to be Germany’s last offensive of the war
  • 179. 175. Who was A. Philip Randolph and what was he protesting during WWII? A respected African American labor leader who demanded for his people the right to work and fight for freedom
  • 180. 176. What WWII event was in clear violation of individuals’ rights? The internment of Japanese Americans
  • 181. 177. What effect did Korematsu v. United States on individual rights in America? The Supreme Court affirmed that the government’s needs sometimes takes priority over individual needs during wartime
  • 182. 178. What happened at the Munich Conference? The Allies of England, France, and the Soviet Union agreed to transfer the Sudetenland to Germany in an example of appeasement
  • 183. 179. Why did Truman decide to use the atomic bomb on Japan? To shorten the war and save American lives
  • 184. 180. What was the U.S. policy governing use of the atomic bomb both during and after WWII? To use nuclear weapons to preserve the American lifestyle and later as a deterrent to Soviet aggression
  • 185. 181. What was the purpose of the Nuremberg Trials? To hold German leaders responsible for their crimes of war
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  • 187. 182. What provided for free education and inexpensive home loans for veterans after WWII? The G.I. Bill of Rights
  • 188. 183. How did America change after WWII? Good economic times, another wave of “red scare” nativism, and living under the constant threat of nuclear annihilation brought on by the Cold War
  • 189. 184. At the Potsdam Conference, from where did the Allies decide to take reparations for the war? From Germany that had been divided between them
  • 190. 185. What program provided financial aid to a devastated post-World War II Europe in the 1940s? The Marshall Plan
  • 191. 186. What Constitutional amendment provided the basis for the Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka Supreme Court decision? The Fourteenth Amendment that guarantees equal protection under the law for all citizens
  • 192. 187. How did Southern governors react to the Brown v. Board of Education Supreme Court decision? In many areas where African Americans were the majority, whites resisted desegregation
  • 193. 188. What international organization established in 1945 had responsibility for world peace? The United Nations
  • 194. 189. What was the typical government response to Cold War issues in the 1950s? Containment of communism was the policy and the Truman Doctrine helped nations fight off communist takeovers
  • 195. 190. Why did the Soviet Union form the Warsaw Pact? When West Germany was allowed to rearm, the Soviets grew fearful and organized their own military alliance
  • 196. 191. Who were the first U.S.citizens to be executed for espionage Ethel and Julius Rosenberg in 1953
  • 197. 192. What were Joseph McCarthy’s loyalty oaths? His attempts to require government officials to swear loyalty to the U.S. in an effort to root out communists
  • 198. 193. What post-WWII U.S foreign policy led to assistance for Greece and Turkey, the Berlin Airlift, and the Korean War? The Truman Doctrine
  • 199. 194. What was Truman’s “Fair Deal”? An economic program that extended FDR’s New Deal programs
  • 200. 195. What development led to the 1956 Interstate Highway Act? Automania and the move of the white middle class to the suburbs
  • 201. 196. What effect did the automobile have on the populations of cities in the 1950s. It resulted in the flight of many whites to the suburbs
  • 202. 197. What problems arose from the 1950s automobile boom? Noise, pollution, accidents, stress, and a widening of the gap between the middle class and the poor
  • 203. 198. What was the purpose of the Eisenhower Doctrine? To keep the Soviets out of the Middle East
  • 204. 199. What was Francis Gary Powers accused of by the Soviets in 1960? Piloting a U2 reconnaissance plane for the purpose of spying
  • 205. 200. What event started the Space Race? The Soviet launch of the first successful man-made satellite, Sputnik
  • 206. 201. How was the launching of Sputnik influenced by the Cold War? Brinkmanship led each country to try to prove its scientific, cultural, and intellectual superiority
  • 207. 202. What development was in immediate response to the Soviet success with Sputnik? In shock, America immediately poured money into their own space program, launching its own satellite three months later
  • 208. 203. What effect did the launching of Sputnik have on American education? It began an American push in the fields of science and math
  • 209. 204. What was Eisenhower’s opinion of America’s military-industrial complex? He felt that they bore a close watch as war had proven too profitable for both
  • 210. 205. What two movements of the 1950s were seen as examples of teenage rebellion? Rock and Roll and the Beat movement
  • 211. 206. What factors played a major part in JFK’s defeat of Nixon in the 1960 presidential election? His television persona, his civil rights position, and his selection of LBJ as a running mate
  • 212. 207. What was the diplomatic and economic relationship between Fidel Castro’s Cuba and the U.S.? Castro’s declaration of communism and confiscation of American properties in Cuba resulted in U.S. economic sanctions and a termination of diplomatic relations
  • 213. 208. What were the goals of John Kennedy’s Alliance for Progress? It was a foreign aid program to offer economic and technical assistance to Latin American countries in an effort to deter communism
  • 214. 209. Who was helped by Kennedy’s Alliance for Progress? Latin American countries
  • 215. 210. Why was the establishment of the Peace Corps critical to Kennedy’s policies? It helped define his “New Frontier” vision of progress
  • 216. 211. Why was the Cuban Missile Crisis such a potential disaster for the world? The Soviet threat and Kennedy’s response brought the two nations to the brink of thermonuclear war
  • 217. 212. Why did Nikita Khrushchev order the construction of the Berlin Wall? To staunch the flow of East Germans leaving their country for the freedom of the West
  • 218. 213. What group was appointed to investigate JFK’s death? The Warren Commission, chaired by Chief Justice of the Supreme Court Earl Warren
  • 219. 214. What president used the Tonkin Gulf Resolution to increase U.S. involvement in Vietnam? Lyndon Baines Johnson
  • 220. 215. What draft policy helped cause a disproportionate amount of African American deaths in Vietnam The college deferment
  • 221. 216. Explain the Domino Theory Eisenhower’s explanation of how Southeast Asian countries on the verge of communism would fall like dominoes one after the other if the U.S. did not intervene
  • 222. 217. What were the goals of NOW and the women’s movement? To fight discrimination by gender in the workplace, in health issues, and in all other places in society
  • 223. 218. What three women were prominent in the 1960s Feminist Movement? Gloria Steinem, Phyllis Schlafly, and Betty Friedan
  • 224. 219. What was the social movement centered in the Haight-Asbury area of San Francisco in the 1960s? The Hippie movement, marked by rock music, outrageous clothing, sexual license, and illegal drugs
  • 225. 220. Who were the “Little Rock Nine” Nine African-American high school students chosen to break the racial segregation barrier in Arkansas schools
  • 226. 221. Describe Martin Luther King Jr.’s concept of passive resistance King believed in the power of the peaceful refusal to obey unjust laws
  • 227. 222. What were SNCC and the Freedom Summer? The Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee organized black students as a national protest group. The Freedom Summer was a mostly white college student effort to register African American voters in the South
  • 228. 223. What 1960s civil rights leader opposed MLK? Malcolm X originally believed that whites were the cause of the black condition and that blacks should separate from white society
  • 229. 224. What trends appeared in the Hispanic community during the 1960s and 1970s? Mexican immigrants settled California and the Southwest while groups like Puerto Ricans and Cubans settled in eastern cities. In each case they followed the Civil Rights movement in an attempt to better themselves
  • 230. 225. Why was the Voting Rights Act of 1965 necessary? To abolish literacy tests as a requirement to vote that was used by many Southern states in an effort to control African American political power
  • 231. 226. What was the target of the Civil Rights Act of 1968? Unfair and discriminatory housing policies
  • 232. 227. What three issues were addressed with LBJ’s War on Poverty? Jobs, volunteerism, and education
  • 233. 228. How did decisions of the Earl Warren-led Supreme Court change America? Many felt the Court’s positions on school prayer and the rights of the accused were attacks on the majority for the benefit of the few
  • 234. 229. How did American public opinion affect the outcome of the Vietnam conflict? The success of Tet made the war look unwinnable and took much public support away from the war effort. Continued violence during Nixon’s administration forced a pullout of troops
  • 235. 230. What did the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution give LBJ? Almost unlimited power to involve America in a conflict with Vietnam
  • 236. 231. What Nixon policy led to the tragedy at Kent State? The invasion of Cambodia in 1970
  • 237.  
  • 238. 232. What were Nixon’s foreign policy accomplishments? Nixon’s diplomatic achievements with the Soviets and Communist China eased Cold War tensions and worked on reducing nuclear arsenals
  • 239. 233. Why was the Tet Offensive the turning point of the Vietnam conflict? It changed American public opinion about the war, many beginning to believe the war was unwinnable
  • 240. 234. Why did the massacre at My Lai cause such a dark time for the U.S. military? America was shocked at the brutality of the massacre of over 200 civilians at My Lai by U.S. troops
  • 241. 235. What was the purpose of the 26 th Amendment To give the right to vote to men being drafted and sent to Vietnam
  • 242. 236. How did American anti-war sentiments affect Richard Nixon’s Vietnam policies? Though pursuing a gradual troop pullout, events like My Lai, the invasion of Cambodia, and the incident at Kent State forced Nixon to respond to public opinion and bring the war to an end
  • 243. 237. What were the stipulations of the War Powers Act? The President must notify the Congress within 48 hours of sending forces into a hostile area without a declaration of war and a 90 day limit without Congressional approval
  • 244. 238. Who was behind the Watergate break-in and what were its ramifications? The break-in at the headquarters of Nixon’s opposition and the resulting cover-up attempt would eventually bring about the resignation of the president
  • 245. 239. What was Nixon trying to reduce with détente? Cold War tensions with the Soviet Union
  • 246. 240. What cities had problems caused by Supreme Court rulings about enforcing desegregation through busing? Violence broke out in cities such as Charlotte, Boston, and Detroit as busing was forced on the American public
  • 247. 241. What factor directly led to the decrease in air pollution in the 1970s? The Environmental Protection Agency and the two Clean Air Acts improved air pollution nationwide
  • 248. 242. How did the 1970s gas crisis affect America’s automobile industry? It brought about pollution controls on cars and opened the American market to gas efficient cars from Japan
  • 249. 243. What effect did the 1970s energy crisis have on the national economy? Energy problems caused economic problems throughout the Carter years with rising inflation and interest rates
  • 250. 244. What group of Hispanics did Cesar Chavez work to help in California? Migrant farm workers from Mexico
  • 251. 245. What happened at Wounded Knee in 1973? The American Indian Movement (AIM) led a seizure of the town in an effort to get the federal government to reexamine Native American treaty rights
  • 252. 246. What major events took place during the Carter presidency? An energy and economic crisis, the Camp David Accords, and the Iran Hostage crisis
  • 253. 247. Why did Jimmy Carter reorganize the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in the 1970s? As a result of the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island in Pennsylvania in 1979, safety standards were strengthened
  • 254. 248. What was the goal of the SALT treaties in the 1970s? An effort to reduce the number of nuclear weapons in the world
  • 255. 249. What was Jimmy Carter’s foreign policy toward South Africa in the 1970s? He worked to help South Africa rid itself of apartheid laws that forced racial segregation
  • 256. 250. What was involved in the Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (1978) court case and what was the ruling? The questions of affirmative action and reverse discrimination. The Court ruled that racial quotas are illegal but that race can still be considered as a factor in admissions
  • 257. 251. What was the issue in the Texas v. Johnson flag burning case? The Supreme Court ruled that burning an American flag as a political protest was an individual right to free speech guaranteed by the First Amendment
  • 258. 252. What was the focus of the New Right in the 1970s? Social conservative issues that were family oriented such as anti-abortion and anti-ERA
  • 259. 253. What event cost Carter the 1980 presidential election? The embarrassing Iranian Hostage Crisis that he failed to resolve
  • 260. 254. What event that came early in the Reagan presidency could have seriously hindered his ability to lead the nation? The assassination attempt of 1981
  • 261. 255. What were Reagan’s economic policies in the 1980s? “Reaganomics” involved tax cuts (supply side economics) and budget cuts in areas except for national defense, all working toward a smaller federal government
  • 262. 256. Who did Reagan call the “Evil Empire”? The Soviet Union and its allies
  • 263. 257. How did Ronald Reagan attempt to balance the federal budget in the 1980s? By imposing new taxes and encouraging business growth
  • 264. 258. What Constitutional amendment governed voting in the District of Columbia? The 23 rd Amendment gave residents of Washington, D.C. the right to vote in national elections
  • 265. 259. What event resulted in the U.S. boycott of the 1980 Olympics? The 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
  • 266. 260. How did the Title 9 decision affect men’s and women’s sports? The 1972 Title 9 legislation was interpreted to mean that universities much spend as much money on women’s sports as on men’s in an effort to avoid gender discrimination
  • 267. 261. What happened at Beijing’s Tiananmen Square to further the human rights cause in China? A massive student protest was put down by the Communists in front of the world press
  • 268. 262. What president was in office during the fall of the Soviet Union and the Desert Storm conflict? George Herbert Walker Bush (the current president’s father)
  • 269. 263. What was the military goal of Operation Desert Storm? To liberate Kuwait from Iraqi control in 1991
  • 270. 264. What was First Lady Hilary Clinton’s first job after her husband took office? To explore the feasibility of universal health care
  • 271. 265. What military alliance was Bill Clinton supporting when he sent troops to Bosnia? NATO, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization
  • 272. 266. What was behind the “New Right” coalition in the 1980s? A conservative group focused on such issues as opposing abortion, blocking the Equal Rights Amendment, evading court-ordered busing, and a return of school prayer
  • 273. 267. What thwarted William Clinton’s attempt to establish universal health care? Republican attacks on the plan for promoting “big government”
  • 274. 268. How did Clinton use new legislation to affect the issues of international free trade and gun control? He championed such causes by pushing legislation such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the Brady Bill for gun control
  • 275. 269. What was Clinton’s Whitewater scandal? An Arkansas land deal he was involved with whose investigation led to exposure of his affair with a White House intern. Alleged lies led to his impeachment.
  • 276. As more people live longer, who will care for them and will Social Security be able to cover them?
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  • 285. 271. What was the purpose of NAFTA To create the world’s largest free trade zone with the U.S., Canada, and Mexico
  • 286.  
  • 287. 272. What is urban flight? The process of Americans leaving the cities to move to the suburbs
  • 288. 273. Since 1980, what country has contributed the most immigrants to America? Mexico
  • 289. 274. Why did the ACLU object to the Patriot Act? It gave too much power to the federal government to violate individual rights in an effort to stop terrorism
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