US History Review- THE BEAST


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US History Review- THE BEAST

  1. 1. The Beast An EOC Exam Prep
  2. 3. 1. What two issues did Washington warn America about in his farewell speech? Beware of permanent alliances with Europe and be wary of the disunity caused by political parties
  3. 4. 2. What was the purpose of the Judiciary Act of 1789? To establish the structure of the Supreme Court and other federal courts
  4. 5. 3. How did Marbury v. Madison establish the concept of judicial review? By giving the Supreme Court the right to review laws for constitutionality.
  5. 6. 4. What effect did Chief Justice John Marshall have on the Supreme Court? The Supreme Court grew strong under his leadership
  6. 7. 5. Why was Jefferson opposed to Hamilton’s proposal for a national bank? He thought it gave too much control to the federal government and the national elite
  7. 8. 6. How did Hamilton gain Southern support for his financial policies? He agreed to place the nation’s capitol in the South
  8. 9. 7. Why was the federal solution to the Whiskey Rebellion important? It was the first use of the army to enforce federal law within the states
  9. 10. 8. What was the significance of the Erie Canal? It opened the Midwest to the Hudson River and international trade
  10. 11. 9. Whose individual rights were abused by John Adams’ Alien and Sedition Act in the 1790s? All Americans: The Democratic-Republicans called the laws a violation of freedom of speech guaranteed by the First Amendment
  11. 12. 10. What right did some white women have during the Federalist period? Women in New Jersey were accidentally given the right to vote when their constitution said “people” rather than “men” in 1776 but was rescinded in 1777.
  12. 13. 11. Why was the election of 1800 considered a “political revolution”? Jefferson promised to return to the republican ideals of the people having the power as opposed to the strong central government policies of the Federalists
  13. 14. 12. What was the significance of the invention of the cotton gin? It made the production of short-strand cotton extremely profitable, as long as the use of slave labor increased
  14. 15. 13. What was the Federalist’s opposition to the Embargo Act of 1807? By banning exports to other countries, Jefferson hoped to force them to recognize America’s neutrality. Federalist’s thought it would hurt international relations and limit free trade
  15. 16. 14. Who were Tecumseh and the Prophet? A Shawnee chief and his brother used by the British to interfere with American progress
  16. 17. 15. What was America’s foreign policy before the War of 1812? Neutrality
  17. 18. 16. In 1812, why did the U.S. go to war with England and not France? Because of the British policy of impressing American sailors into their navy
  18. 19. 17. What was the significance of the 1815 Battle of New Orleans? Andrew Jackson gained fame by showing that Americans could defeat a superior military force (even though a peace agreement had been signed the previous month)
  19. 20. 18. Where did America get its operating funds prior to 1860? Tariffs on imports, excise taxes, and the sale of land
  20. 21. 19. What philosophical conflict did the Louisiana Purchase cause Jefferson and the Democrat-Republicans? The Constitution did not give the president the right to purchase land and they supported a strict interpretation of the Constitution
  21. 22. 20. What was the objective of the journeys of Lewis and Clark? To explore Jefferson's new purchase to see what we had bought
  22. 23. 21. What natural boundary separated the territory acquired from England at the end of the Revolutionary War from that of the Louisiana Purchase? The Mississippi River
  23. 24. 22. What was the impact of the Treaty of Greenville on Native Americans from 1790 to 1820? It set the precedent of the U.S. of buying Native American lands for much less than they were worth
  24. 26. 23. What artistic trend closely followed American nationalism? The Hudson River School of Art
  25. 27. 24. What were the characteristics of the Hudson River School of Art? Paintings of the Hudson River Valley landscape and other American themes
  26. 28. 25. How were the conflicts with Native Americans resolved before the 1820s? By buying their lands at a cheap price and moving them westward
  27. 29. 26. What were the qualifications to vote prior to 1820? You had to be a white male property owner
  28. 30. 27. What was Pinckney’s treaty all about? Spain gave up all claim to lands east of the Mississippi (except Florida) and opened New Orleans and the Mississippi river to American trade traffic
  29. 31. 28. What did the Virginia-Kentucky Resolutions, the Hartford Convention, and the Webster-Hayne debate have in common? They were all states rights issues
  30. 32. 29. What region of the country did early protective tariffs tend to harm? The South and its farmers
  31. 33. 30. What effects did the Transcendental Movement have on American society? Ralph Waldo Emerson popularized the idea of living the simple life outside any organized system of belief, a philosophy that became distinctly American
  32. 34. 31. Who played a prominent role in education reform in the early 1800s? Horace Mann
  33. 35. 32. What did Dorothea Dix accomplish? She helped reform prisons and the institutions for the mentally ill with the idea of rehabilitation
  34. 36. 33. What religious movement was led by Charles Grandison Finney? The Second Great Awakening
  35. 37. 34. Who was Elizabeth Cady Stanton? How about Susan B. Anthony? They were all about fighting for women’s rights, especially the right to vote
  36. 38. 35. How did William Lloyd Garrison’s newspaper The Liberator increase tensions in a divided America? His ideas of immediate emancipation with no compensation were opposed by many whites
  37. 39. 36. What was the result of Andrew Jackson’s 1830 Indian Removal Act? Native Americans were forcibly removed from the east and relocated to the Oklahoma Territory, often on a “trail of tears”
  38. 40. 37. In the case of Worchester v. Georgia , who did the Supreme Court side with? Worchester and the Cherokee Indians
  39. 41. 38. Why was John C. Calhoun considered the champion of state’s rights? Andrew Jackson’s vice president devised the theory of nullification , the idea that states could question the legality of federal laws
  40. 42. 39. How did Andrew Jackson respond to South Carolina’s nullification of the Tariffs of Abomination of 1828 and 1832? With the Force Acts and the threat of federal troops
  41. 43. 40. What was the relationship between the invention of the cotton gin and the institution of slavery? The gin made the processing of short-strand cotton an extremely profitable pursuit when powered by the labor of slaves
  42. 44. 41. What crucial political issue of America in the antebellum years was caused by America’s expansion westward? The expansion of slavery into the new territories
  43. 45. 42. Why did Americans bring their families and their slaves to Northern Mexico? For the Mexican promise of free land
  44. 46. 43. What caused the delay in annexing the Republic of Texas into the United States? The North did not want to bring in another slave state and upset the Senate balance between free and slave states
  45. 47. 44. What conflict was behind the “54-40 or Fight” slogan? The question of who owned the Oregon Territory that was jointly controlled by the U.S. and England was settled peaceably in 1854
  46. 48. 45. Why did the Mormons move west? Religious persecution in the East
  47. 49. 46. What was the justification for the U.S. declaration of war against Mexico in the 1840s? Manifest Destiny , America’s belief in its god-given right to the continent from ocean to ocean
  48. 50. 47. How did the question of sectionalism arise in Mexican-American war? Northerners feared that newly acquired lands would be used to expand slavery and its political power
  49. 51. 49. What led to the diversification of the population of California in the late 1840s? The California gold rush
  50. 52. 50. How did the Compromise of 1850 most benefit the South? The Fugitive Slave Act called for authorities in the North to actively work to return escaped slaves
  51. 53. 51. Who was to decide the slavery question in the new territories of Utah and New Mexico? The people, by Popular Sovereignty .
  52. 54. 52. What was the Brooks-Sumner Affair? Congressman Preston Brooks of South Carolina cane-whipping of Charles Sumner on the floor of the Senate, after Sumner disparaged the honor of Brooks’ uncle.
  53. 55. 53. What political party of the 1850s believed in the favoring of native-born Americans? The Know-Nothing party
  54. 56. 54. What did the Free-Soil party oppose? The expansion of slavery into the territories, limiting the opportunities of free men
  55. 57. 55. What contribution did the Dred Scott Supreme Court decision make on sectionalism? It negated the Missouri Compromise and focused the slavery issue as a matter of property
  56. 58. 56. How did the Dred Scott Supreme Court case address slavery and the Missouri Compromise? It ruled that African Americans were not and could never be citizens and negated the Missouri Compromise as unconstitutional
  57. 59. 57. What was at issue in the Lincoln-Douglas debates? Expansion of slavery into the territories. Douglas believed in popular sovereignty (the people’s choice) while Lincoln thought slavery was politically and morally wrong
  58. 60. 58. What was the result of the Harper’s Ferry raid? It increased Southern fears of slave revolt and resulted in tighter control on slaves
  59. 61. 59. What was Lincoln’s position on the issue of slavery? He believed that slavery was morally and politically wrong
  60. 62. 60. What was the immediate cause of the secession of South Carolina from the Union? The election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860
  61. 63. 61. What four candidates ran for president in the 1860 election? Abraham Lincoln as a Republican, Stephen Douglas as a Northern Democrat, John Breckinridge as a Southern Democrat, and John Bell as a Constitutional Union candidate
  62. 64. 62. What was Lincoln’s stated goal at the start of the Civil War? To preserve the Union
  63. 65. 63. How did the loss of the Battle of Gettysburg most damage Southern efforts to win the Civil War? Lee gave up hopes of invading the North and Southern plans for European support were weakened
  64. 66. 64. Why was the fall of Vicksburg considered one of the turning points of the Civil War? It completed one of the goals of the Anaconda Plan by cutting the South in half at the Mississippi
  65. 67. 65. How did the Civil War end the debate over the nullification issue? The war forever settled the question of the federal government’s supremacy in America
  66. 68. 66. What was Lincoln’s plan for Reconstruction? The lenient 10 Percent Plan
  67. 69. 67. What action abolished slavery in the U.S.? The Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution
  68. 70. 68. What were black codes? Local laws in the South meant to place restrictions on freed slaves similar to slavery
  69. 71. 69. What was the purpose of the Civil Rights Act of 1866? Gave African Americans citizenship and forbade black codes (but was vetoed by Johnson)
  70. 72. 70. What constitutional amendment promised equal protection under the law while guaranteeing freed slaves citizenship rights? The Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution
  71. 74. 71. Why did large numbers of African American families leave the South after 1865? To escape the plantation/slavery lifestyle and to look for opportunities for a new life
  72. 75. 72. Who did share-cropping and tenant farming benefit the most? Landowners (rarely the black farmers doing the work)
  73. 76. 73. Why did the Radical Republicans try to impeach Johnson? Because he believed Reconstruction should welcome the South back into the Union with open arms, a position that conflicted with the Radical Republican's desire to punish the rebels
  74. 77. 74. Why did Congress pass the Reconstruction Act of 1867? To wrest control from President Johnson so they could punish the South for the war and provide for the freed slaves
  75. 78. 75. How were Southern state governments controlled in the South during Reconstruction? Southern Democrats were forcibly removed from power by the military governors and replaced by Republicans
  76. 79. 76. What were the failures of Reconstruction? It failed to make real progress against discrimination and the plight of the freed slaves and delayed the reconciliation of the Union
  77. 80. 77. What event marked the end of Reconstruction in the South? The Compromise of 1877
  78. 81. 78. What president terminated Reconstruction to get elected? Rutherford B. Hayes
  79. 82. 79. How did Democrats regain power in the South after Reconstruction? After redemption , by restricting the rights of freed African Americans with grandfather clauses, poll taxes, and literacy tests
  80. 83. 80. How were the conflicts with Native Americans resolved after the Civil War? By forcing them onto smaller and smaller reservations and pushing assimilation
  81. 84. 81. What was the purpose of the Morrill Land Grant Act? To help finance agricultural colleges to help farmers succeed in the West
  82. 85. 82. How did the invention and widespread use of barbwire change the West? It ended the era of open range ranching
  83. 86. 83. How did Native Americans pass tradition and culture to their children? Through stories, myths, games, and good examples
  84. 87. 84. How did the Central Pacific railroad company treat Chinese workers? They were paid less than whites, and suffered miserable working conditions
  85. 88. 85. What was the leading characteristic of a bonanza farm? They were huge, single-crop farms
  86. 89. 86. What was the Dawes Act of 1887? It encouraged the assimilation of Native Americans into white culture by giving them land in an effort to turn them into farmers
  87. 90. 87. How did the U.S. dictate changes in the lives of Native Americans? Persecution and forced assimilation
  88. 91. 88. What factor most changed life for the Plains Indians? Destruction of the buffalo
  89. 92. 89. What last major battle brought the Indian wars to a bitter end? The massacre at Wounded Knee
  90. 93. 90. How did a strong military presence in the West cause incidents such as the Massacre at Sand Creek? The military mission was to spare no effort to ensure Native Americans did not interfere with white expansion west
  91. 94. 91. What technology had the greatest impact on settling the West? The Railroad
  92. 95. 92. What act encouraged farmers to pack up and join the expansion West? The Homestead Act of 1862
  93. 96. 93. How did railroads change farming practices in the expansion westward? It gave farmers the ability to economically transport their goods to the hungry markets back east
  94. 97. 94. What was the greatest economic grievances of farmers in the South and the West in the late 19th century? Abuse by banks and the railroad and lack of political power and a shortage of money
  95. 98. 95. Who took advantage of farmers in the late 1800s? Everyone, including bankers, the railroads, and politicians
  96. 99. 96. What group supported the Interstate Commerce Act? Farmers represented by the Grange and other farmer alliances
  97. 100. 97. In the late 1800s, why did acreage increase while the number of farmers decrease within the agricultural community? Improved farming practices and equipment
  98. 101. 98. Why did the Populist movement decline in America? The loss of support for farmers by voters in the industrial Midwest in the election of 1896
  99. 102. 99. What business practices of John D. Rockefeller drew criticism? He reaped huge profits while paying extremely low wages. He also stifled free competition with his use of trusts.
  100. 103. 100. Who led America in the fields of oil, steel, and railroads? John D. Rockefeller, Andrew Carnegie, and William Vanderbilt
  101. 104. 101. What new theory of the late 19 th Century explained Andrew Carnegie’s success? Social Darwinism
  102. 105. 102. What was the target of the Sherman Anti-trust Act? Companies like Rockefeller’s Standard Oil who attempted to stifle free competition
  103. 106. 103. What stimulated the growth of labor unions during the Industrial Age of the late 1800s? The successes of business leaders drove workers to join together to improve poor working conditions, long hours, unsafe jobs, and poor wages
  104. 107. 104. What resulted from the Haymarket Square Riots? The violence caused the public to turn against the labor movement in the late 1800s
  105. 108. 105. What did Eugene V. Debs, Samuel Gompers, and Mother Jones have in common? They were all early labor leaders
  106. 109. 106. What late 19th Century policy was seen as a violation of the 14th Amendment? “Separate but equal”, which seemed to violate the 14 th Amendment’s idea of equal protection under the law
  107. 110. 107. How did the Plessey v. Ferguson affect the nation? It set America on a 54-year policy of ‘separate but equal” enforced by Jim Crow laws
  108. 111. 108. What were the immigration trends of the late 1800s and the early 1900s? Immigrants came from southern and eastern Europe into the East and from China and Japan into the West
  109. 112. 109. What was the criticism against Chinese immigrants in the 1880s? Nativism sparked fears that the Chinese would take jobs at lower wages, resulting in the Chinese Exclusion Act limiting immigration
  110. 113. 110. What late 1800s development assisted in selling U.S. manufactured products? Imperialism opened markets to American goods all over the world
  111. 114. 111. How was the concept of Social Darwinism used to justify U.S. imperialism? It was thought that the strongest had the right to dictate to the weaker how the world was going to be
  112. 115. 112. What did Poncho Villa do? He was one of the leaders in the Mexican Revolution whose raids into U.S. border towns forced military intervention by the Americans
  113. 116. 113. Why did Alfred T. Mahan think it essential that America expand its borders in the Imperialism era? He thought that America as a strong naval power was necessary to compete in the land-grabbing Imperialism era
  114. 117. 114. How did America acquire Alaska? The territory was purchased from Russia in 1867 for $7.2 million (around 2 cents and acre)
  115. 118. 115. Why did Teddy Roosevelt build the Great White Fleet? To project American power throughout the world
  116. 119. 116. How and why did the U.S. annex Hawaii? American sugar plantation owners seized power from the queen of Hawaii, then quickly got the U.S. to annex the territory. The islands were needed as a strategic gas station for the U.S. Navy halfway across the Pacific
  117. 120. 117. What was the American motivation behind its open door policy with China? An equal sharing of trading rights with no monopolies
  118. 121. 118. What country did the Platt Amendment attempt to control? Cuba, after it gained its freedom from Spain following the Spanish-American War of 1898
  119. 122. 119. What territories did America acquire as a result of the Spanish-American War of 1898 Cuba, Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines
  120. 123. 120. What and who were the muckrakers of the Progressive era? Investigative journalists who attempted to expose social ills such as Ida Tarbell, Upton Sinclair, and Lincoln Steffens
  121. 124. 121. Why was the passing of the 17th Amendment important? It provided for the direct election of U.S. senators, taking power away from state governments and giving it to the voters
  122. 125. 122. What muckraker exposed the cutthroat methods used by Standard Oil to eliminate competition? Ida Tarbell
  123. 126. 123. How did the Pendleton Civil Service Act solve the problem of patronage? By requiring most federal jobs to be filled by merit and testing
  124. 127. 124. How were William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer leaders in yellow journalism? They lured and enraged readers with their sensationalist style of reporting in their newspapers, inciting America to go to war with Spain in 1898
  125. 128. 125. What did Teddy Roosevelt feel was the federal government’s role in the economy? He felt that the president should be a powerful leader in national affairs like the economy to prevent big business from exploiting the workers
  126. 129. 126. What theme was portrayed by the Ashcan School of Art? Urban life and working people with gritty realism and no frills
  127. 130. 127. What was the purpose of the Roosevelt Corollary ? Adding to the Monroe Doctrine , he warned that disorder in Latin America might force the U.S. to act as an international police power to protect America’s economic interests
  128. 131. 128. What effect on the Progressive Movement was brought about by the popularity of the referendum? It allowed voters, rather than legislators, to propose and vote directly on new laws, winning political power for ordinary citizens
  129. 132. 129. What were the goals of the Social Gospel movement in America? As a reform movement, they preached salvation through service to the poor, especially in urban slums with settlement houses
  130. 133. 130. What woman stands out as the most influential member of the Social Gospel movement in Chicago? Jane Addams
  131. 134. 131. What was President Taft’s role in the Progressive Era? Taft’s conservative and cautious approach to reform was thought to lose many of the gains under Roosevelt
  132. 135. 132. What played a major influence on the election of 1912? Teddy Roosevelt’s Bull Moose Party split the Republican vote with Taft, allowing Woodrow Wilson to win
  133. 136. 133. How did W.E.B. Du Bois differ from Booker T. Washington on the issue of African-American education? Washington believed that racism would gradually end when blacks acquired useful labor skills. Du Bois insisted they needed a liberal arts education.
  134. 137. 134. What are political machines? Organized groups that controlled a political party in a city, offering services to voters and businesses in exchange for political or financial support
  135. 138. 135. What presidential reforms came during the Progressive movement? Trustbusting, health and the environment, and conservation
  136. 139. 136. Who was behind the Eighteenth Amendment responsible for Prohibition? The Women’s Christian Temperance Movement and the Anti-Saloon League led by Frances Willard and Carry Nation
  137. 140. 137. What were the four main causes of the European conflict called the Great War? Militarism, Alliances, Imperialism, and Nationalism
  138. 141. 138. What event led directly to U.S. involvement in World War One? Germany’s declaration of unrestricted submarine warfare against the United States
  139. 142. 139. What was the primary form of battle during WWI? Trench Warfare
  140. 143. 140. What American politicians found the Treaty of Versailles the least acceptable? Some like Herbert Hoover thought the treaty too harsh. Some ethnic groups were unhappy with the new territorial boundaries.
  141. 144. 141. What was the main reason the Senate rejected the Treaty of Versailles after WWI? They feared that membership in the League of Nations would interfere with U.S. foreign policy
  142. 145. 142. What effect did England and France’s threat of higher tariffs have on the passage of the Treaty of Versailles? The threats were ignored
  143. 146. 143. How did the Treaty of Versailles set the stage for the coming of WWII in thirty short years? Germany was stripped of all economic and military power and was embarrassed by having to accept all responsibility for the war. It set the stage for Germany’s takeover by the little Austrian
  144. 147. 144. What was responsible for the rise of nativism in the early 20th century? American involvement in the vast destruction of WWI caused a wave of nativism and calls for isolationism
  145. 148. 145. What was the Justice Department’s reaction to post-WWI fears about communism? The “ Red Scare ” was fought by the U.S. Attorney General with his Palmer Raids against communists and anarchists and led to the prosecution of Sacco and Vanzetti
  146. 149. 146. What was the result of the 1920s Red Scare? Deportation of radicals and limits on immigration
  147. 150. 147. What economic impact was realized by Henry Ford’s introduction of the moving assembly line? It sped up production by improving efficiency but required workers to perform like machines
  148. 151. 148. How did the advent of the mail-order catalogue change advertising? It greatly improved the availability of goods to consumers, resulting in the targeting of these consumers of specific products by advertisers
  149. 152. 149. What significant event damaged President Harding’s reputation? The Teapot Dome Scandal, among other scandals, significantly damaged the reputation of Harding’s administration
  150. 153. 150. What did flappers symbolize in the 1920s? A new, more assertive kind of women who embraced the new fashions and urban attitudes of the day
  151. 154. 151. What was the result of the rise of fundamentalism in the 1920s? The clash over evolution and the failure of prohibition were evidence of changing morals in a changing America
  152. 155. 152. What was the significance of the Scopes Monkey Trial? A case of the science of evolution versus the fundamental beliefs of many Christians in the infallible truth of the Bible questioned the governments right to control religious influences in America
  153. 156. 153. What were Calvin Coolidge’s policies on business practices? He was pro-business, favoring policies that kept taxes down and profits up
  154. 157. 154. Give three of Harlem Renaissance artists. Zora Neale Hurston, Claude McKay, Langston Hughes, Paul Robeson, Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, and Bessie Smith
  155. 159. 155. What contributions did Marcus Garvey make in the 1920s? He founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association to promote black pride, economic independence, and reverence for Africa
  156. 160. 156. Who led the Harlem Renaissance in literature? Novelist Claude McKay and poet Langston Hughes
  157. 161. 157. Who, where, and what made up the movement called the Harlem Renaissance? The Harlem neighborhood of New York City led this literary and artistic movement celebrating African American culture
  158. 162. 158. What were the reasons for the Stock Market crash of 1929? A farm crisis, living on credit, the uneven distribution of wealth, and poor investment practices
  159. 163. 159. Name four causes of the Great Depression Crisis in the farm sector, easy credit, a drop in foreign trade caused by tariffs and war debt, and an unequal distribution of wealth
  160. 164. 160. Why did the WWI veterans of the Bonus Army march on Washington, D.C.? In an attempt to get the government to give them an early payment on a promised war bonus
  161. 165. 161. What new relationship developed between the federal government and individual citizens as a part of FDR’s New Deal? Roosevelt believed in a large, powerful government that would help the people, transforming the way American government works
  162. 166. 162. What steps did FDR take to help American’s regain confidence in the banking system? He closed and inspected banks for stability and set up insurance for deposits (FDIC)
  163. 167. 163. How did FDR’s new Deal programs help the farmer? The Agricultural Adjustment Act brought up prices by lowering production while the Tennessee Valley Authority created jobs while providing electricity to farm regions
  164. 168. 164. What was the purpose of FDR’s New Deal program, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)? The TVA created jobs and provided flood control and hydroelectric power in impoverished areas
  165. 169. 165. Why did the U.S. stay out of European affairs during the 1930s? Isolationists wanted to avoid the constant conflicts that had plagued Europe for centuries. World War I was just the most recent and deadliest of these.
  166. 170. 166. What commitment was made between England and America with the Atlantic Charter? A 1941 joint declaration of war aims, to include speeding the entrance of the U.S. into the conflict
  167. 171. 167. How did FDR get around congressional prohibitions against helping England? “Cash and Carry” and the Lend-Lease Plan
  168. 172. 168. What was the relationship between the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and American isolationism? America’s desire to stay neutral seemed to blind many to the threat posed by the Axis Powers
  169. 173. 169. What was the U.S. strategy for driving the Japanese back to its home islands? After Midway, the Allies planned to systematically win back territory island by island, called island hopping
  170. 174. 170. Why was the Battle of Midway considered the turning point of WWII in the Pacific theater? It stopped the Japanese offensive and started the island hopping process on the way to the Japanese home islands
  171. 175. 171. What battle was the turning point on the Eastern Front during WWII? The Battle of Stalingrad
  172. 176. 172. What did the U.S. use to protect naval shipping during WWII? The convoy system, using naval ships to protect groups of transport as a shepherd guards his sheep
  173. 177. 173. How was Rosie the Riveter an example of changing family life during WWII? It was an example of how women did their part in non-typical industrial work during the war
  174. 178. 174. What was the result of Patton’s victory at the Battle of the Bulge? The battle would prove to be Germany’s last offensive of the war
  175. 179. 175. Who was A. Philip Randolph and what was he protesting during WWII? A respected African American labor leader who demanded for his people the right to work and fight for freedom
  176. 180. 176. What WWII event was in clear violation of individuals’ rights? The internment of Japanese Americans
  177. 181. 177. What effect did Korematsu v. United States on individual rights in America? The Supreme Court affirmed that the government’s needs sometimes takes priority over individual needs during wartime
  178. 182. 178. What happened at the Munich Conference? The Allies of England, France, and the Soviet Union agreed to transfer the Sudetenland to Germany in an example of appeasement
  179. 183. 179. Why did Truman decide to use the atomic bomb on Japan? To shorten the war and save American lives
  180. 184. 180. What was the U.S. policy governing use of the atomic bomb both during and after WWII? To use nuclear weapons to preserve the American lifestyle and later as a deterrent to Soviet aggression
  181. 185. 181. What was the purpose of the Nuremberg Trials? To hold German leaders responsible for their crimes of war
  182. 187. 182. What provided for free education and inexpensive home loans for veterans after WWII? The G.I. Bill of Rights
  183. 188. 183. How did America change after WWII? Good economic times, another wave of “red scare” nativism, and living under the constant threat of nuclear annihilation brought on by the Cold War
  184. 189. 184. At the Potsdam Conference, from where did the Allies decide to take reparations for the war? From Germany that had been divided between them
  185. 190. 185. What program provided financial aid to a devastated post-World War II Europe in the 1940s? The Marshall Plan
  186. 191. 186. What Constitutional amendment provided the basis for the Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka Supreme Court decision? The Fourteenth Amendment that guarantees equal protection under the law for all citizens
  187. 192. 187. How did Southern governors react to the Brown v. Board of Education Supreme Court decision? In many areas where African Americans were the majority, whites resisted desegregation
  188. 193. 188. What international organization established in 1945 had responsibility for world peace? The United Nations
  189. 194. 189. What was the typical government response to Cold War issues in the 1950s? Containment of communism was the policy and the Truman Doctrine helped nations fight off communist takeovers
  190. 195. 190. Why did the Soviet Union form the Warsaw Pact? When West Germany was allowed to rearm, the Soviets grew fearful and organized their own military alliance
  191. 196. 191. Who were the first U.S.citizens to be executed for espionage Ethel and Julius Rosenberg in 1953
  192. 197. 192. What were Joseph McCarthy’s loyalty oaths? His attempts to require government officials to swear loyalty to the U.S. in an effort to root out communists
  193. 198. 193. What post-WWII U.S foreign policy led to assistance for Greece and Turkey, the Berlin Airlift, and the Korean War? The Truman Doctrine
  194. 199. 194. What was Truman’s “Fair Deal”? An economic program that extended FDR’s New Deal programs
  195. 200. 195. What development led to the 1956 Interstate Highway Act? Automania and the move of the white middle class to the suburbs
  196. 201. 196. What effect did the automobile have on the populations of cities in the 1950s. It resulted in the flight of many whites to the suburbs
  197. 202. 197. What problems arose from the 1950s automobile boom? Noise, pollution, accidents, stress, and a widening of the gap between the middle class and the poor
  198. 203. 198. What was the purpose of the Eisenhower Doctrine? To keep the Soviets out of the Middle East
  199. 204. 199. What was Francis Gary Powers accused of by the Soviets in 1960? Piloting a U2 reconnaissance plane for the purpose of spying
  200. 205. 200. What event started the Space Race? The Soviet launch of the first successful man-made satellite, Sputnik
  201. 206. 201. How was the launching of Sputnik influenced by the Cold War? Brinkmanship led each country to try to prove its scientific, cultural, and intellectual superiority
  202. 207. 202. What development was in immediate response to the Soviet success with Sputnik? In shock, America immediately poured money into their own space program, launching its own satellite three months later
  203. 208. 203. What effect did the launching of Sputnik have on American education? It began an American push in the fields of science and math
  204. 209. 204. What was Eisenhower’s opinion of America’s military-industrial complex? He felt that they bore a close watch as war had proven too profitable for both
  205. 210. 205. What two movements of the 1950s were seen as examples of teenage rebellion? Rock and Roll and the Beat movement
  206. 211. 206. What factors played a major part in JFK’s defeat of Nixon in the 1960 presidential election? His television persona, his civil rights position, and his selection of LBJ as a running mate
  207. 212. 207. What was the diplomatic and economic relationship between Fidel Castro’s Cuba and the U.S.? Castro’s declaration of communism and confiscation of American properties in Cuba resulted in U.S. economic sanctions and a termination of diplomatic relations
  208. 213. 208. What were the goals of John Kennedy’s Alliance for Progress? It was a foreign aid program to offer economic and technical assistance to Latin American countries in an effort to deter communism
  209. 214. 209. Who was helped by Kennedy’s Alliance for Progress? Latin American countries
  210. 215. 210. Why was the establishment of the Peace Corps critical to Kennedy’s policies? It helped define his “New Frontier” vision of progress
  211. 216. 211. Why was the Cuban Missile Crisis such a potential disaster for the world? The Soviet threat and Kennedy’s response brought the two nations to the brink of thermonuclear war
  212. 217. 212. Why did Nikita Khrushchev order the construction of the Berlin Wall? To staunch the flow of East Germans leaving their country for the freedom of the West
  213. 218. 213. What group was appointed to investigate JFK’s death? The Warren Commission, chaired by Chief Justice of the Supreme Court Earl Warren
  214. 219. 214. What president used the Tonkin Gulf Resolution to increase U.S. involvement in Vietnam? Lyndon Baines Johnson
  215. 220. 215. What draft policy helped cause a disproportionate amount of African American deaths in Vietnam The college deferment
  216. 221. 216. Explain the Domino Theory Eisenhower’s explanation of how Southeast Asian countries on the verge of communism would fall like dominoes one after the other if the U.S. did not intervene
  217. 222. 217. What were the goals of NOW and the women’s movement? To fight discrimination by gender in the workplace, in health issues, and in all other places in society
  218. 223. 218. What three women were prominent in the 1960s Feminist Movement? Gloria Steinem, Phyllis Schlafly, and Betty Friedan
  219. 224. 219. What was the social movement centered in the Haight-Asbury area of San Francisco in the 1960s? The Hippie movement, marked by rock music, outrageous clothing, sexual license, and illegal drugs
  220. 225. 220. Who were the “Little Rock Nine” Nine African-American high school students chosen to break the racial segregation barrier in Arkansas schools
  221. 226. 221. Describe Martin Luther King Jr.’s concept of passive resistance King believed in the power of the peaceful refusal to obey unjust laws
  222. 227. 222. What were SNCC and the Freedom Summer? The Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee organized black students as a national protest group. The Freedom Summer was a mostly white college student effort to register African American voters in the South
  223. 228. 223. What 1960s civil rights leader opposed MLK? Malcolm X originally believed that whites were the cause of the black condition and that blacks should separate from white society
  224. 229. 224. What trends appeared in the Hispanic community during the 1960s and 1970s? Mexican immigrants settled California and the Southwest while groups like Puerto Ricans and Cubans settled in eastern cities. In each case they followed the Civil Rights movement in an attempt to better themselves
  225. 230. 225. Why was the Voting Rights Act of 1965 necessary? To abolish literacy tests as a requirement to vote that was used by many Southern states in an effort to control African American political power
  226. 231. 226. What was the target of the Civil Rights Act of 1968? Unfair and discriminatory housing policies
  227. 232. 227. What three issues were addressed with LBJ’s War on Poverty? Jobs, volunteerism, and education
  228. 233. 228. How did decisions of the Earl Warren-led Supreme Court change America? Many felt the Court’s positions on school prayer and the rights of the accused were attacks on the majority for the benefit of the few
  229. 234. 229. How did American public opinion affect the outcome of the Vietnam conflict? The success of Tet made the war look unwinnable and took much public support away from the war effort. Continued violence during Nixon’s administration forced a pullout of troops
  230. 235. 230. What did the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution give LBJ? Almost unlimited power to involve America in a conflict with Vietnam
  231. 236. 231. What Nixon policy led to the tragedy at Kent State? The invasion of Cambodia in 1970
  232. 238. 232. What were Nixon’s foreign policy accomplishments? Nixon’s diplomatic achievements with the Soviets and Communist China eased Cold War tensions and worked on reducing nuclear arsenals
  233. 239. 233. Why was the Tet Offensive the turning point of the Vietnam conflict? It changed American public opinion about the war, many beginning to believe the war was unwinnable
  234. 240. 234. Why did the massacre at My Lai cause such a dark time for the U.S. military? America was shocked at the brutality of the massacre of over 200 civilians at My Lai by U.S. troops
  235. 241. 235. What was the purpose of the 26 th Amendment To give the right to vote to men being drafted and sent to Vietnam
  236. 242. 236. How did American anti-war sentiments affect Richard Nixon’s Vietnam policies? Though pursuing a gradual troop pullout, events like My Lai, the invasion of Cambodia, and the incident at Kent State forced Nixon to respond to public opinion and bring the war to an end
  237. 243. 237. What were the stipulations of the War Powers Act? The President must notify the Congress within 48 hours of sending forces into a hostile area without a declaration of war and a 90 day limit without Congressional approval
  238. 244. 238. Who was behind the Watergate break-in and what were its ramifications? The break-in at the headquarters of Nixon’s opposition and the resulting cover-up attempt would eventually bring about the resignation of the president
  239. 245. 239. What was Nixon trying to reduce with détente? Cold War tensions with the Soviet Union
  240. 246. 240. What cities had problems caused by Supreme Court rulings about enforcing desegregation through busing? Violence broke out in cities such as Charlotte, Boston, and Detroit as busing was forced on the American public
  241. 247. 241. What factor directly led to the decrease in air pollution in the 1970s? The Environmental Protection Agency and the two Clean Air Acts improved air pollution nationwide
  242. 248. 242. How did the 1970s gas crisis affect America’s automobile industry? It brought about pollution controls on cars and opened the American market to gas efficient cars from Japan
  243. 249. 243. What effect did the 1970s energy crisis have on the national economy? Energy problems caused economic problems throughout the Carter years with rising inflation and interest rates
  244. 250. 244. What group of Hispanics did Cesar Chavez work to help in California? Migrant farm workers from Mexico
  245. 251. 245. What happened at Wounded Knee in 1973? The American Indian Movement (AIM) led a seizure of the town in an effort to get the federal government to reexamine Native American treaty rights
  246. 252. 246. What major events took place during the Carter presidency? An energy and economic crisis, the Camp David Accords, and the Iran Hostage crisis
  247. 253. 247. Why did Jimmy Carter reorganize the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in the 1970s? As a result of the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island in Pennsylvania in 1979, safety standards were strengthened
  248. 254. 248. What was the goal of the SALT treaties in the 1970s? An effort to reduce the number of nuclear weapons in the world
  249. 255. 249. What was Jimmy Carter’s foreign policy toward South Africa in the 1970s? He worked to help South Africa rid itself of apartheid laws that forced racial segregation
  250. 256. 250. What was involved in the Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (1978) court case and what was the ruling? The questions of affirmative action and reverse discrimination. The Court ruled that racial quotas are illegal but that race can still be considered as a factor in admissions
  251. 257. 251. What was the issue in the Texas v. Johnson flag burning case? The Supreme Court ruled that burning an American flag as a political protest was an individual right to free speech guaranteed by the First Amendment
  252. 258. 252. What was the focus of the New Right in the 1970s? Social conservative issues that were family oriented such as anti-abortion and anti-ERA
  253. 259. 253. What event cost Carter the 1980 presidential election? The embarrassing Iranian Hostage Crisis that he failed to resolve
  254. 260. 254. What event that came early in the Reagan presidency could have seriously hindered his ability to lead the nation? The assassination attempt of 1981
  255. 261. 255. What were Reagan’s economic policies in the 1980s? “Reaganomics” involved tax cuts (supply side economics) and budget cuts in areas except for national defense, all working toward a smaller federal government
  256. 262. 256. Who did Reagan call the “Evil Empire”? The Soviet Union and its allies
  257. 263. 257. How did Ronald Reagan attempt to balance the federal budget in the 1980s? By imposing new taxes and encouraging business growth
  258. 264. 258. What Constitutional amendment governed voting in the District of Columbia? The 23 rd Amendment gave residents of Washington, D.C. the right to vote in national elections
  259. 265. 259. What event resulted in the U.S. boycott of the 1980 Olympics? The 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
  260. 266. 260. How did the Title 9 decision affect men’s and women’s sports? The 1972 Title 9 legislation was interpreted to mean that universities much spend as much money on women’s sports as on men’s in an effort to avoid gender discrimination
  261. 267. 261. What happened at Beijing’s Tiananmen Square to further the human rights cause in China? A massive student protest was put down by the Communists in front of the world press
  262. 268. 262. What president was in office during the fall of the Soviet Union and the Desert Storm conflict? George Herbert Walker Bush (the current president’s father)
  263. 269. 263. What was the military goal of Operation Desert Storm? To liberate Kuwait from Iraqi control in 1991
  264. 270. 264. What was First Lady Hilary Clinton’s first job after her husband took office? To explore the feasibility of universal health care
  265. 271. 265. What military alliance was Bill Clinton supporting when he sent troops to Bosnia? NATO, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization
  266. 272. 266. What was behind the “New Right” coalition in the 1980s? A conservative group focused on such issues as opposing abortion, blocking the Equal Rights Amendment, evading court-ordered busing, and a return of school prayer
  267. 273. 267. What thwarted William Clinton’s attempt to establish universal health care? Republican attacks on the plan for promoting “big government”
  268. 274. 268. How did Clinton use new legislation to affect the issues of international free trade and gun control? He championed such causes by pushing legislation such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the Brady Bill for gun control
  269. 275. 269. What was Clinton’s Whitewater scandal? An Arkansas land deal he was involved with whose investigation led to exposure of his affair with a White House intern. Alleged lies led to his impeachment.
  270. 276. As more people live longer, who will care for them and will Social Security be able to cover them?
  271. 285. 271. What was the purpose of NAFTA To create the world’s largest free trade zone with the U.S., Canada, and Mexico
  272. 287. 272. What is urban flight? The process of Americans leaving the cities to move to the suburbs
  273. 288. 273. Since 1980, what country has contributed the most immigrants to America? Mexico
  274. 289. 274. Why did the ACLU object to the Patriot Act? It gave too much power to the federal government to violate individual rights in an effort to stop terrorism