Chapter 2 Solar System
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Chapter 2 Solar System






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Chapter 2 Solar System Chapter 2 Solar System Presentation Transcript

  • Earth’s Place in Space Chapter 2, section 1
    • Rotation
    • Revolution
    • Orbit
    • The spinning of the Earth about its axis.
    • Creates DAYS
    • The movement of the Earth about the Sun.
    • Creates YEARS
    • The elliptical (oval) path the Earth makes around the Sun.
  • Actually, the Earth’s axis is tilted. 23.5 degrees, to be exact.
    • The tilted axis makes …
    • … seasons
    • When you are closest to the Sun, it is summer. When you are farthest from the Sun, it is winter.
    • This is not because the Earth is all far away, it is because the Earth is tilted.
    • Solar Eclipse
    • Moon moves between the sun and the Earth
    • Can only be seen by a few (moon is small)
    • Must be during a new moon
    • Lunar Eclipse
    • Earth moves between the Sun and the Moon.
    • Everyone can see a lunar eclipse
  • The Solar System Chapter 2, section 2
    • Our solar system
    • Planetary Orbits
    • Includes 8 planets, our Sun, and many other objects that orbit the Sun
    • Is held together by the Sun’s immense gravity
    • The orbits of the planets are elliptical (like a slightly flattened circle).
    • Measuring in Outer Space
    • Astronomical Units
      • 1AU = 150 million km, which is the distance from the Earth to the Sun
    • Inner Planets
    • Group of planets closest to the Sun
    • Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars
    • Mostly solid, with minerals similar to Earth
    • Mercury
    • Closest to the Sun
    • smallest planet
    • Has many craters
    • No atmosphere  extreme temperatures (425˚C to -170˚C)
    • 88 days for 1 revolution
    • Venus
    • Second-closest to the Sun
    • Surrounded by thick clouds
    • Clouds trap solar heat, so the temperature is always around 472˚C!
    • 225 days for 1 revolution
    • Earth
    • Third planet from the Sun
    • Has water; temperature allows for ice, water, and vapor.
    • Atmosphere with ozone acts as a screen.
    • Very Unique
    • About 365 days for one revolution
    • Has one moon
    • Mars
    • Has seasons
    • Has polar ice caps
    • Maybe abundant water at one time?
    • Looks red because of rust in rock.
    • Has two small moons (Phobos, Deimos)
    • 687 days for 1 revolution
    • Asteroid Belt
    • Between Mars and Jupiter
    • Pieces of rock
    • Most likely the remains from collisions.
    • Outer Planets
    • Group of planets farthest from the Sun
    • Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
    • Gas Giants
    • Jupiter
    • Fifth planet from the Sun
    • LARGEST planet
    • Rotates REALLY fast (only 10hr day)
    • Great Red Spot: giant storm
    • Has 63 moons (Ganymede is bigger than Mercury)
    • 3 moons have icy water
    • Faint ring of dust
    • Nearly 12 years for 1 revolution
    • Saturn
    • Several broad rings made of ice and rock
    • Has 61 moons
    • Titan is the largest moon. It resembles Earth during primitive times.
    • 24.5 years for 1 revolution
    • Uranus
    • The 7 th planet
    • Looks blue due to methane gas
    • Axis is almost horizontal (sideways)
    • 27 moons
    • Coldest of the 8 planets
    • Neptune
    • The last planet
    • Looks blue due to methane gas
    • Has 13 moons
    • Seasons/storms
    • 1 revolution is 165 years!
    • Comets
    • Large body of ice and rock
    • Moves around the Sun in an elliptical orbit
    • Tails appear when near the Sun
    • Sun melts a little ice and wind blows particles
    • Tail is always away from the Sun
    • Meteorites
    • Chunks of extraterrestrial rock that fall to the Earth’s surface.
    • Rare because most rocks do not make it through the Earth’s atmosphere AND 71% of Earth is water (so it’s unlikely to hit land)
    • Provide a lot of information about space
    • Can be stone, metal, or a mixture
  • Stars & Galaxies Chapter 2, Section 3
    • Constellations
    • Groups of stars that form patterns in the sky
    • Change depending on the season (what part of the sky we are viewing)
    • Star Colors
    • Star Size
    • Stars are different colors
    • Color gives a clue about temperature
    • Red – cooler
    • Yellow – warm
    • Blue – hot
    • The Sun is a yellow star
    • Stars are different sizes
    • The Sun is a medium star
    • Brightness
    • Apparent Magnitude
    • Stars have different brightnesses
    • How bright a star appears from Earth
    • The star’s distance from Earth affects this
    • (flashlight near or far)
    • The Life of a Star
    • 1 st : clouds of dust & gas
    • Gravity pulls them together, temperature rises & atoms fuse
    • Stars have a cycle depending on their size
    Our Sun is here
    • Supergiants
    • Supernova
    • Large stars only
    • When fuel is almost used up
    • Expand to a supergiant
    • When the core of a supergiant collapses
    • For a few days, may be brighter than an entire galaxy!
    • After supernova:
    • Very large stars  black hole
    • Large stars  neutron star
    • Galaxies
    • 3 types:
    • Groups of stars, gas, and dust held together by gravity
    • Elliptical
    • Spiral
    • Irregular
    • The Milky Way
    • Our galaxy
    • Large spiral (100,000 light years wide)
    • Includes hundreds of billions of stars
    • The Sun revolves around the center of the Milky Way about once every 225 million years!
    • Center may be a gigantic black hole?
    • The Speed of Light
    • Really fast
    • Light can go around the Earth 7 times in 1 second!
    • Speed of light = 300,000 km/s
    • Light Years
    • Astronomical units are too small in the universe, so we use light years
    • It is the distance light travels in one year
    • About 9.5 trillion km!
    • The Milky Way Galaxy is 100,000 ly away!
    • For most galaxies, we are seeing them as they were millions of years ago because they are millions of light years away.
    • The Universe
    • Each galaxy includes billions of stars. Our universe may include as many as 100 billion galaxies!
    • In ten days, the Hubble Telescope took pictures in a small area of sky. It discovered 1500 galaxies!
    • Scientists believe the universe is expanding (getting bigger) because some galaxies are moving away from our Solar System.