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Earth’s Place in Space Chapter 2, section 1
<ul><li>Rotation </li></ul><ul><li>Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Orbit </li></ul><ul><li>The spinning of the Earth about it...
Actually, the Earth’s axis is tilted.  23.5 degrees, to be exact.
<ul><li>The tilted axis makes … </li></ul><ul><li>…  seasons </li></ul><ul><li>When you are closest to the Sun, it is summ...
<ul><li>Solar Eclipse </li></ul><ul><li>Moon moves between the sun and the Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Can only be seen by a f...
<ul><li>Lunar Eclipse </li></ul><ul><li>Earth moves between the Sun and the Moon. </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone can see a lun...
The Solar System Chapter 2, section 2
<ul><li>Our solar system </li></ul><ul><li>Planetary Orbits </li></ul><ul><li>Includes 8 planets, our Sun, and many other ...
<ul><li>Measuring in Outer Space </li></ul><ul><li>Astronomical Units </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1AU = 150 million km, which is...
 
<ul><li>Inner Planets </li></ul><ul><li>Group of planets closest to the Sun </li></ul><ul><li>Mercury, Venus, Earth, and M...
<ul><li>Mercury </li></ul><ul><li>Closest to the Sun </li></ul><ul><li>smallest planet </li></ul><ul><li>Has many craters ...
<ul><li>Venus </li></ul><ul><li>Second-closest to the Sun </li></ul><ul><li>Surrounded by thick clouds </li></ul><ul><li>C...
<ul><li>Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Third planet from the Sun </li></ul><ul><li>Has water; temperature allows for ice, water, ...
<ul><li>Mars </li></ul><ul><li>Has seasons </li></ul><ul><li>Has polar ice caps </li></ul><ul><li>Maybe abundant water at ...
<ul><li>Asteroid Belt </li></ul><ul><li>Between Mars and Jupiter </li></ul><ul><li>Pieces of rock </li></ul><ul><li>Most l...
<ul><li>Outer Planets </li></ul><ul><li>Group of planets farthest from the Sun </li></ul><ul><li>Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, ...
<ul><li>Jupiter </li></ul><ul><li>Fifth planet from the Sun </li></ul><ul><li>LARGEST planet </li></ul><ul><li>Rotates REA...
<ul><li>Saturn </li></ul><ul><li>Several broad rings made of ice and rock </li></ul><ul><li>Has  61  moons </li></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>Uranus </li></ul><ul><li>The 7 th  planet  </li></ul><ul><li>Looks blue due to methane gas </li></ul><ul><li>Axis ...
<ul><li>Neptune </li></ul><ul><li>The last planet  </li></ul><ul><li>Looks blue due to methane gas </li></ul><ul><li>Has 1...
<ul><li>Comets </li></ul><ul><li>Large body of ice and rock </li></ul><ul><li>Moves around the Sun in an elliptical orbit ...
<ul><li>Meteorites </li></ul><ul><li>Chunks of extraterrestrial rock that fall to the Earth’s surface. </li></ul><ul><li>R...
Stars & Galaxies Chapter 2, Section 3
<ul><li>Constellations </li></ul><ul><li>Groups of stars that form patterns in the sky </li></ul><ul><li>Change depending ...
<ul><li>Star Colors </li></ul><ul><li>Star Size </li></ul><ul><li>Stars are different colors </li></ul><ul><li>Color gives...
<ul><li>Brightness </li></ul><ul><li>Apparent Magnitude </li></ul><ul><li>Stars have different brightnesses </li></ul><ul>...
<ul><li>The Life of a Star </li></ul><ul><li>1 st : clouds of dust & gas </li></ul><ul><li>Gravity pulls them together, te...
<ul><li>Supergiants </li></ul><ul><li>Supernova </li></ul><ul><li>Large stars only </li></ul><ul><li>When fuel is almost u...
<ul><li>After supernova: </li></ul><ul><li>Very large stars    black hole </li></ul><ul><li>Large stars    neutron star ...
<ul><li>Galaxies </li></ul><ul><li>3 types: </li></ul><ul><li>Groups of stars, gas, and dust held together by gravity </li...
<ul><li>The Milky Way </li></ul><ul><li>Our galaxy </li></ul><ul><li>Large spiral (100,000 light years wide) </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>The Speed of Light </li></ul><ul><li>Really fast </li></ul><ul><li>Light can go around the Earth 7 times in 1 seco...
<ul><li>Light Years </li></ul><ul><li>Astronomical units are too small in the universe, so we use light years </li></ul><u...
<ul><li>The Universe </li></ul><ul><li>Each galaxy includes billions of stars.  Our universe may include as many as 100 bi...
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Chapter 2 Solar System

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Transcript of "Chapter 2 Solar System"

  1. 1. Earth’s Place in Space Chapter 2, section 1
  2. 2. <ul><li>Rotation </li></ul><ul><li>Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Orbit </li></ul><ul><li>The spinning of the Earth about its axis. </li></ul><ul><li>Creates DAYS </li></ul><ul><li>The movement of the Earth about the Sun. </li></ul><ul><li>Creates YEARS </li></ul><ul><li>The elliptical (oval) path the Earth makes around the Sun. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Actually, the Earth’s axis is tilted. 23.5 degrees, to be exact.
  4. 4. <ul><li>The tilted axis makes … </li></ul><ul><li>… seasons </li></ul><ul><li>When you are closest to the Sun, it is summer. When you are farthest from the Sun, it is winter. </li></ul><ul><li>This is not because the Earth is all far away, it is because the Earth is tilted. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Solar Eclipse </li></ul><ul><li>Moon moves between the sun and the Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Can only be seen by a few (moon is small) </li></ul><ul><li>Must be during a new moon </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Lunar Eclipse </li></ul><ul><li>Earth moves between the Sun and the Moon. </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone can see a lunar eclipse </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Solar System Chapter 2, section 2
  8. 8. <ul><li>Our solar system </li></ul><ul><li>Planetary Orbits </li></ul><ul><li>Includes 8 planets, our Sun, and many other objects that orbit the Sun </li></ul><ul><li>Is held together by the Sun’s immense gravity </li></ul><ul><li>The orbits of the planets are elliptical (like a slightly flattened circle). </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Measuring in Outer Space </li></ul><ul><li>Astronomical Units </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1AU = 150 million km, which is the distance from the Earth to the Sun </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Inner Planets </li></ul><ul><li>Group of planets closest to the Sun </li></ul><ul><li>Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly solid, with minerals similar to Earth </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>Mercury </li></ul><ul><li>Closest to the Sun </li></ul><ul><li>smallest planet </li></ul><ul><li>Has many craters </li></ul><ul><li>No atmosphere  extreme temperatures (425˚C to -170˚C) </li></ul><ul><li>88 days for 1 revolution </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>Venus </li></ul><ul><li>Second-closest to the Sun </li></ul><ul><li>Surrounded by thick clouds </li></ul><ul><li>Clouds trap solar heat, so the temperature is always around 472˚C! </li></ul><ul><li>225 days for 1 revolution </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Third planet from the Sun </li></ul><ul><li>Has water; temperature allows for ice, water, and vapor. </li></ul><ul><li>Atmosphere with ozone acts as a screen. </li></ul><ul><li>Very Unique </li></ul><ul><li>About 365 days for one revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Has one moon </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>Mars </li></ul><ul><li>Has seasons </li></ul><ul><li>Has polar ice caps </li></ul><ul><li>Maybe abundant water at one time? </li></ul><ul><li>Looks red because of rust in rock. </li></ul><ul><li>Has two small moons (Phobos, Deimos) </li></ul><ul><li>687 days for 1 revolution </li></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>Asteroid Belt </li></ul><ul><li>Between Mars and Jupiter </li></ul><ul><li>Pieces of rock </li></ul><ul><li>Most likely the remains from collisions. </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>Outer Planets </li></ul><ul><li>Group of planets farthest from the Sun </li></ul><ul><li>Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune </li></ul><ul><li>Gas Giants </li></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>Jupiter </li></ul><ul><li>Fifth planet from the Sun </li></ul><ul><li>LARGEST planet </li></ul><ul><li>Rotates REALLY fast (only 10hr day) </li></ul><ul><li>Great Red Spot: giant storm </li></ul><ul><li>Has 63 moons (Ganymede is bigger than Mercury) </li></ul><ul><li>3 moons have icy water </li></ul><ul><li>Faint ring of dust </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly 12 years for 1 revolution </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>Saturn </li></ul><ul><li>Several broad rings made of ice and rock </li></ul><ul><li>Has 61 moons </li></ul><ul><li>Titan is the largest moon. It resembles Earth during primitive times. </li></ul><ul><li>24.5 years for 1 revolution </li></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>Uranus </li></ul><ul><li>The 7 th planet </li></ul><ul><li>Looks blue due to methane gas </li></ul><ul><li>Axis is almost horizontal (sideways) </li></ul><ul><li>27 moons </li></ul><ul><li>Coldest of the 8 planets </li></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>Neptune </li></ul><ul><li>The last planet </li></ul><ul><li>Looks blue due to methane gas </li></ul><ul><li>Has 13 moons </li></ul><ul><li>Seasons/storms </li></ul><ul><li>1 revolution is 165 years! </li></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>Comets </li></ul><ul><li>Large body of ice and rock </li></ul><ul><li>Moves around the Sun in an elliptical orbit </li></ul><ul><li>Tails appear when near the Sun </li></ul><ul><li>Sun melts a little ice and wind blows particles </li></ul><ul><li>Tail is always away from the Sun </li></ul>
  22. 23. <ul><li>Meteorites </li></ul><ul><li>Chunks of extraterrestrial rock that fall to the Earth’s surface. </li></ul><ul><li>Rare because most rocks do not make it through the Earth’s atmosphere AND 71% of Earth is water (so it’s unlikely to hit land) </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a lot of information about space </li></ul><ul><li>Can be stone, metal, or a mixture </li></ul>
  23. 24. Stars & Galaxies Chapter 2, Section 3
  24. 25. <ul><li>Constellations </li></ul><ul><li>Groups of stars that form patterns in the sky </li></ul><ul><li>Change depending on the season (what part of the sky we are viewing) </li></ul>
  25. 26. <ul><li>Star Colors </li></ul><ul><li>Star Size </li></ul><ul><li>Stars are different colors </li></ul><ul><li>Color gives a clue about temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Red – cooler </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow – warm </li></ul><ul><li>Blue – hot </li></ul><ul><li>The Sun is a yellow star </li></ul><ul><li>Stars are different sizes </li></ul><ul><li>The Sun is a medium star </li></ul>
  26. 27. <ul><li>Brightness </li></ul><ul><li>Apparent Magnitude </li></ul><ul><li>Stars have different brightnesses </li></ul><ul><li>How bright a star appears from Earth </li></ul><ul><li>The star’s distance from Earth affects this </li></ul><ul><li>(flashlight near or far) </li></ul>
  27. 28. <ul><li>The Life of a Star </li></ul><ul><li>1 st : clouds of dust & gas </li></ul><ul><li>Gravity pulls them together, temperature rises & atoms fuse </li></ul><ul><li>Stars have a cycle depending on their size </li></ul>Our Sun is here
  28. 29. <ul><li>Supergiants </li></ul><ul><li>Supernova </li></ul><ul><li>Large stars only </li></ul><ul><li>When fuel is almost used up </li></ul><ul><li>Expand to a supergiant </li></ul><ul><li>When the core of a supergiant collapses </li></ul><ul><li>For a few days, may be brighter than an entire galaxy! </li></ul>
  29. 30. <ul><li>After supernova: </li></ul><ul><li>Very large stars  black hole </li></ul><ul><li>Large stars  neutron star </li></ul>
  30. 31. <ul><li>Galaxies </li></ul><ul><li>3 types: </li></ul><ul><li>Groups of stars, gas, and dust held together by gravity </li></ul><ul><li>Elliptical </li></ul><ul><li>Spiral </li></ul><ul><li>Irregular </li></ul>
  31. 32. <ul><li>The Milky Way </li></ul><ul><li>Our galaxy </li></ul><ul><li>Large spiral (100,000 light years wide) </li></ul><ul><li>Includes hundreds of billions of stars </li></ul><ul><li>The Sun revolves around the center of the Milky Way about once every 225 million years! </li></ul><ul><li>Center may be a gigantic black hole? </li></ul>
  32. 33. <ul><li>The Speed of Light </li></ul><ul><li>Really fast </li></ul><ul><li>Light can go around the Earth 7 times in 1 second! </li></ul><ul><li>Speed of light = 300,000 km/s </li></ul>
  33. 34. <ul><li>Light Years </li></ul><ul><li>Astronomical units are too small in the universe, so we use light years </li></ul><ul><li>It is the distance light travels in one year </li></ul><ul><li>About 9.5 trillion km! </li></ul><ul><li>The Milky Way Galaxy is 100,000 ly away! </li></ul><ul><li>For most galaxies, we are seeing them as they were millions of years ago because they are millions of light years away. </li></ul>
  34. 35. <ul><li>The Universe </li></ul><ul><li>Each galaxy includes billions of stars. Our universe may include as many as 100 billion galaxies! </li></ul><ul><li>In ten days, the Hubble Telescope took pictures in a small area of sky. It discovered 1500 galaxies! </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists believe the universe is expanding (getting bigger) because some galaxies are moving away from our Solar System. </li></ul>
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