It’s a rather a daunting proposition having to do an inaugural as it is difficult to know how to pitch it and it feels as if you are leaving your research philosophy very much bear. Also should one describe some in depth research or a broad overview? I have decided to opt for the latter. What I hope to do in this talk is three things. Firstly, I hope I can share with you my passion for this area of research and show you why I think it is such an exciting area to be working in. Secondly, I hope to be able to demonstrate why this is an important area, highlighting ways in which it is impacting on policy and practice. Thirdly, I would like to give you a snapshot of some of my current research interests.
Harnessing learning design… to create more effective learning activities Gráinne Conole, Stewart Nixon, Martin Weller [email_address] VLE LD Workshop 24 th April 2007
Introductions and aspirations: what do you want to get out of the workshop?
Outline What is learning design and why is it important? Activity: What you do currently Supporting the design process, summary of OU learning design work Activity: Applying to your own context: Using Compendium Case studies and tools for constructing learning activities Affordances Activity: looking at affordances Next steps
Commonalities and differences Researching and retrieving information Google, Wikipedia, subject-specific sites Communication Multiple tools, peers/tutors… Assignments Generic tools: Word, Excel, Powerpoint Integrated learning Mixed views on VLEs, personalised learning
Potentially endless possibilities
The crucial issue… How can we design learning activities which make effective use of tools and pedagogy ? How can we capture practice? scaffold design?
What is learning design? Formally representing (and thus reusing) learning sequences Shift of focus from content to activity LD is a means of describing learning activities Provides a way of representing learning activities so that they can be shared between tutors and designers and a scaffold to the process of creating new learning activities
Why is it useful? Means of eliciting designs from academics common vocabulary/language and understanding of learning activities Way in which designs can be reused Guides individuals through process of creating activities Creates an audit trail of design decisions Highlights policy implications Guide learners through activities
Discussion What resources or support do you use? What issues do new technologies raise? How do you currently design learning activities?
Discussion <ul><li>How – </li></ul><ul><li>granularity of activity (time driven, workloads), mixed approach learning outcome driven (x2), copy models from existing courses, team context is important, new people look outside more, contrast copy model with creative approach e.g. wiki, linkage between content and activity. Time in development e.g. if author is pushed for time will revert to known model and writing lots of text is simplest. Editorial time does not allow sufficient time to suggest very different ways of doing things. Activities arise in ad hoc way often e.g. about time I had an activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Colleagues as resource (formal and informal), resources and support (LTS esp.) determine direction, 3 rd party material, Library building student skills, if there is support for a tech then more likely to use it. </li></ul><ul><li>Technologies </li></ul><ul><li>M883 wikis represent real world practice for req, use appropriate technology to deliver learning outcome. </li></ul>
The best approach? There isn’t one! Everyone is different! <ul><ul><li>Problem: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What specific problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>do you want to address? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning outcomes: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What do you want the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>students to achieve? </li></ul></ul>Pedagogy: What pedagogical principles do you want to emphasis? <ul><ul><li>Activities: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What do you want </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the students to do? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tools: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What tools do </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>you want to use? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What resources do </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>you want to use? </li></ul></ul>Assessment: What do you want to assess and how?
Supporting the design process <ul><li>Identify </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How teachers design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(examples of good practice) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How tools are being used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(barriers and enablers) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Based on </li></ul><ul><li>Southampton </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DialogPlus and LADIE projects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Open University </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VLE LD work and case studies </li></ul></ul>Feed into Development of an online learning design tool Associating support mechanisms and workshops
OU case studies 44 Total 1 Reflective practice for tutors 1 Podcasting (by students) 1 ‘ near – synchronous’ collaborative group project 1 Synchronous audio based collaborative learning 1 Problem based learning 4 Resource based learning 3 Group project 3 ePortfolio (Journal) 7 Asynchronous discussion based collaborative learning 4 Interactive assessment 1 Online tutorials (for global presentation) 2 Online residential 2 Online icebreaker 1 Wiki based dialogue 3 Wiki group project 9 Multimedia simulation/ modelling/ case study
Recap How to best match pedagogical approaches, types of activities and use of tools Definition of the components of a learning activity and review of pedagogical approaches and key characteristics of learning Learning design as an approach to representing practice and scaffolding design A look at a selection of tools and resources for design New technologies provide new opportunities
Tailoring to your needs Reflect again on how you design learning activities Reflect on how you might use learning design tools and resources A lot of factors! Pedagogy, activities, tools, support, resources, … AND A lot of potential tools, resources and different approaches to design!
Capturing practice Existing Learning activity Abstraction Pattern Diagram Model Case study Vocabulary Mediating artefacts
Case study Narrative Textual description
The Pattern Approach Problem + Solution
Diagrams Collaborative group work in a wiki
Mindmaps and vocabularies
Models Rules Mediating artefacts Subject Object Community Division of labour Outcome Activity theory E-moderating Conversational framework Experiential Constructivist Learning Community Practice Identity Meaning Learning as experiences Learning as doing Learning as becoming Learning as belonging Social theory of learning Learning as social participation Legitimate participation Rarification Communities of Practice
Existing Learning activities Abstraction Pattern Iconic representation Model Case study Vocabulary Mediating artefacts Existing Learning activities Existing Learning activities Existing Learning activities Existing Learning activities Construction New Learning activity Toolkits Planners Repositories Meta mediating artefacts Tips and hints Guidelines FAQs Aggregation
Approaches to Learning Design From existing practice: OU case studies, AUTC Learning Design Pedagogical Patterns JISC effective practice case studies By scaffolding the design process: DialogPlus, Phoebe, JISC Pedagogic Planner, LAMS
JISC Effective Practice case studies
AUTC Learning Design Case studies
JISC pedagogic planner
JISC Phoebe planner
LAMS Learning Activity Management System
Hands on Explore using Compendium to design a learning activity Identify a learning activity of your own to design or use one of the case studies Demonstration of using Compendium
Different ways of thinking No one approach to design Ideas for different ways of thinking about design Making connections Scaffolds for design
Affordances By tagging tools, activities and pedagogical approaches with their affordances for learning we might be able to make better decisions on how these are used in a particular context “ Affordance” refers to the perceived and actual properties of a thing, primarily those functional properties that determine just how the thing could possibly be used
Discussion Map on the key affordances for each of these tools Wiki Discussion forum MSN Chat Blog E-Portfolio Search engine Word Interactive DVD Video conference Powerpoint Spreadsheet E-assessment
Discussion Map on the key affordances for each of these activities Web search: Students search the web and collate resources against a given set of criteria Drill and practice: Students work through a set of resource, Then complete a formative self-assessment Debate: For and against arguments posted, Students choose sides and post their views, read and respond to other postings Portfolio: Student gather evidence against learning outcomes into a portfolio
Constraints Time consuming to develop Cost Difficult to use Assessment issues Lack of interactivity Time consuming to support
Tools, activities, problems Is there a relationship between tools and activities? Is there a relationship between tools and pedagogy? Is there a relationship between activities and problems? Tools Activities Problems/Pedagogy
Mapping problems to activities Discipline differences Addressing a real problem
Scenario for a design tool <ul><ul><li>User wants to see examples or create a new activity </li></ul></ul>Presented with a number of views and additional information (Tools, Resources, Activities, Problems) <ul><ul><li>Set of templates offering different approaches to design and levels of scaffolding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Starting with their preferred starting point the user can drag elements onto their workspace and create a design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The system will then prompt related elements, eg “a collaborative activity” will list relevant tools e.g. asynchronous conferencing, wikis etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advice and examples of other learning designs </li></ul></ul>
Issues to consider What information will people find useful, in what format? Balance of abstraction vs. context Making connections across the themes: pedagogies, problems, tools and tasks Can we draw out key affordances? How do we populate and update the tool? How can we incorporate user adaptation? How do we combine with workshops, etc?
Next steps Feedback please! Work up of case studies Develop and testing of prototype tool Identification of additional support
Additional resources <ul><li>Case studies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>JISC effective practice guides (all as free pdfs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Effective practice with e-learning http://www.elearning.ac.uk/effprac/ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Case studies of innovation http://www.elearning.ac.uk/innoprac/ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Student experience (available Sept. 07) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AUTC learning design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.learningdesigns.uow.edu.au/index.html </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Learning design tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DialogPlus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>JISC Pedagogic planner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phoebe http://phoebe-project.conted.ox.ac.uk/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LAMS http://www.lamsinternational.com/ </li></ul></ul>
References <ul><li>Overview of e-learning: Conole and Oliver (Eds) (2007), Contemporary perspectives on e-learning research , Routledge Falmer </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Activity Taxonomy: Conole, G. (forthcoming), ‘Describing learning activities: tools and resources to guide practice’ in Rethinking pedagogy for a digital age, H. Beetham and R. Sharpe (Eds), Routledge Falmer. </li></ul><ul><li>Policy and practice: Conole (forthcoming), ‘An international comparison of the relationship between policy and practice in e-learning’ in Andrews and Haythornthwaite (Eds), Handbook of e-learning research , Sage </li></ul><ul><li>Classification of tools and their functions: Conole (2006), ‘What impact are technologies having and how are they changing practice?’, in McNay (ed), Beyond Mass Higher Education: Building on Experience , The Society for Research into Higher Education, Open University Press/ McGraw-Hill Education , 81-95. </li></ul>
References <ul><li>A model for learning theories: Conole, Dyke, Oliver, and Seale , (2004), ‘Mapping pedagogy and tools for effective learning design’, Computers and Education </li></ul><ul><li>Affordances of technologies: Conole and Dyke , (2004), ‘What are the affordances of Information and Communication Technologies?’, ALT-J , 12.2, 113-124. </li></ul><ul><li>A Pedagogical toolkit: Conole, G. and Fill, K. (2005) ‘A learning design toolkit to create pedagogically effective learning activities’, Journal of Interactive Multimedia Education, 8, http://www-jime.open.ac.uk/2005/08/ </li></ul><ul><li>Learning design: Conole, G., Thorpe, M., Weller, M., Wilson, P., Nixon, S. and Grace, P. (2007), ‘Capturing practice and scaffolding learning design’ EDEN 2007, Naples. </li></ul><ul><li>Mediating artefacts in design: Conole, G. (forthcoming), ‘Capturing practice: the role of mediating artefacts in learning design’ in L. Lockyer, S. Bennett, S. Agostinho and B. Harper (Eds) Handbook of Research on Learning Design and Learning Objects: Issues, Applications and Technologies </li></ul><ul><li>The learner experience: JISC learner experience projects – www.jisc.ac.uk/elp_learneroutcomes.html and www.jisc.ac.uk/whatwedo/programmes/elearning_pedagogy/elp_learnerexperience.aspx and learner v ideo clips http://www.jisc.ac.uk/whatwedo/programmes/ elearning_pedagogy/elp_learneroutcomes/elp_learnervoices.aspx </li></ul>