Open scholarship & online identity


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A talk I gave for the SOLAR research group. It covers issues in open scholarship, alt metrics & online identity. It was a bit of a catch-all talk, which I'll probably refine over the next few months.

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Open scholarship & online identity

  1. 1. Open scholarship & online identity Martin Weller
  2. 2. Overview• Open scholarship• Researchers & technology• Altmetrics• Research approaches• Online identity• A model for thinking about identity• Conclusions• Discussion
  3. 3. What is open scholarship?Anderson (2009) open scholars:•create;•use and contribute open educational resources;•self archive;•apply their research;•do open research;•filter and share with others;•support emerging open learning alternatives;•publish in open access journals;•comment openly on the works of others•build networks
  4. 4. Weller (2011) open scholars are likely to:•Have a distributed online identity•Have a central place for their identity• Have cultivated an online network of peers•Have developed a personal learning environment from a range of tools•Engage with open publishing•Create a range of informal outputs•Try new technologies•Mix personal and professional outputs•Use new technologies to support teaching and research•Automatically create and share outputs
  5. 5. The Digital Scholar book
  6. 6. Definition
  7. 7. Researchers use of new tech“frequent or intensive use is rare, and some researchers regard blogs, wikis and other novel forms of communication as a waste of time or even dangerous” Harley et al (2010) “We found no evidence to suggest(Proctor, Williams and Stewart (2010) that “tech-savvy” young graduate students, postdoctoral scholars, or assistant professors are bucking traditional publishing practices” Carpenter et al describe researchers as ‘risk averse’ and ‘behind the curve in using digital technology’
  8. 8. Is it tenure?“The advice given to pre-tenure scholars was consistent across all fields: focus on publishing in the right venues and avoid spending too much time on public engagement, committee work, writing op- ed pieces, developing websites, blogging, and other non-traditional forms of electronic dissemination”
  9. 9. Is it caution?Waldrop 2008 (on blogging)““Its so antithetical to the way scientists are trained," Duke University geneticist Huntington F. Willard said... The whole point of blogging is spontaneity--getting your ideas out there quickly, even at the risk of being wrong or incomplete. “But to a scientist, thats a tough jump to make,” says Willard. “When we publish things, by and large, weve gone through a very long process of drafting a paper and getting it peer reviewed.”
  10. 10. Is it habit?Kroll & Forsman“Almost all researchers have created a strong network of friends and colleagues and they draw together the same team repeatedly for new projects…Everyone emphasizes the paramount importance of interpersonal contact as the vital basis for agreeing to enter into joint work. Personal introductions, conversations at meetings or hearing someone present a paper were cited as key in choosing collaborators.”
  11. 11. A conflict of cultural norms?What are the cultural norms of blogging?•a willingness to share thoughts and experiences with others at anearly stage;•the importance of getting input from others on an idea or opinion;•launching collaborative projects that would be very difficult orimpossible to achieve alone;•gathering information from a high number of sources every day;•control over the sources and aggregation of their news;•the existence of a ‘common code’: a vocabulary, a way to writeposts and behaviour codes such as quoting other sources when youuse them, linking into them, commenting on other posts and so on;•a culture of speed and currency, with a preference to post or reactinstantaneously; and•a need for recognition – bloggers want to express themselves andget credit for it.(Le Muir 2005)
  12. 12. How ‘sticky’ are these cultural norms?
  13. 13. Openness allows AltmetricsReaderMeter
  14. 14. Social Media analysis
  15. 15. • How often do we build analytics into our work?• How reliable are these figures? (and services)• What the @*@* do they mean in terms of impact?• If we take them seriously will we just game them?
  16. 16. Research skills• Video• Networks• Data visualisation• Analytics• Curation/filtering• Writing for online• Liveblogging
  17. 17. The research process• Have an idea • Have an idea• Write a proposal • Do research• Submit proposal • Blog it• {wait}• Get funding• Do research• Write paper• {wait}• Publish
  18. 18. Different granularity• Liberated curriculum
  19. 19. Heppell (2001) “we continually make the error of subjugating technology to our present practice rather than allowing it to free us from the tyranny of past mistakes”
  20. 20. Online identityTag 16 my secret identity bychanchan222
  21. 21. My online identity
  22. 22. It’s distributed Reflections by stephen dooley
  23. 23. It’s evolving
  24. 24. It’s default
  25. 25. It’s moving to the centreStaircase of the Vatican museum by _robertC_
  26. 26. It mixes personal & professional
  27. 27. New routes for impact 2400 visitors 52,000 visitorsOpen Research Online = 163 hits/month = 200 hits/day
  28. 28. Complementary to traditional practice Tweets can predict highly cited articles within the first 3 days of article publication. (Eysenbach 2012)There is evidence that open access journalshave higher citation measures, downloadsand views than those in toll-access databases(e.g. Lawrence 2001; Antelman 2004;Harnad and Brody 2004) Blogging leads to more downloads of papers (anecdotal) Personal reputation, keynote invites (anecdotal)
  29. 29. In conflict with existing practice Frustration with old systems Ewins (2005) “Several committee members expressed concern that a blogger who joined our staff might air departmental dirty Advice to play the game laundry (real or imagined) on the cyber clothesline for the world to see.”Seen as frivolous Can lead to fewer publications
  30. 30. Academic identity Henkel (2005) “Autonomy is integrally related to academic identity” Dennen “the development of identity norms …based on a viral movement of David Snow, identity = ‘a shared sense of individual actions across blogs.” “one-ness” or “we-ness” anchored in shared attributes and experiences & in contrast to one or more sets of “others” Canetti (1960) Crowd symbols eg the RevolutionMead (1934) - the self is developed most fully when the individualintegrates community attitudes and values
  31. 31. So…• Academics define themselves around shared attributes and ‘crowd symbols’• But open scholarship has different set of attributes & symbols• It also allows a route to re-establishing core academic values such as autonomy
  32. 32. Mountain folk“It is true to say that mountain people throughoutthe world – beyond their cultural, religious orpolitical differences – easily feel at one”“A mountain farmer in the Valais canton has more incommon with a moun- tain farmer in Nepal thanwith someone living on the Swiss Plateau”•Debarbieux and Rudaz (2008) Growing Alpine identity coming from initiatives & leaders Still many who don’t identify with this though, conflicted. •(Fennia)
  33. 33. Online academics• Resemble mountain dwellers• Have an affinity to their discipline• Also have a dual identity with their online community• Sometimes these are in conflict, sometimes complementary• It is less problematic for the ‘city dwellers’
  34. 34. The Good News!• Exciting times• Innovation is possible• New teaching eg Phonar• New Research methods eg social media analysis, analytics• New dissemination eg video• New connections eg virtual research groups
  35. 35. The bad news…• You have to play the traditional game too• There is risk• Will see increased control• Not well understood by people who matter• Can’t afford not to
  36. 36. Openness has won• Open data• Open Access publishing• Open scholarship• Open source• Open tools• MOOCs• OERs• The direction of travel is all one way…
  37. 37. But…• This isn’t what we thought victory would look like• Openness as marketing term• Open isn’t always open• It’s more nuanced and subtle now• But this is what victory is always like
  38. 38. For discussion• Do you feel a tension between traditional and new practice?• Has openness ‘won’?• What issues around online identity do you have?• Are there other analogies we could use?