A pedagogy of abundance
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A pedagogy of abundance

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I explore the idea whether, as with economics, the shift from a model of scarcity to one of abundance has implications for pedagogy.

I explore the idea whether, as with economics, the shift from a model of scarcity to one of abundance has implications for pedagogy.

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  • I want to explore whether there is anything in this idea, so it’s not really a presentation of a well thought out theory, more a sharing of a half-baked idea.
  • My starting point is to use changes in economic models as a metaphor or comparison for changes in pedagogy
  • Don’t get too hung up on the economic angle
  • Let’s start with basic economics – it is mostly based around a model of scarcity, of limited resources. Be it food, energy, goods, expertise, knowledge – 5 minute university – supply and demand is all you need to know. The more scarce something is and the higher the demand the more it costs. We build models to control this equation
  • I often use changes in the music industry but with the metaphors are dangerous caveat. So in the music industry talent is scarce, and it’s also hard to find. SO you employ A&R people to find it, then you record it, and manufacture products based on demand. You then need a physical network to distribute this – access used to be scare – if you wanted a record you had to wait, your local shop may not have it etc
  • But a different model applies when it becomes abundant. Talent is still scarce, but locating it is easy, distributing it is free, the content can be reproduced at zero cost. All the previous model which was based on scarcity breaks down
  • There are two responses – those that accept the new abundance and try to work with it and those that try to recreate the scarcity model Long tail – eg amazon, netflix, etc Freemium – eg flickr Services – eg open source Offer digita version for free but pay for physical object – some publishers Run it by ads – everyone Contentv is free but pay for some real experience – eg gigs Relation with business
  • Scarcity responses want to reestablish the previous model in the digital age – so strict DRM that prevents you sharing or copying, strong legal enforcement, even subscription models to conent
  • If we now think about education – it too was based on a scarcity model.
  • We can think of many existing practices as embodying these principles of scarcity
  • Look at some contenders RBL conceptualises learning as a process which foregrounds the importance of the resources available to learners and in so doing presupposes that the interaction between the learner(s) and the resources (which may include human resources) is the main structuring device of the learning situation
  • Characteristics of PBL are:Learning is driven by challenging, open-ended problems.Students work in small collaborative groups.Teachers take on the role as "facilitators" of learning
  • “ Social constructivist scholars view learning as an active process where learners should learn to discover principles, concepts and facts for themselves, hence the importance of encouraging guesswork and intuitive thinking in learners (Brown et al.1989; Ackerman 1996). In fact, for the social constructivist, reality is not something that we can discover because it does not pre-exist prior to our social invention of it. Kukla (2000) argues that reality is constructed by our own activities and that people, together as members of a society, invent the properties of the world. ”
  • describes a group of people who share an interest, a craft, and/or a profession. It is in the process of sharing information and experiences in that group that the members learn from each other, and have an opportunity to develop themselves personally and professionally See also situated learning, cognitive apprenticeship
  • Learning and knowledge rests in diversity of opinions. Learning is a process of connecting specialized nodes or information sources. Learning may reside in non-human appliances. Capacity to know more is more critical than what is currently known Nurturing and maintaining connections is needed to facilitate continual learning. Ability to see connections between fields, ideas, and concepts is a core skill. Currency (accurate, up-to-date knowledge) is the intent of all connectivist learning activities. Decision-making is itself a learning process. Choosing what to learn and the meaning of incoming information is seen through the lens of a shifting reality. While there is a right answer now, it may be wrong tomorrow due to alterations in the information climate affecting the decision

Transcript

  • 1. Pedagogy http://www.flickr.com/photos/hippie/2596821107/ a of Martin Weller
  • 2. http://www.flickr.com/photos/svenwerk/858381180/ Less a presentation More a discussion
  • 3. http://www.flickr.com/photos/daviddmuir/2125697998/ Economics as metaphor
  • 4.
    • Warning metaphors are dangerous and imperfect!
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/r80o/5549288/ Warning: Metaphors are dangerous
  • 5. http://www.flickr.com/photos/hartnupj/78406716/ Supply and demand
  • 6.
    • Music – talent is scarce, hard to find, record it, resource is manufactured according to demand, access is scarce (opening hours, stock, etc)
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/frf_kmeron/3350179151/
  • 7.
    • When music is abundant what is the model?
    • Talent is still scarce, but access to it is easy
    • Distribution is instant
    • Model of scarcity breaks down
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/helloeno/530649757/
  • 8. Abundance responses
    • Long tail
    • Freemium
    • Services
    • Digital is free – pay for object
    • Ads
    • Content free – experience
    • Enterprise versions
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/dantaylor/188987057/
  • 9. Scarcity responses
    • DRM
    • Legal enforcement
    • Subscription
  • 10.
    • Expertise is scarce – build model around it
    • Learners (demand) come to where expert is (supply)
    • Group many experts together for convenience = university
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/monkeyleader/3297222812/
  • 11.
    • Pedagogy of scarcity:
    • Lecture – one to many
    • Library?
    • Instructivism/didactic
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/skyfaller/8394194/
  • 12. What would a pedagogy of abundance look like? http://www.flickr.com/photos/42903611@N00/387761039/
  • 13. Assumptions
    • Content is free
    • Content is abundant
    • Content is varied
    • Sharing is easy
    • Social based
    • Connections are ‘lite’
    • Organisation is ‘cheap’
    • Based on a generative system
    • Crowdsourcing
    • Network is valuable
  • 14.
    • Resource based learning:
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/mlgkhc/3284242747/
  • 15.
    • Problem based learning
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/donnagrayson/195244498/
  • 16.
    • Constructivism
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/auro/230377281/
  • 17.
    • Communities of practice
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/antphotos/3489600094/
  • 18.
    • Connectivism!
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/feuilllu/153570089/
  • 19. 3 possible conclusions
    • There is nothing in the pedagogy of abundance
    • We have enough theories just need to recast them
    • None of the existing theories quite captures new tech & behaviour & new one is required
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/cawley/894692611/
  • 20.