NEW SCIENTIFIC IDEAS New technology, combined with innovative approaches to seeking knowledge led to a breakthrough in Western thought The Polish scientist Copernicus became convinced that the Earth was round and that it rotated on its axis as it revolved around the sun
NEW SCIENTIFIC IDEAS To avoid persecution or imprisonment for his views, Copernicus worked in privacy for 30 years without publishing his ideas Other scientists took Copernicus’ ideas even further into a scientific understanding of the universe
NEW SCIENTIFIC IDEAS The German astronomer Kepler provided mathematical proof that the planets revolve around the sun, but at changing speeds and in ellipses, not at a constant speed in circles as Copernicus had believed
NEW SCIENTIFIC IDEAS In 1632, Galileo announced in publication that his observations confirmed Copernicus’s assertions that not all heavenly bodies revolved around the earth.
NEW SCIENTIFIC IDEAS An outraged Pope Urban VIII put Galileo on trial After recanting his views, Galileo helped the establish the universal law of physics
NEW SCIENTIFIC IDEAS Rene Descartes, a French mathematician saw mathematics as the prefect model for clear and certain knowledge He believed truth must be reached through reason and said, “I think, therefore I am”
NEW SCIENTIFIC IDEAS In the work Principia, English mathematician Isaac Newton offered a new understanding of the universe The book stated Newton’s theory of universal gravitation; to prove his theory, Newton developed Calculus Newton’s work greatly influenced scientific thought