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Ch 10 Rocks
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My notes for my 8th grade earth science class

My notes for my 8th grade earth science class

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  • 1. The Rock Cycle Ch 10
  • 2. Rocks and the Rock Cycle
    • Magma is the parent of all rocks
    • Three Major types
      • Igneous “from fire”
      • Sedimentary
      • Metamorphic “Changed Form”
  • 3.
      • The Rock Cycle
      • Series of processes in which rock changes from one type to another and back again.
  • 4.  
  • 5.  
  • 6.
    • Igneous Rocks
    • Forms as Magma cools
  • 7.
    • - Igneous Rock Structures
    • Below crust is Intrusive
    • Intrusions- underground rock masses
    • Batholiths over 100 square kilometers
  • 8.
    • Stock under 100 Km 2
    • Laccolith -domed lake of rock, forces up small mountain ranges
  • 9.
    • Sill layer of rock formed between other layers
    • Dikes - magma forcing it self across layers
  • 10.
    • Extrusions
    • Above Crust is Extrusive
    • Volcanic neck -lava remains from interior of volcano
    • Lava plateau -lava flows out of cracks and covers land
  • 11.  
  • 12.
    • Texture of igneous rock
      • Slow cooling allows large (course) crystals to form
      • Extrusive rock will have very small crystals
  • 13. Porphyry Porphyry is a mix of large and small crystals
  • 14.
    • Rapid cooling may result in a glassy appearance obsidian, or may trap gas bubbles, pumice
  • 15. Obsidian
  • 16. Three Families of Igneous Rock
    • Granite light colored or felsic (silica) orthoclase feldspar, quartz, hornblende, and mica
  • 17. Granite
  • 18.
    • Diorite medium colored, plagioclase feldspar, hornblende, augite and biotite. Little quartz
  • 19.  
  • 20.
      • Basalt dark or mafic (Iron) plagioclase feldspar, and augite
  • 21. Basalt
  • 22.
    • Sedimentary Rocks
    • Sedimentary rocks are formed when sediments undergo compaction (pressure) and cementation (glue)
  • 23.
    • 3 types
    • Clastic, Chemical, Organic
    • Clastic - sediments (small pieces) are carried away by wind, water or ice and left as deposits
    • These deposits then undergo cementation and compaction
  • 24.
    • Chemical - rocks form from minerals that have been dissolved in water
    • Organic - rocks are the remains of living things
  • 25.
    • Clastics
    • Clastics are identified by the size of their sediment
    • Conglomerate- rounded. pebble size
    • Breccia- angular pebble size
    • Sandstone - sand sized particles
    • Shale - clay particles
  • 26.
    • Conglomerate- rounded. pebble size
  • 27. Conglomerate
  • 28.
    • Breccia- angular pebble size
  • 29. Breccia
  • 30.
    • Sandstone - sand sized particles
  • 31. Sandstone
  • 32.
    • Shale - clay particles
  • 33. Shale
  • 34.
    • Chemical
    • Some minerals precipitate due to a change in temperature, limestone
    • Evaporates -left behind when water evaporates gypsum, halites
  • 35. Limestone
  • 36. Rock salt and Gypsum
  • 37.
    • Organic
    • Coal -formed from plants being buried then compacted
    • Organic limestone -shells from clams, coral, oysters and plankton form limestone
  • 38. Coal
  • 39. Organic Limestone
  • 40.
    • Features
    • Stratification-layer representing conditions when formed. cross-bedding
    • Ripple marks and mud cracks
    • Fossils
    • Concretions precipitated minerals build up around existing rocks
  • 41. Concretion
  • 42.
    • Metamorphic rocks
    • Rock may change because of exposure to heat and pressure, or have minerals dissolved or added
    • Two types metamorphism
      • Contact (direct)
      • Regional (Barrovian)
  • 43.  
  • 44.
    • Classification
    • Foliation
      • metamorphic rock has visible stripes
    • Can be formed when crystals are pushed into parallel bands or minerals of different densities separate into bands
  • 45. Schist
  • 46.
    • Banding
      • Minerals form into district lines,
      • Requires more heat and pressure than foliation
      • Both take flat minerals like mica and force them into bands
  • 47. Gneiss
  • 48.
    • Example of formation
    • Slate, schist and gneiss
    • Slate comes from shale
    • More heat and pressure turn slate in schist
    • Schist transforms into gneiss
  • 49.
    • Unfoliated
    • Have no bands
    • Formed from rocks with one mineral
    • Quartzite formed from sandstone
    • Marble formed from limestone
  • 50. Slate
  • 51. Quartzite
  • 52. Marble
  • 53. Images from about.geology.com