p.36 1 • Taking part in physical activity should suit most people. However, for some people exercising may not be appropriate for their physical condition . • In order to assess a person’s suitability and readiness for exercise a physical activity readiness questionnaire (PAR Q) should be completed. • The questionnaire inquires about medical history and current medical conditions . • If any answers relate to problems then the doctor should be consulted before continuing with any form of exercise.
p.37 STUDENT TASK: Complete the following Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PAR Q)
Assessing fitness levels
p.38 2 Each health-related and skill-related component can be measured using specific fitness tests. TEST 1 STUDENT TASK: Use the following tests to find out your level of fitness. COOPERS 12 MINUTE RUN Tests - CARDIOVASCULAR FITNESS HANDGRIP DYNAMOMETER TEST Tests - MUSCULAR STRENGTH TEST 2 Health-related or skill-related - HEALTH Health-related or skill-related - HEALTH p.38 MEASURED RUNNING TRACK
TEST 4 TEST 3 NO. OF SIT UPS IN 30 SECONDS SIT AND REACH TEST Tests - Tests - MUSCULAR ENDURANCE FLEXIBILITY Health-related or skill-related - HEALTH Health-related or skill-related - HEALTH p.39
TEST 5 THE ILLINOIS AGILITY TEST Tests - AGILITY TEST 6 STORK STAND TEST Tests - p.40 BALANCE Health-related or skill-related - SKILL Health-related or skill-related - SKILL
TEST 8 STANDING BROAD JUMP Tests - POWER TEST 7 ALTERNATE HAND WALL TOSS TEST Tests - COORDINATION p.41 Health-related or skill-related - SKILL Health-related or skill-related - SKILL
RULER REACTION TEST Tests - REACTION TIME TEST 9 TEST 10 30 METRE SPRINT Tests - SPEED Health-related or skill-related - SKILL Health-related or skill-related - SKILL 30 metres p.42
Principles of training
p.43 3 Progressive overload Progressive overload is to gradually increase the amount of work to gain fitness without the risk of injury . Making the body work harder means it has to adapt to the new work rate, which increases fitness . For example: Increasing the length of a training session or increasing the number of sessions per week. Progressive overload is important to a boxer, like Joe Calzaghe, because they have to reach high levels of fitness in order to win fights If the principles of training are followed during physical activity programmes the training will be more effective and performance will improve.
p.43 Specificity The training chosen should be suitable to the type of fitness the individual requires for their chosen sport or activity . For example: Swimmers need to train in the water. A long distance run would not be specific to a swimmer’s fitness requirement . Michael Phelps will spend a lot of time training in the swimming pool because it is specific to his fitness requirements as an elite swimmer
p.44 Individual differences and needs The principle of individual differences and needs is similar to the principle of specificity; however, this principle considers the needs of the individual rather than the need of the sport or activity . The needs of an individual may vary according to: • Age • Gender • Sporting experience • Weight • Height • Current levels of fitness Steven Gerrard’s training programme at Liverpool would be different to Wayne Rooney’s at Manchester United because of their individual differences and needs For example: Two football players may play in similar positions but they would not necessarily follow the same training programme.
p.44 Rest and recovery For the effects of exercise to take place it is important to ensure rest and recovery are considered in a training programme. Rest and recovery give the body time to: • Reduce physical fatigue • Repair damaged muscle tissue • Allow adaptation to take place • Replenish energy stores For example: If someone trained for five days out of seven they could structure their week as follows: Monday – Training day Tuesday - Training day Wednesday - Training day Thursday – Rest day Friday - Training day Saturday - Training day Sunday - Rest day
p.45 The FITT principle When undertaking a training programme, combining the four elements of the FITT principle is a way of helping you accomplish the desired results of the programme. The FITT principle is used to ensure you achieve overload and make the training specific . F – FREQUENCY • The number of times exercise is undertaken per week . • Frequency of exercise should be a minimum of three times a week • Professional athletes train more frequently to achieve high fitness levels . • Frequency overlaps with the principle of rest and recovery . I – INTENSITY • How hard you train. • The level of difficulty for training must be well planned to ensure intensity is achieved. • Intensity overlaps with the principle of progressive overload . T – TIME • How long each exercise session lasts. • Lengthening sessions is a way of overloading . T – TYPE • The variety of training that a performer undertakes to achieve particular goals . • Type overlaps with the principle of specificity .
p.45 Reversibility This principle of training refers to a decreasing level of fitness as a result of exercise being reduced or stopped . This may be due to illness or injury .
p.46 Goal setting Goal setting helps you focus on what you want to achieve, giving you small steps to reach the overall target of your training. Goal setting can: • Improve focus • Increase motivation • Allow you to assess your progress
p.46 SMART principle of goal setting Goals need to be SMART. S – SPECIFIC To the point and clear. For example, to improve a time for completing a half marathon. M – MEASURABLE Results need to be able to be recorded so you can tell when you have achieved the goal. For Example, the timings for a half marathon can be recorded to see if progress has been made. A – ACHIEVABLE The goals must be challenging but reachable. For example, trying to take 30 minutes off a personal best for a half marathon would probably not be achievable. R – REALISTIC The goals should be realistic for the level of fitness and skill. For example, trying to take 10 minutes off a personal best for a half marathon may be a more realistic target. T – TIME-BOUND The goal must have an end point so that it is not easily put off and never achieved. For example, personal exercise programmes run for six weeks.
STUDENT QUESTIONS The effect of reduced exercise Applying intensity Deteriorating health Matching the exercise to the activity Deteriorating health Matching the exercise to the activity The effect of reduced exercise Applying intensity 1 Specificity is: (1) 2 Reversibility is: (1) X X A B C D B A C D p.47 Sport, Measurable, Agreed, Timed Specific, Measurable, Agreed, Realistic, Time-bound Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, Time-bound Specific, Meaningful, Agreed, Realistic, Time-bound 3 SMART stands for: (1) 4 Which of the following is not a benefit of rest and recovery: (1) X X A B C D B A C D Allows adaptation to take place Replenishes energy stores Improves coordination Repairs damaged muscle tissue
Name three fitness tests and the aspect of fitness they measure. (6 marks)
i) Explain each component of the FITT principle. (4 marks)
ii) Give a specific example of its application to bring about progressive overload in a Personal Exercise Programme. (4 marks)
Coopers 12 minute run – Cardiovascular fitness Sit and reach – Flexibility Illinois agility test – Agility Stork stand test – Balance Standing broad jump – Power Ruler reaction test – Reaction time F - Frequency How often training occurs. For example, training once a week and then increasing it to twice. I - Intensity How hard a person is working. For example, sprinting 20 shuttles rather than 18. T - Time How long the person trains for. For example, the first session was 20 minutes long, by the 5 th session it is 30 minutes long. T - Type The training must match the needs of the activity. For example, swimming lengths in a swimming pool if you are training for swimming. Total marks /18
Methods of training
Training methods are used to improve fitness. Each training method works the body differently to improve a specific aspect of fitness. There are six main methods of training:
This is the most effective form of muscular strength training.
The weights can be increased gradually to cater for progression in training.
Different muscle groups can be worked on, as below:
Muscular strength = Heavy weights / few repetitions
Muscular endurance = Lighter weights / many repetitions
2 CIRCUIT TRAINING
The aim of circuit training is to improve muscular endurance .
Circuit training usually takes place in a gym or sports hall and involves a number of stations where different exercises are carried out.
It is important to avoid exercising the same muscle group consecutively, to prevent fatigue .
Exercises are carried out repeatedly for a set period of time or for a number of repetitions .
An example of a circuit layout:
Circuits can also be used to concentrate on skills from a particular sport .
Skills circuits are often used in basketball and may contain skills such as passing, shooting or dribbling at the stations.
A circuit training session could also include a combination of fitness exercises and skills .
This is the most appropriate training to improve cardiovascular fitness .
Continuous training can range from a brisk walk, for someone who is not at a high fitness level, to a long distance run or swim.
Continuous training can either be completed over a set distance or time .
This involves sets of work followed by periods of rest .
This type of training can improve speed or endurance depending on the intensity of the sets.
A good example of interval training is sprint relays or shuttle runs.
Interval training can be carried out individually, with a partner or in a team or group.
FARTLEK TRAINING (Swedish for “speed play”)
This training method combines travelling at fast and slow speeds.
Fartlek training improves speed, muscular endurance and cardiovascular fitness .
A fartlek session could include:
a) 10sec walk, 10sec jog, 10sec sprint. A whistle would indicate the change. (This could be carried out with varying times or using distance instead of time.)
b) Running in an area of varied terrain. For example, hills to sprint up, a flat gravel area to walk and a grassy area to jog.
This type of training is relevant to team games such as hockey, netball, rugby or football.
It mirrors closely a player’s movement on the pitch; walking, jogging and sprinting for short periods of time, using a combination of aerobic and anaerobic running.
6 CROSS TRAINING
This is when more than one activity is undertaken to add variety to the programme.
Cross training is a good way of improving all round fitness, equalling out the workout in terms of muscles used.
A cross training session could include:
a continuous run to improve cardiovascular fitness .
weight lifting to improve muscular strength .
interval sprints to improve speed .
Interval STUDENT TASK: Match the performers to the most relevant training method. p.50
EXTENSION TASK: Tick each training method which could be used to improve each of the components of fitness. p.50 Weight Circuit Continuous Interval Fartlek Cardiovascular fitness Muscular strength Muscular endurance Flexibility Body composition Agility Power Speed
Fill in the missing words below: (5 marks)
Exercising without any rest periods is called training. Alternating between strenuous exercise and rest is called training. Exercising on varied terrain running at different speeds throughout the session is known as
training. Using variety of exercises that are repeated in a set order is called training. Resistance training using machines or free weights is called training.
2 Complete the following table: (9 marks)
continuous Total marks /16 STUDENT QUESTIONS
What training method would this area be ideal for
and why? (2 marks)
Interval / weight Fartlek Circuit Short sprints / leg weights Different types of running speeds over varied terrain A variety of exercises that are repeated in a set order Improved leg speed Improved fitness relevant to sport Improved muscular endurance This area would be ideal for fartlek training. The varied terrain could be used to incorporate the requirements of a fartlek session e.g. a sprint up the hills, a jog through the woods, a walk for recovery over the grassed area. interval fartlek circuit fartlek p.51 SPORT TRAINING ACTUAL ACTIVITY BENEFIT Marathon running Continuous Long runs Improved cardiovascular fitness 100m sprinting Football Hockey
The exercise session
1 WARM UP
A warm up should provide a smooth transition from rest to the intensity of the main activity.
It should include the following three elements:
We warm up for four reasons:
To prevent injury .
To prepare body systems for performance .
To prepare mentally for the event .
To practice before the event.
Pulse raising exercise – A light jog to gradually raise the body’s temperature and heart rate
Stretches – Both static (stationary) and dynamic (moving) stretches to prepare the muscles
Activity based exercise – Passing or striking a ball
5 There are three stages to an exercise session: p.52
2 MAIN ACTIVITY
This can take the form of training session, a competitive match or sporting activity.
3 COOL DOWN
A cool down is also important and takes the form of light jogging and stretches . It gives the body the opportunity to return to its resting state and helps to prevent stiffness and soreness in the muscles by dispersing lactic acid .
Aerobic and anaerobic exercise
There are two types of exercise:
AEROBIC ACTIVITY (with oxygen)
This is exercise of low intensity and can be carried out for long periods of time .
This type of exercise is steady and therefore the heart can supply oxygen to the muscles, via blood, as it needed.
This process is known as aerobic respiration .
The London Marathon is an aerobic activity
ANAEROBIC ACTIVITY (without oxygen)
This is exercise of high intensity to maximise effort and can only be carried out for short periods of time .
As the exercise is in fast bursts the heart cannot supply oxygen to the muscles as fast as it is being used.
At the end of the exercise period the body continues to have an elevated breathing rate to ensure that increased amounts of oxygen are available to repay the oxygen debt .
This process is known as anaerobic respiration .
Aerobic and anaerobic exercise
The 100m race is an anaerobic activity
AEROBIC / ANAEROBIC COMBINATIONS
Many sporting activities require a varied amount of both aerobic and anaerobic exercise.
An example of aerobic/anaerobic combinations can be seen in games such as rugby, football or hockey. A player uses his/her aerobic system predominantly during the game, interspersed with short bursts of speed which are supported by energy derived from the anaerobic system.
Aerobic and anaerobic exercise
Team games such as hockey require both aerobic and anaerobic exercise
Analysing training sessions
Target zones and training thresholds MAXIMUM HEART RATE (MHR) = 220 – age AEROBIC TARGET ZONE Minimum training threshold = 60% of MHR Maximum training threshold = 80% of MHR ANAEROBIC TARGET ZONE Minimum training threshold = 80% of MHR Maximum training threshold = 95% of MHR
The working pulse rate (or working heart rate) is a measurement of pulse rate taken during or immediately after exercise.
This is an accurate guide to the intensity the heart has been working.
A target zone can be set for both aerobic and anaerobic exercise using the following method:
If the heart is worked over 95% of its maximum it becomes dangerous.
205 (15 year old student) 164 bpm 123 bpm 164 bpm 195 bpm p.54 6
The following graph illustrates the exercise target zones
Recovery rate is the time it takes for the body to return to its pre-exercise condition .
The fitter we are the quicker our recovery rate is, i.e. the quicker our pulse will return to its normal resting rate.
This can be tested by taking the resting pulse rate , exercising, and then timing how long it takes for the heart to come back to its resting rate.
STUDENT TASK: Work out your own recovery rate using the following method.
Rest for three minutes and then take your resting pulse rate and record it here:
Beats per min (BPM)
N.B. First count of beat is zero. Count for 15 seconds then x by 4.
Exercise for 1 minute and record your pulse again: BPM
Now rest and record your pulse four more times, once every minute:
After 2 minutes: BPM
After 3 minutes: BPM
After 4 minutes: BPM
After 5 minutes: BPM
Plot your results on the graph below: 150 130 110 85 60 60 p.55
a) Using the recovery rates plotted on the graphs below, fill in the method of training you suspect is being carried out. (3 marks)
b) Give a detailed description of each graph. (6 marks)
STUDENT QUESTIONS p.56 TYPE OF TRAINING – The heart rate rises quickly to 180bpm, indicating a burst of anaerobic activity. The heart rate then declines in a rest period, this process repeats itself over the session. The graph represents interval training, which involves sets of work followed by periods of rest. Interval Description:
p.56 TYPE OF TRAINING – Fartlek Description: This graph represents fartlek training because the heart rate varies dramatically over the session. The training session includes a variety of jogging, walking and sprinting which is indicated by the heart rate entering into and out of the aerobic and anaerobic target zones.
p.57 TYPE OF TRAINING – Continuous Description: The heart rate rises steadily to within the aerobic target zone at 140bpm. It stays at this rate during a continuous training session before slowing down after 16 minutes and then taking 4 minutes to recover back to the resting heart rate.
The correct target zone for an endurance athlete is 120 to 160bpm, how old is the athlete?
A training session is split into three parts. The warm up is the first, what are the other two? (2 marks)
Fill in the missing words below: (10 marks)
a) A warm up gradually gets the ready for training. It increases and hence oxygen delivery to active muscles. It stretches
and moves the so they are ready for work. A warm up helps to prevent and concentrates the on the training.
Voluntary skeletal muscles Mind Joints Body Blood flow Injury
blood flow body voluntary The main activity and a cool down. skeletal muscles joints The athlete is 20 injury mind p.57
b) A cool down brings the body back to . It helps get rid of the created in active muscles and removes , which is partly responsible for . 100/200/400 metre race Rugby / Football / Netball / Hockey Oxygen + Glucose Energy + Water + Carbon dioxide resting state oxygen debt lactic acid muscle stiffness Total marks /29 p.58
5 Complete the following equation using the words below to describe the process of aerobic respiration: (5 marks)