1.1.3 exercise and fitness as part of your healthy, active lifestyle

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1.1.3 exercise and fitness as part of your healthy, active lifestyle

  1. 1. Exercise and fitness as part of your healthy, active lifestyle STEP-BY-STEP GCSE PE © Healthy active lifestyles 1.1.3 SECTION 1.1 <ul><li>Chapter content: </li></ul><ul><li>How health, fitness and exercise relate to a healthy lifestyle and affect performance in physical activity </li></ul><ul><li>The components of health-related exercise </li></ul><ul><li>The components of skill-related fitness </li></ul>Second edition p.24
  2. 2. <ul><li>How health, fitness and exercise relate to a healthy lifestyle and affect performance in physical activity </li></ul>p.24 1 <ul><li>‘ A state of complete mental, physical and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity’ </li></ul><ul><li>In order to be healthy a person needs to: </li></ul><ul><li>Be free of illness or disease </li></ul><ul><li>Have a positive mental attitude </li></ul><ul><li>Be in a positive physical state </li></ul><ul><li>Feel comfortable mixing socially </li></ul>Health
  3. 3. p.24 ‘ The ability to meet the demands of the environment’ All physical activities require different levels of fitness. If the demands of the environment become greater, the body can be trained to ensure it is able to cope with the increased strain . <ul><li>‘ A form of physical activity done primarily to improve one’s health and physical fitness’ </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise can: </li></ul><ul><li>Relieve illness or disease </li></ul><ul><li>Relieve stress </li></ul><ul><li>Improve physical fitness </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of exercise can lead to hypokinetic diseases such as heart disease, high blood pressure and back pain. </li></ul>Exercise Fitness <ul><li>Encourage people to mix socially </li></ul><ul><li>Improve overall health </li></ul>
  4. 4. Performance ‘ How well a task is completed’ At every level players must continue to exercise to keep fit and enhance their performance. p.25
  5. 5. <ul><li>If an individual is healthy it gives them a good basis on which to train harder . However, it is still possible to perform well in an activity or sport without being healthy . </li></ul>How health, fitness and exercise can affect performance Sir Steve Redgrave has diabetes and ulcerative colitis (a severe bowel condition), but has still managed to win 5 gold medals in consecutive Olympic Games p.25 Paul Scholes found out he had asthma when he was 21. Despite this health problem he won 66 Caps for England and has had a successful career at Manchester United
  6. 6. <ul><li>To improve performance in a chosen sport, fitness levels need to be increased . </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing the exercise of specific fitness components, relevant to the sport, will have a positive impact on performance . </li></ul>Jonny Wilkinson exercises to improve his speed during pre-season training p.25
  7. 7. <ul><li>The components of health -related exercise </li></ul>p.26 2 Cardiovascular fitness <ul><ul><ul><li>‘ THE ABILITY TO EXERCISE THE ENTIRE BODY FOR </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LONG PERIODS OF TIME’ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cardiovascular fitness is the fitness of the heart, blood and blood vessels . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cardio – Heart </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vascular – Blood / Vessels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This component of health-related exercise can be improved through continuous training . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A fitness test for this component is Coopers 12 minute run . </li></ul></ul></ul>Marathon runners need good cardiovascular fitness to transport oxygen to their working muscles
  8. 8. p.26 Muscular strength <ul><ul><ul><li>‘ THE AMOUNT OF FORCE A MUSCLE CAN EXERT’ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This component of health-related exercise can be improved through resistant weight training , using heavy weights and few repetitions. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A fitness test for this component is the hand grip strength test . </li></ul></ul></ul>Muscular strength is important in explosive sports such as weightlifting
  9. 9. p.26 Muscular endurance <ul><ul><ul><li>‘ THE ABILITY TO USE MUSCLES FOR A </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LONG TIME WITHOUT FATIGUE’ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This component of health-related exercise can be improved through circuit training , using light weights and many repetitions. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A fitness test for this component is the number of sit ups completed in 30 seconds . </li></ul></ul></ul>Muscular endurance is important in stamina events such as rowing
  10. 10. p.27 Flexibility <ul><ul><ul><li>‘ THE RANGE OF MOVEMENT AT A JOINT’ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This component of health-related exercise can be improved through stretching exercises. A common activity to improve flexibility is yoga . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A fitness test for this component is the sit and reach test . </li></ul></ul></ul>General flexibility is essential in gymnastics
  11. 11. p.27 Body composition <ul><ul><ul><li>‘ THE PERCENTAGE OF BODY WEIGHT, WHICH IS FAT MUSCLE AND BONE’ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This component of health-related exercise is influenced by genetics , although it can be affected by exercise and diet . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Certain body compositions are suitable for different sports. </li></ul></ul></ul>The body composition of a track athlete is completely different to that of a sumo wrestler
  12. 12. p.27 Rugby union is a good example of differing body compositions within a sport
  13. 13. p.28 STUDENT TASK <ul><ul><ul><li>Choose a sport or activity you participate in or enjoy watching. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identify two main components of health-related exercises that are involved in the sport or activity. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identify why the components of health-related exercise are important in your sport. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Activity or sport </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Main component of health-related exercise: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Why are these components important in your chosen sport? </li></ul></ul></ul>Hockey Cardiovascular fitness and muscular strength Good cardiovascular fitness would enable a hockey player to continue to play at a high intensity throughout the match. Muscular strength is important for a strong shot on goal.
  14. 14. p.28 EXTENSION TASK: Identify the components of health-related exercise you have not chosen and explain why they may still play a part in your chosen sport. Flexibility is needed for a hockey player to be able to bend with the stick to shoot or pass. A hockey player may work on changing their body composition by controlling their diet and raising their level of training in order to improve performance. A good level of muscular endurance can ensure a hockey player continues to execute actions with the correct technique.
  15. 15. <ul><li>The components of skill -related fitness </li></ul>p.29 3 Agility Goalkeepers have to be agile to make difficult saves <ul><ul><ul><li>‘ THE ABILITY TO CHANGE THE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>POSITION OF THE BODY QUICKLY </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AND TO CONTROL THE MOVEMENT </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OF THE WHOLE BODY’ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agility means changing direction at speed . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A fitness test for this component is the illinois agility test . </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. p.29 Balance Gymnasts need good balance to complete their sequences <ul><ul><ul><li>‘ THE ABILITY TO RETAIN THE CENTRE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OF MASS (GRAVITY) OF THE BODY </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ABOVE THE BASE SUPPORT WITH </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>REFERENCE TO STATIC (STATIONARY) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OR DYNAMIC (CHANGING) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CONDITIONS OF MOVEMENT, SHAPE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AND ORIENTATION’ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Balance can be at rest or on the move . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A fitness test for this component is the stork stand test . </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. p.29 Coordination Racket sports require good hand-eye coordination <ul><ul><ul><li>‘ THE ABILITY TO USE TWO OR MORE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>BODY PARTS TOGETHER’ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There are several different types of coordination such as hand eye for catching , foot-eye for kicking , head-eye for heading . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A fitness test for this component is the ball toss test . </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. p.30 Power Throwing events like the shot put require power to maximise distance <ul><ul><ul><li>‘ THE ABILITY TO CARRY OUT </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>STRENGTH PERFORMANCES </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>QUICKLY’ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Power is a combination of strength and speed in an action. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A fitness test for this component is the standing broad jump . </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. p.30 Reaction time Swimmers have to react quickly to a sound stimulus for a good start to the race <ul><ul><ul><li>‘ THE TIME TAKEN BETWEEN THE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PRESENTATION OF A STIMULUS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AND THE START OF A MOVEMENT’ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The stimulus can be in the form of a sound , for example a gun firing at the start of a race, or sight , for example reaction to a serve in tennis. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A fitness test for this component is the ruler reaction test . </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. p.30 Speed Boxers need good hand speed to land punches before they can be evaded <ul><ul><ul><li>‘ THE ABILITY TO PERFORM A </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MOVEMENT OR COVER DISTANCE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IN A SHORT PERIOD OF TIME’ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Speed includes leg speed, hand speed and speed of thought . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A fitness test for this component is the 30 metre sprint . </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. p.31 STUDENT TASK <ul><ul><ul><li>Christiano Ronaldo is a world class footballer. In order for him to complete at the </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>highest level he needs all six components of skill-related fitness. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A gility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>B alance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>P ower </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>C oordination </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>R eaction time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>S peed </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. p.32 <ul><ul><ul><li>Complete the table below identifying why the components of skill-related fitness are </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>important to an elite footballer like Ronaldo. </li></ul></ul></ul>Agility A - B - C - P - R - S - Balance Coordination Power Reaction time Speed He is able to change direction at speed to beat defenders. He can ‘ride’ tackles from opposition players and land keeping the body stable so he can continue to run. He is able to use excellent foot-eye coordination to control the ball effectively. His strength and speed combine when shooting to provide a powerful shot. His reaction time needs to be fast so he can get to a 50-50 ball before his opponent. His speed allows him to accelerate away from defenders so he cannot be tackled. Component of skill related fitness Why is the component important to Ronaldo?
  23. 23. STUDENT QUESTIONS A state of physical, mental and social wellbeing Working towards improving all parts of the body Regular training The ability to meet the demands of the environment A form of physical activity done primarily to improve one’s health and physical fitness A state of physical, mental and social wellbeing A state of complete physical fitness The ability to meet the demands of the environment 1 Fitness is: (1) 2 Health is: (1) X X A B C D B A C D p.33 A state of physical, mental and social wellbeing The ability to meet the demands of the environment How well a task is completed A form of physical activity done primarily to improve one’s health and physical fitness 3 Performance is: (1) 4 Exercise is: (1) X X A B C D B A C D A state of physical, mental and social wellbeing The ability to meet the demands of the environment Regular training A form of physical activity done primarily to improve one’s health and physical fitness
  24. 24. p.33 <ul><li>Select a component of health-related exercise to complete each of the following </li></ul><ul><li>statements: (5 marks) </li></ul><ul><li>a Body composition is the percentage of body weight, which is fat, muscle and bone. </li></ul><ul><li>b Muscular endurance is the ability to use muscles for a long time without </li></ul><ul><li>fatigue. </li></ul><ul><li>c Cardiovascular fitness is the ability to exercise the entire body for long </li></ul><ul><li>periods of time. </li></ul><ul><li>d Flexibility is the range of movement at a joint. </li></ul><ul><li>e Muscular strength is the amount of force a muscle can exert. </li></ul><ul><li>A good way to remember the components of skill-related fitness is to remember the </li></ul><ul><li>sequence of letters. Fill in the components next to the letter: (6 marks) </li></ul><ul><li>A P </li></ul><ul><li>B R </li></ul><ul><li>C S </li></ul>Body composition Muscular endurance Cardiovascular fitness Flexibility Muscular strength Agility Balance Coordination Reaction time Speed Power
  25. 25. p.33 <ul><li>In your book there are images of three different types of participant engaging in physical activity. Discuss ‘power’ and its relative importance to each of the types of participant. (6 marks) </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the technical terms </li></ul><ul><li>Address all aspects of the question </li></ul><ul><li>Give an evaluative conclusion </li></ul>Power is the ability to carry out strength performances quickly. Power = Strength x Speed. The javelin thrower uses power to throw the javelin as far as possible. Maximum power is needed for maximum force. Power is the most important component of fitness for a javelin thrower because it has the biggest outcome on the event. The long distance runner will need power to get away from other runners at the start of the race and for the final sprint to the finish line. However, for the majority of the activity, cardiovascular fitness is the most important component of fitness for a long distance runner. The tennis player uses power in the serve and on ground stokes to give their opponent less time on the ball. The tennis player does not use power continuously, using ‘touch’ shots to recover. Total marks /21 All the participants use power but it has varying levels of importance to each performance. The rank order for the participants that need power the most is the javelin thrower, the tennis player and then the long distance runner.

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