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English language learners intro power point


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  • 1. English Language Learners
  • 2. National Student Profile
    • 1 in 5 students in the U.S. are immigrants or American-born children of immigrants
    • 2.0-3.3 million are English language learners
    • 73% of ELLs are native Spanish speakers
    • 2 in 5 Latino students aged 15-17 were enrolled below grade level
    • (Source: U.S. Department of Education)
  • 3. Stages of Second Language Learning
    • Provide example of how students acquire a new language
    • Different children may enter school at different stages
  • 4. Phase I: Observation & Imitation
    • Silent stage – child is taking in new situation & listening
    • Child will imitate what other children do in class; may be pretending to understand
    • An outgoing child may use a lot of body gestures; this may be misinterpreted as physical aggression
  • 5. Phase II: Single word & phrase use
    • Child begins to use words or phrases that are important for survival in classroom
      • Stop it; I’m next; Me too!
    • Child begins to use language but is still not sure of what constitutes single word in English
      • “ I like it” which students hears as two words
      • “ I like it play ball”; “I like it little trucks”
  • 6. Phase III: Initial Understanding of Grammatical Rules
    • Child may leave out plurals or past tense
    • Child’s comprehension exceeds ability to produce language; may use appropriate content words but not in appropriate form
    • Child may use grammatical forms that are literal translations from first language
    • Child makes most of vocabulary but generalizes meaning
  • 7. Other Points
    • Easy to assume child knows a lot more of language than they actually do
    • Children will experiment more with new language when with peers than with adults; if possible observe student interacting with peers
  • 8. Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS)
    • Language skills needed in social situations
    • Day-to-day language
    • Social interactions are usually context embedded; occur in a meaningful social context; not very demanding cognitively
    • Language required is not specialized
    • Usually develops within 6 months to 2 years after arrival in U.S.
  • 9. BICS (Continued)
    • ELLs can comprehend social language by:
    • Observing speakers’ non-verbal behavior (gestures, facial expressions, and eye actions);
    • Observing others’ reactions;
    • Using voice cues such as phrasing, intonation, and stress;
    • Observing pictures, concrete objects, and other contextual cues which are present; and
    • Asking for statements to be repeated and/or clarified.
  • 10. Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP)
    • Refers to formal academic learning
    • Listening, speaking, reading, & writing about subject area content material
    • Essential for students to succeed in school
    • Usually takes from 5-7 years
    • If child has no prior schooling or no support in native language development may take 7-10 years for ELLs to catch up to their peers
  • 11. CALP (continued)
    • Isn’t just understanding of content area vocabulary
    • Includes comparing, classifying, synthesizing, evaluating, & inferring
    • Context reduced
    • Becomes more cognitively demanding; new ideas, concepts & language are presented at same time
  • 12. CALP (continued)
    • Proficiency in CALP is gained more slowly because:
    • Non-verbal clues are absent;
    • There is less face-to-face interaction;
    • Academic language is often abstract;
    • Literacy demands are high (narrative and expository text and textbooks are written beyond the language proficiency of the students); and
    • Cultural/linguistic knowledge is often needed to comprehend fully.
  • 13. Common Underlying Proficiency (CUP)
    • Skills, ideas, & concepts learned in first language will be transferred to second language
  • 14. Teacher Expectations, Beliefs, and Attitudes about the ELLs
    • Teachers expectations work to make or break the ELLs.
    • High expectations help ELLs.
    • Lowering expectations hurts the ELLs.
    • Teacher expectations work as a self-fulfilling prophecy.
  • 15. Strategies
    • The key is to teach students strategies so that they can be empowered to learn’ make them independent learners.
    • Scaffolding – break concept down into manageable pieces; guide students through process; help students move to higher levels of expertise.
    • Use different question types.