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Climate Change and Transportation Planning



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  • FY2011 SUSTAINABLE COMMUNITIES REGIONAL PLANNING ADVANCED NOTICE Today, U.S. Housing and Urban Development Secretary Shaun Donovan announced that HUD will be investing an additional $67 million towards creating stronger, more sustainable communities that connect housing to jobs while fostering local innovation and building a clean energy economy through its Sustainable Communities Regional Planning Grant program.HUD provided advance notice today that the second round of Regional Planning grants will soon be made available through a Notice of Funding Availability (NOFA). The grants will be awarded competitively to multi-jurisdictional and multi-sector partnerships as well as regional consortia consisting of state and local governments, metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs), educational institutions, non-profit organizations and philanthropic organizations. This year’s funding was approved by Congress in HUD’s 2011 budget, as part of $100 million devoted to the agency's Office of Sustainable Housing and Communities.  To read the full text of HUD's advance funding announcement, visit HUD's Sustainability website.The Advance Notice provides a detailed review of the program requirements that will be expected from the official NOFA. It builds on lessons learned from the first year of the program and direct input from a wide range of stakeholders from across the nation. We strongly encourage you to review this document and to spread the word to jurisdictions that you believe may have an interest in participating in this program. If you have specific questions about the notice that you would like to have addressed, please do not hesitate to be in touch via our office website, sustainablecommunities@hud.gov.  FY2010/2011 SUSTAINABLE COMMUNITIES CAPACITY BUILDING NOFA Earlier this month, HUD’s Office of Sustainable Housing and Communities and EPA’s Offices of Sustainable Communities, Water, and Brownfields and Land Revitalization announced a joint Notice of Funding Availability for the Capacity Building for Sustainable Communities Program. For the first time ever, HUD and EPA will join forces to competitively award $5.65 million to strengthen the capacity of existing grantees from each agency to create more housing choices, make transportation more efficient and reliable, and support vibrant and healthy neighborhoods for American families. The Capacity Building for Sustainable Communities grant program will award funds to capacity building service providers who will work directly with grant recipients from the FY2010, and FY 2011 HUD Sustainable Communities Regional Planning and Community Challenge, HUD Preferred Sustainability Status Communities, and EPA Sustainable Community Technical Assistance and Brownfield Area Wide Planning grant programs. Applications for the NOFA are due July 8, 2011. LINK TO NOTICE FY2011 HUD CHOICE NEIGHBORHOODS PLANNING GRANTS On June 7th, HUD announced that $3.6 million in Choice Neighborhoods Planning Grants will be awarded in fiscal year 2011 to assist in the transformation, rehabilitation and preservation of public housing and privately owned HUD-assisted housing and support communities that use innovative tools to tackle concentrated poverty holistically. Read HUD’s FY 2011 Choice Neighborhoods Notice of Funding Availability. FY2011 FTA  LIVABILITY GRANTSFinally, DOT announced last week that $175M in Federal Transit Administration (FTA) Livability Grants is available to increase and improve transportation options for urban, suburban and rural communities. The NOFA should be published later this week in the federal regist

Climate Change and Transportation Planning Climate Change and Transportation Planning Presentation Transcript

  • Climate Change and Transportation Planning
    July 19, 2011
  • Our Agenda Today
    Introductions/Opening Remarks
    Overview on Basics of Climate Science (Jeff Houk)
    Tools for Quantifying GHG emissions and Key Considerations (Jeff Houk)
    Overview of Climate Change Efforts in Ohio
    MPO and DOT Climate Change Efforts and Issues - roundtable discussion
    Climate Change and the Transportation Planning Process (Jim Thorne)
    GHG Mitigation Strategies (Diane Turchetta)
    Adaptation in Transportation Planning (Jim, Diane)
    Climate Change in Transportation Planning - Small Groups
    Q & A
  • Climate Science – Jeff Houk
  • Tools for Quantifying GHG emissions and Key Considerations - Jeff Houk
  • Overview of Climate Change related efforts in Ohio – Jim Thorne, moderator
    Presentation from ODOT on Climate Change Related Activities: Tim Hill, Office of Environmental Services Administrator, Ohio Department of Transportation
    Presentation from Ohio University on GHG inventory project: Kevin Crist
    Presentation from Akron MPO to discuss climate change in Transportation Plan: Curtis Baker
  • Roundtable discussion of what each agency has done related to climate change
    Each agency representative provides overview and examples to address questions:
    • Is climate change addressed in your planning process?
    • Examples of how climate change is evident in planning process, connections to current efforts, or possible future activities.
    • Challenges to incorporating climate change into transportation planning.
  • Lets Break for Lunch
  • Climate Change and the Transportation Planning Process
  • Transportation: Mitigation and Adaptation
    GHG Mitigation
    Slow rate of change and reduce impacts
    Climate Change Adaptation
    Plan for and deal with expected impacts
  • Multiple Transportation Strategies to Reduce GHG
    • Raise vehicle energy efficiency
    • Reduce carbon content of fuels
    • Reduce VMT
    • Land use
    • Improve system and operational efficiencies
    • Construction, Maintenance, and Agency Operations
  • “Two Legs of the Stool”
    Transportation System Efficiencies
    Traffic flow improvements
    ITS/Management and Operations
    Improved Intermodal connections
    Travel (by SOV) Activity Reduction
    Reducing VMT
    Land Use strategies
  • Transportation Planning Factors
    (A) support the economic vitality of the metropolitan area
    (global competitiveness, productivity, and efficiency)
    (B) increase the safety for motorized and nonmotorized users
    (C) increase the security for motorized and nonmotorized users
    (D) increase the accessibility and mobility of people and for freight
    (E) protect and enhance the environment, promote energy conservation, improve the quality of life, and promote consistency between transportation improvements and State and local planned growth and economic development patterns
    (F) enhance the integration and connectivity of the transportation system, across and between modes, for people and freight;
    (G) promote efficient system management and operation
    (H) emphasize the preservation of the existing transportation system.
  • 23 U.S.C.134 and 49 U.S.C. 5303
    . . .national policy that the MPO designated for each urbanized area is to carry out a continuing, cooperative, and comprehensive multimodal transportation planning process, including the development of a metropolitan transportation plan and a transportation improvement program (TIP), that encourages and promotes the safe and efficient development, management, and operation of surface transportation systems to serve the mobility needs of people and freight (including accessible pedestrian walkways and bicycle transportation facilities) and foster economic growth and development, while minimizing transportation-related fuel consumption and air pollution;
  • Planning Factors
    Economic vitality
    Accessibility and mobility
    Protect and enhance the environment
    Promote energy conservation
    Improve quality of life
    Consistency between transportation and planned growth and economic development
    Efficient system management and operation
    Enhance integration and connectivity
    Preservation of existing system
  • Linkage Opportunities in Planning Regulation
    • Energy and environmental concerns
    • Integrated transportation system, system preservation, safety and security
    • Transportation demand and system management strategies
    • Consultation
    Integrating Climate Change into the Transportation Planning Process, FHWA, 2008
    • Integrated multimodal system
    • Transit, multimodal & intermodal, pedestrian walkways & bike facilities
    • Operational and management strategies
    • Environmental mitigation
    • Consultation
    23 CFR 450.322
    Transportation Plan
  • www.fhwa.dot.gov/hep/climatechange/index.htm
  • Overview of Current Practice
    • Acknowledge connection between transportation and climate change
    • Mitigation of GHG emissions
    • (vision – goals – policies – strategies)
    • Performance measures
    • Related to GHG emissions
    • Quantifying GHG emissions
    • Emerging: tools, methods, data
  • Climate Change in Planning
    Integrate land use
    Step 1: Stakeholder Identification and Initial Outreach
    Link funding
    Link funding
    Stakeholder Outreach
    Step 2: Establish Vision, Goals, and Objectives
    Step 5: Develop Alternative Plan Scenarios
    Step 4: Evaluate Deficiencies
    Step 3: Define Performance Criteria and Data Needs
    Step 6: Evaluate Alternatives & Select Preferred Alternative
    Performance Measures
    Trends and Challenges
    Performance Measures
    Vision, Goals, and Trends
    Strategies and Improvement Projects
  • Climate Change and the Planning Process
    • Existing and new interested parties and stakeholders
    • Use the planning process as a forum to educate the public
    Integrate Land Use
    • Cross linkages with land use plans
    • Invest in visioning up front to save time and resources in later planning stages
    Link Funding
    • Prioritize projects using climate change performance measures
  • Where Climate Change May Show Up in Plans:
    • Vision and Goals
    • Trends and Challenges
    • Strategies and Improvement Projects
    • Performance Measures
  • Actions from One MPO Plan
    Baltimore: Transportation Outlook 2035, 2007
    Environmental Stewardship Section of Plan
    Specific strategies that will reduce GHG emissions include:
    • Truck stop electrification
    • Incident management
    • Alternative fuel vehicle purchases
    • Park-and-ride lot improvements
    • Rideshare coordination
    • Teleworkpromotion
  • Integration of Climate Change Considerations in Statewide and Regional Transportation Planning
    USDOT Center for Climate Change
    Case Studies and Proceedings
    • TRB Panel
    • AMPO Conference
    Climate Change in Transportation Planning
    • Vision and long range planning
    • Forecasts, data and performance measures
    • Public involvement
    • Collaboration with partners
    • Project selection
    NY State
  • Integration of Climate Change Considerations
    USDOT, July 2009
  • Incorporating Climate ChangeConsiderations into Transportation Planning
    TRR 2219, TRB
  • Incorporating Climate ChangeConsiderations into Transportation Planning
    GHG emissions, mitigation, adaptation
    Climate change facts
    Goals, Objectives, and Performance Measures
    Current goals that support GHG reduction
    GHG mitigation (with policy approval)
    Likely effects of climate change on existing goals
    GHG reduction targets
    Performance measures
    TRR 2219, TRB
  • Incorporating Climate ChangeConsiderations into Transportation Planning
    Incorporate GHG analysis into process
    Long term urban form/land use effects on GHG
    Collect data related to assessing vulnerability
    Cost effectiveness of mitigation strategies
    Identify Strategies
    Identify potential adaptation strategies
    Scenario Planning – climate change scenario
    GHG Reduction Strategies in existing process (CMP)
    GHG emissions mitigation and adaptation as criteria
    TRR 2219, TRB
  • Incorporating Climate ChangeConsiderations into Transportation Planning
    Incorporating climate change considerations into the planning process would provide the opportunity for transportation planners and decision makers to best develop the most cost effective strategies in the context of all the other goals that are guiding the planning process.
    Incorporating Climate Change Considerations into Transportation Planning
    Nicholas Schmidt and Michael D. Meyer
  • Climate Change – Model Language inTransportation Plans, FHWA, 2010
    State and Regional Transportation Plans
    What is climate change?
    How does transportation contribute to climate change?
    Why should transportation plans address climate change?
    How does the plan address climate change?
  • Transportation Outlook 2040Mid America Regional Council
    Regional Vision:
    Greater Kansas City is a sustainable region that increases the vitality of our society, economy, and environment for current residents and future generations.
    Transportation Vision:
    A safe, balanced, regional multimodal transportation system that is coordinated with land-use planning, supports equitable access to opportunities, and protects the environment.
  • Transportation Outlook 2040Mid America Regional Council
    Transportation System Goals:
    Accessibility - Maximize mobility and access to opportunity for all area residents
    Climate Change & Energy Use** - Decrease the use of fossil fuels through reduced travel demand, technology advancements and a transition to renewable energy sources
    Economic Vitality - Support an innovative, competitive 21st-century economy
    Environment - Protect and restore our region's natural resources (land, water and air) through proactive environmental stewardship
    Place Making** - Coordinate transportation and land-use planning as means to create quality places in existing and developing areas, and strengthen the quality of the region
    Public Health** - Facilitate healthy, active living
    Safety & Security - Improve safety and security for all transportation users
    System Condition - Ensure transportation system is maintained in good condition
    System Performance** - Manage the system to achieve reliable and efficient performance
    **New plan goals for Transportation Outlook 2040
  • CLIMATE CHANGE AND ENERGY USE – Decrease the use of fossil fuels through reduced travel demand, technology advancements, and a transition to renewable energy sources.
    Reduce regional transportation‐related greenhouse gas emissions.
    Reduce regional transportation‐related energy use derived from fossil fuels.
    Strategies: See chapter 10.0 Environmental Integration for additional detail.
  • MARC Climate Change Strategies
  • DEVELOP REGIONAL CLIMATE PROTECTION PLANSpecific transportation‐related strategies:
    a. Incorporate energy conservation, use of renewable energy, and reductions in GHG into the transportation project solicitation and funding processes.
    b. Adjust methodologies and models for quantification of transportation‐related greenhouse gas emissions.
    c. Work with local governments to include transportation‐related greenhouse gas reductions strategies in their policies and ordinances, such as:
    • Encourage eco‐driving.
    • Encourage carpooling (e.g., RideShare).
    • Allow employees to telecommute.
    • Ramp up speed limit enforcement.
    • Install LED traffic lights.
    • Use low greenhouse‐gas emissions pavement and paving practices.
    • Adopt policies to facilitate the development of compact, mixed‐use, walkable communities.
  • INCREASE EFFICIENCYSpecific implementation strategies:
    Conduct planning and strengthen incentives for alternative fuel infrastructure needed to support alternative‐fuel vehicle technology implementation.
    b. Educate stakeholders on vehicle fuel efficiency and alternative‐fuel vehicles.
    c. Secure grant resources for the promotion and support of fuel efficiency and alternative fuel vehicles.
  • MARC Plan Performance Measures
  • Climate Change Performance Measures, MARC
  • MARC: Performance Measures & Progress Report
  • Tracking Performance Measures, MARC
  • Transportation Outlook 2040 Major Strategies
    • Maximize use of existing infrastructure
    • Improve connectivity and access
    • Promote non-motorized transportation options
    • Preserve, enhance, and expand regional transit and paratransit services
    • Integrate land‐use and transportation planning
    • Enhance, preserve and connect high‐quality natural resources
  • Sustainable Communities Partnership
    • DOT, EPA, HUD
    • Improve access to affordable housing, provide more transportation options and lower transportation costs while protecting the environment
    • Encourages livability principles to be incorporated into federal programs and funding.
    • Achieve our economic, social, and environmental goals most effectively when we work on them together.
  • HUD/DOT/EPA Sustainable Communities Partnership
    Better coordinate federal transportation, environmental protection, and housing investments and identify strategies that support the Partnership’s Guiding Principles
  • Six Livability Principles of the Sustainability Partnership
  • www.sustainablecommunities.gov
  • Livability in Transportation
    Using the quality, location and type of transportation facilities and services to help achieve broader community goals such as access to good jobs, affordable housing, quality schools, and safe streets
    Livability, sustainability, smart growth, walkable communities, new urbanism, healthy neighborhoods, active living, transit oriented development, complete streets,
  • Another Definition, sort of
  • Livable Communities
    More efficient use of resources
    Increase accessibility
    Improve connections and options
    Reduce energy use
    Environmental benefits
    Health and Social benefits
    Livable Communities are where people have access to many different forms of transportation and affordable housing…..” U.S. DOT Secretary, Ray LaHood
  • A New Resource
  • Atlanta, GA—Livable Centers Initiative (LCI)
    LCI program initiated in 1999 to better link transportation and land use planning with long-term goals of VMT and congestion reduction and improved air quality.
    Awards grants to prepare plans to enhance existing centers and corridors.
    More than 100 studies had been completed, representing nearly $9 million in planning assistance funding.
  • Opportunities to Address Livability
    Opportunities to Address Climate Change
    Planning for:
    Grid street patterns, short blocks, streetscapes
    Transit and transit supportive land use
    Planning for bike and pedestrian travel
    Land use (as it supports transportation and vice versa)
    System efficiencies
    Travel Demand Management
  • Transportation and Land Use: A Two-Way Street
    • Density
    • Diversity
    • Design
  • Land Use and Travel
    • Density
    • Diversity
    • Design
    • Destination accessibility
    • Distance to transit
    • Demographics
    • Development scale
    • Demand management
  • Making the Land Use Connection
    • Scenario Planning
    • Integrating transportation and land use plans
    • Context Sensitive Solutions
    • Align regional goals, policies and programs
    • LRP supports regional or corridor plan or vision
    • Partnership efforts with local agencies
    • Technical assistance for integrated plans
    • Transportation project selection criteria consistent with Comprehensive Plan goals
    • Financial incentives for local actions to support vision
  • Examples of Scenario Planning Applications
    Puget Sound Regional Council
    Focus growth in bigger cities
    Focus growth in smaller cities and towns
    Continue as planned
  • Gainesville, Florida
    Rip Van Winkle Technique
    Source: Marlie Sanderson
    North Central Florida Regional Planning Council
  • Photo MontageDover & Kohl
  • Photo MontageDover & Kohl
  • North Central Florida
    Regional Planning Council
  • North Central Florida
    Regional Planning Council
  • North Central Florida
    Regional Planning Council
  • North Central Florida
    Regional Planning Council
  • NCFRPC measures used to evaluate scenarios
    Vehicle miles of travel
    Average trip length
    Transit ridership
    Amount of farmland converted
    Air quality
    Energy consumption
    Percent Population Served by Transit
    Amount of New Land Consumed
    Congested Lane Miles
  • Photo MontageUrban Advantage
  • Photo MontageUrban Advantage
  • Capital District Transportation Committee – Albany, NY
    Source: Christopher O’Neill, CDTC
  • CDTC Linkages
  • Scenario Planning and Climate Change
  • Scenario Planning: Where and How We Might Live
  • Indicators Used to Compare Scenarios
  • CCMPO Scenario Indicators
  • Burlington, VT Scenarios
  • FHWA Land Use Tool Kit
  • ICMA/Smart Growth Network
    ICMA’s membership has called sustainability which they define as balancing economic development, environmental protection, and social equity goals while maintaining financial viability, “the issue of our age.”
  • Applying smart growth principles to climate concerns on the local and regional levels:
    • Create more sustainable and resilient communities
    • Green the local economy
    • Engage the community in the climate change planning process
    • Approach climate change planning on a regional level
    • Address transportation through transit-oriented development and complete streets
    • Promote density through infill development and brownfield redevelopment
    • Adopt green building policies
    • Preserve and create green space
    • Plan for climate adaptation.
  • Approach Climate Change Planning on a Regional Level
    Plan for Climate Change Adaptation
  • Transportation Planning for Sustainability
  • Sustainability Case Studies
  • Sustainability Guidebook Case Study Example
  • What Might a Planner Do Now?
    • Engage in topic discussions
    • Recognize connections to transportation
    • Explore strategies to reduce GHG emissions
    • Quantify baseline CO2 emissions
    Transportation Research Record 2119, TRB
  • Possible Climate Change Related Efforts
    Address climate change within context of Planning Factors.
    Educate planning partners on climate change issues and implications.
    Discuss climate change within Plan (mitigation and adaptation).
    Examine existing plan goals for connections to GHG mitigation and adaptation.
    Develop GHG related performance measures.
    Recognize existing plan strategies with GHG mitigation implications (bike/ped, transit, system efficiencies, scenario planning, etc.).
    Develop GHG mitigation strategies/policies.
    Quantify GHG emissions, develop baseline inventory.
    Recognize co-benefits: climate change, livability, energy conservation/security, sustainability, congestion relief, etc.
  • Climate Change and Transportation – Mitigation Strategies
    Ohio Workshop
    July 19, 2011
  • Transportation-RelatedGHG Emissions*
    * Includes bunker fuels
    Source: U.S. EPA, Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2007 (U.S. EPA, 2009)
  • What is the full array of transportation strategies to reduce GHG?
    Higher CAFE standards
    CA’s low carbon fuel standard
    Less travel, could be in part due to land use changes
    Signalization, ITS, Eco-driving
    Materials, maintenance practices
    Five GHG “legs”
    Vehicle efficiency
    Low-carbon fuels
    VMT Reductions (including land use)
    Vehicle/System Operations
    Construction, Maintenance, and Agency Operations
  • Co-Benefits of GHG Mitigation Strategies
    • Most of the strategies to reduce GHG emissions also reduce transportation energy consumption
    • Energy consumption
    • Reduce costs
    • Promote sustainability
  • Produced by the U.S. DOT Climate Change Center
    • Transportation greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions levels and trends
    • Strategies for reducing these emissions
    • Full range of strategies
    • All transportation modes
    • Primarily synthesis
    • GHG reduction, costs, co-benefits, impact on DOT goals, key interactions
    DOT Report to Congress
    Mandated by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007
  • System Efficiency
    *Construction emissions are not included in the baseline. 15-18 million metric tons corresponds to 0.7-0.8% of U.S. transport GHGs. **These values are from the Moving Cooler Study. The DOT report did not quantify these strategies as more work is underway at FHWA.
  • Reduce carbon-intensive travel activity
  • How much can transportation strategies reduce GHG?
    Presents base case + 3 scenarios for transportation GHG reductions
    Base case: +28% in transportation GHG, 2010-2050
    Low scenario: -17% in transportation GHG, 2010-2050
    Mid scenario: -35% in transportation GHG, 2010-2050
    High scenario: -65% in transportation GHG, 2010-2050
    High scenario: rapid tech progress, aggressive emission standards, 80 mpg for cars, transition to electric and hydrogen vehicles well underway by 2050, auto feebates, carbon pricing, eco-driving, land use policies, congestion pricing, PATP auto insurance, automated highways in 2050 on major routes, etc.
    GHG reductions are roughly equal from (a) vehicle efficiency; (b) low-carbon fuel; and (c) all other strategies combined.
  • TRB Special Report 307
    TRB Special Report 307 examines the potential for policies to yield major changes in transportation energy use and emissions trends by policy measures targeting cars and light trucks, medium and heavy trucks, and commercial airliners. According to the committee that produced the report, it will take more than tougher fuel economy standards for U.S. transportation to significantly cut national petroleum use over the next half century. It will likely require a combination of measures that foster consumer and supplier interest in vehicle fuel economy, alternative fuels, and a more efficient transportation system.
  • More than Vehicles and Fuels: Achieving 70% LDV GHG Reduction by 2050 requires 100 mpgge LDV Fleet + 10% Operational Efficiency + Lower VMT Growth (1%/year)
  • Unconventional vehicles meet over 40% of U.S. light-duty vehicle sales in 2035
    U.S. light car and truck salesmillions
    Source: EIA, Annual Energy Outlook 2011
  • Solar Panels for Highway Lighting – Oregon DOT
    594 solar panels produce 122,000 KWH/year to light interchange
    Avoids nearly 43 metric tons of GHG/year from normal electricity
    $1.28 M project in operation for over a year
    PPP of OR DOT, PGE, and US Bank, using state and federal tax credits
    Could be a model for other DOTs
    ORDOT planning 2 additional projects
  • Washington State: West Coast Green
    (Electric) Highway
    WSDOT is using a PPP to provide “Quick Charge” stations for electric vehicles along I-5 corridor
    $1.32 million seed funding from US DOT grant
    Target completion of EV stations: 10/31/11
    9 stations along I-5 and SR-2, from OR border to Canadian border
    Coordination with Oregon DOT and, eventually, California
    Pooled fund study opportunity: Strategies and Best Practices to Support Commercialization of EV and Infrastructure
  • Summary
    Many strategies are needed to reduce transport GHG. No silver bullet. Will need full mix of strategies including:
    • Maximize energy efficiency of current vehicle technology
    • Decarbonize vehicles and fuels world-wide
    • Adopt pricing measures to reward conservation and tech innovation
    • Push “eco driving” and system/speed management
    • Adopt more efficient land use
    • Support carpools & vanpools, biking, walking, transit use, trip chaining, telecommuting
    • Adopt low carbon, energy-conserving strategies in construction, maintenance, and agency operations
    • Retrofit legacy fleets to reduce PM and black carbon
    • Implement wide-ranging freight technology and logistics improvements
  • Sustainable Transport & Climate Change Team
    Mike Culp, Team Leader, Michael.Culp@dot.gov
    John Davies, JohnG.Davies@dot.gov, GHG emissions analysis, modeling, performance measures
    Connie Hill Galloway, Connie.Hill@dot.gov, sustainability, brownfields and hazardous waste sites
    Heather Holsinger, Heather.Holsinger@dot.gov, sustainability, adaptation, GHG emissions analysis, energy
    Rob Hyman, Robert.Hyman@dot.gov, adaptation, GHG emissions analysis
    Rob Kafalenos, Robert.Kafalenos@dot.gov, adaptation, energy
    Becky Lupes, Rebecca.Lupes@dot.gov, adaptation, GHG emissions analysis, NEPA
    Diane Turchetta, Diane.Turchetta@dot.gov, GHG emissions analysis, energy
    FHWA Highways and Climate Change Website:
  • Adaptation
    “Actions by individuals or systems to avoid, withstand, or take advantage of current and projected climate changes and impacts. Adaptation decreases a system’s vulnerability, or increases its resilience to impacts.”
    --Pew Center on Climate Change
    The potential effects on transportation fall into three main categories:
    • Sea level effects
    • Storm effects
    • Temperature effects
  • Flooded roadways in Houston
    Why be Concerned about Climate Change Impacts?
    • Design life of transportation infrastructure: decades or longer
    • As climate changes, our infrastructure will need to evolve to handle new conditions
    • Each region has unique transportation assets, and faces different vulnerabilities and risks
    • What are the State’s risks?
  • Climate Change Impacts of Greatest Relevance for Transportation
    • Increases in very hot days and heat waves,
    • Increases in Arctic temperatures,
    • Rising sea levels,
    • Increases in intense precipitation events, and
    • Increases in hurricane intensity
  • Potential Climate Changes and Transportation Impacts
    Increases in very hot days and heat waves
    Operations: limit construction activity due to health and safety concerns
    Infrastructure: thermal expansion, pavement integrity
    Increases in intense precipitation events
    Operations: Traffic disruptions, evacuation route flooding
    Infrastructure: Roadway flooding, road washout, landslides/mudslides, scouring.
  • Implications for Design
    • Changes in bridge height
    • Changes in bridge foundation and superstructure
    • Changes in materials specifications
    • Changes in suspended and cable-stay bridges to withstand more severe wind and turbulence
    • Changes in culvert design, capacity, and location
    • Changes in slope design
    • Changes in pavement drainage systems
  • Implications for Operations
    • Pavement rutting and rail buckling
    • Longer construction season
    • Closures and detours due to rock slides, soil erosion, flooding
    • Speed reductions
    • Flooding of culverts
    • Change in weight restrictions
    • More grass cutting/less snow plowing
    • Work crew limitations during severe heat periods
  • TRB SR 290
    Climate change will affect transportation primarily
    through increases in several types of weather and climate extremes, such as very hot days; intense precipitation events; intense hurricanes; drought; and rising sea levels, coupled with storm surges
    and land subsidence.
    The impacts will vary by mode of transportation
    and region of the country, but they will be widespread and costly in both human and economic terms and will require significant changes in the planning, design, construction, operation, and maintenance of transportation systems.
    State and local governments and private
    infrastructure providers should incorporate climate change into their long-term capital improvement plans, facility designs, maintenance practices, operations, and emergency response plans
  • SR 290 Finding
    The past several decades of historical regional climate patterns commonly used by transportation planners to guide their operations and investments may no longer be a reliable guide for future plans.
    In particular, future climate will include new classes
    (in terms of magnitude and frequency) of weather and climate extremes, such as record rainfall and record heat waves, not experienced in modern times . .
  • TRB Special Report 290
    • Design standards will need to be evaluated.
    • Transportation planners will need to consider climate change and its effects on infrastructure investments.
    • Planning timeframes may need to extend beyond the next 20 or 30 years.
    • Institutional arrangements for transportation planning and operations will need to be changed to incorporate cross jurisdictional and regional cooperation.
  • SR 290 Recommendation
    Recommendation 1:
    Federal, state, and local governments, in collaboration with owners and operators of infrastructure such as ports and airports and private railroad and pipeline companies, should inventory critical transportation infrastructure in light of climate change projections to determine whether, when, and where projected climate changes in their regions might be consequential.
  • FHWA Climate Change Adaptation Activities
    Ohio Climate Change Workshop
    July 19, 2011
    Diane Turchetta
    FHWA, Office of Natural Environment
  • FHWA and Climate Change Adaptation
    Goal: systematic consideration of climate change vulnerability and risk in transportation decision making
    Systems level (Metropolitan, Statewide planning) & individual projects, as appropriate
    Internal: protect integrity of transportation investments, safety
    External: CEQ guidance on addressing climate change in NEPA and Adaptation Planning
    Interdisciplinary cooperation is key to effort
    Represents cooperative effort of multiple offices in FHWA, U.S. DOT, AASHTO, AMPO, and partnerships with science agencies such as USGS
  • Overview of FHWA Climate Change Adaptation Resources and Activities
    Providing information, outreach; developing and promoting use of tools and methodologies; application
    FHWA Agency-wide Adaptation Working Group – draft strategy underway
    Potential Impacts of Global Sea Level Rise on Transportation Infrastructure: Mid-Atlantic Focus (2008)
    Two Workshops on Impacts of Global Climate Change on Hydraulics, Hydrology, and Transportation with CTE at NC State University (2005 and 2006)
    Regional Climate Change Effects: Useful Information for Transportation Agencies [Climate Effects Typology] (2010)
    FHWA/AASHTO State DOT climate Change Workshops
    Vulnerability and risk assessment conceptual model (2010) and associated Pilots (ongoing)
    Gulf Coast Study: Impacts of Climate Variability and Change on Transportation Systems and Infrastructure
    Phase 1 – Gulf-wide (2008); Phase 2 – Mobile, AL (ongoing)
    Adaptation peer exchanges (2008, 2009, 2011, etc.)
  • FHWA Agency-Wide Adaptation Work
    Climate Change Adaptation Working Group formed in 2009 to discuss adaptation considerations in the highway context with representatives from across FHWA offices:
    Planning, Environment, and Realty
    Federal Lands Highways
    Developed draft adaptation strategy to outline:
    Key climate adaptation areas in which FHWA will focus its attention
    How FHWA intends to help transportation agencies adapt
  • Regional Climate Change Effects (2010)
    Report synthesizes information on climate change projections for transportation decision makers
    Snapshot: Summarizes recent science
    Projected changes by region
    Annual, Seasonal Temperature (change in oF)
    Seasonal Precipitation (% change)
    Where information exists:
    Sea level rise, Storm activity
    Also includes information at local, state scales
    Received assistance from climate experts at NOAA, USGS, DOE, etc.
  • Projections of Regional Temperature
    Projections of near-term, mid-term, end-of-century are provided for each region within the report using:
    • USGCRP data (Tables, Appendix B figures)
    • Report also includes results of other studies
  • Projected Increases in Annual Temperature
  • How Can This Information Be Applied?
    Inform planning efforts with a consistent set of projections
    Help understand which parts of the planning area may be susceptible to sea level rise, for example
    Starting point for discussion of potential future changes – but information too broad / uncertain to make definitive decisions on specific projects
    Can inform consideration of vulnerability of key assets
    Projections by definition are somewhat uncertain
    Regional projections mask differences within a region
    Use of this information may vary by specialty (e.g., engineering, planning, etc.) and location
  • Vulnerability/Risk Assessment Conceptual Model
    Goal: Help transportation decision makers identify vulnerable assets and adaptation strategies
    most exposed to the threats from climate change; and/or
    could result in the most serious consequences as a result of those threats
    Conceptual model completed
    Pilots - Use by State DOTs and MPOs (2010-2011)
    Update the conceptual model
  • 117
    Vulnerability/Risk Assessment Conceptual Model
    Develop inventory of infrastructure assets
    Gather climate data
    Assess vulnerability and risk of assets to projected climate change
    Analyze, prioritize adaptation options
    Monitor and revisit
  • Climate Change Vulnerability and Risk Assessment Pilot Locations
    Central New Jersey
    New Jersey Coastal
    Hampton Roads
    San Francisco
  • Pilot: New Jersey DOT
    Study Areas:
    New Jersey Coastal
    Central New Jersey
    New Jersey DOT
    North Jersey Transportation Planning Authority,
    South Jersey Transportation Planning Organization,
    Delaware Valley Regional Planning Commission,
    New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection
  • Pilot: Washington State DOT
    Statewide geographic scope
    Studying WSDOT owned and managed facilities potentially at risk to a range of impacts:
    Sea-level rise inundation areas
    Rivers and stream channel migration, melt effects
    Extreme temperature effects
    Drought threats to wetland creation, mitigation sites, roadside vegetation, soil moisture/flux, invasive species, worker health, wildfire
    Precipitation changes- threats to slope stabilization, stormwater management, erosion control, landslides, “road survivability”
    Wildfire – safety, emergency response
  • Pilot: Virginia DOT
    Focus on Hampton Roads
    Asset Management, Security Perspective
    Virginia Transportation Research Council (VDOT)
    Hampton Roads Planning District Commission,
    UVA Center for Transportation Studies,
    UVA Center for Risk Management of Engineering Systems,
    Hampton Roads Transportation Planning Organization
  • Pilot: Oahu MPO
    Scope: Island of Oahu, HI
    Consultant will perform risk assessment of identified transportation assets
    Public input meetings
    Oahu MPO
    HI DOT
    HI Dept. of Business, Economic Development, and Tourism
    HI State Civil Defense
    City and County of Honolulu
    U. of HI Center for Island Climate Adaptation and Policy
    The Pacific Disaster Center
    People’s Advocacy for Trails Hawaii
  • Pilot: Metropolitan Transportation Commission
    Focus on San Francisco Bay
    Complements a NOAA funded sub-regional project
    CalTrans District 4,
    San Francisco Bay Conservation and Development Commission,
    Association of Bay Area Governments,
    Bay Area Air Quality Management District
  • Gulf Coast Project Examines Issues at Metropolitan Scale
    Phase 1
    Overview of climate change impacts on transportation infrastructure in central Gulf Coast (completed 2008)
    Phase 2
    Focus on one metropolitan area – Mobile, AL
    Development of adaptation tools and strategies that will be transferable to other areas
    Timeframe: 2010-2013
  • 125
    Gulf Coast StudyHighways Vulnerable to Relative Sea Level Rise
    Baseline (Present Day)
    4 Feet of Sea Level Rise
    SAP 4.7
    Source: Cambridge Systematics analysis of U.S. DOT Data.
  • Gulf Coast 2 Study: Task Objectives
    Task 1: Identify critical assets in Mobile
    Task 2: Climate impacts
    Develop climate information
    Assess sensitivity of assets to climate stressors
    Task 3: Determine vulnerability of critical assets
    Broad assessment of vulnerability
    In-depth vulnerability assessment of some of the most critical assets
    Task 4: Develop risk management tool(s)
    Task 5: Coordination with Planning Authorities and the Public
    Task 6: Information dissemination and publication
  • Climate Change Adaptation Peer Exchanges
    Peer Exchanges conducted in 2008 and 2009
    Involved representatives of state DOTs and FHWA Division Offices to discuss climate change adaptation approaches with staff from FHWA Headquarters and AASHTO
    Identified common barriers to adaptation efforts:
    Information gaps (e.g., mapping and scenario modeling, funding opportunities)
    Knowledge gaps (e.g., state legislature, environmental permitting agencies, developers, the public)
    Lack of coordination (with federal and state agencies)
    Lack of understanding of how to link existing efforts to adaptation strategies
    Three peer exchanges planned for 2011-2012
  • What Are Possible Adaptation Responses?
    Accommodate: Maintain and manage
    Absorb increased maintenance / repair costs
    Improve real-time response to severe events
    Strengthen structures / protect facilities
    Design changes when rebuilding / new investment
    Promote buffers, sea walls, etc.
    Relocate / avoid
    Move key facilities
    Site new facilities in less
    vulnerable locations
    Abandon and Disinvest
    Enhance redundancy
    Identify system alternatives
    AASHTO, 2009
    Based on risk assessments, efforts to reduce risks could include:
    • retrofitting vulnerable facilities;
    • developing contingency plans in case of the interruption of transportation services;
    • ensuring emergency evacuation plans are in place and take climate risks into account;
    • identifying/protecting open space and wetlands to act as a buffer during severe precipitation;
    • ensuring future transportation facilities are designed and sited to minimize climate risks; and
    • maximizing efforts to reduce GHG emissions that contribute to climate change.
  • What are likely climate change effects you expect in Ohio?
    And what might we do about them?
  • Sustainable Transport & Climate Change Team
    Mike Culp, Team Leader, Michael.Culp@dot.gov
    John Davies, JohnG.Davies@dot.gov, GHG emissions analysis, modeling, performance measures
    Connie Hill Galloway, Connie.Hill@dot.gov, sustainability, brownfields and hazardous waste sites
    Heather Holsinger, Heather.Holsinger@dot.gov, sustainability, adaptation, GHG emissions analysis, energy
    Rob Hyman, Robert.Hyman@dot.gov, adaptation, GHG emissions analysis
    Rob Kafalenos, Robert.Kafalenos@dot.gov, adaptation, energy
    Becky Lupes, Rebecca.Lupes@dot.gov, adaptation, GHG emissions analysis, NEPA
    Diane Turchetta, Diane.Turchetta@dot.gov, GHG emissions analysis, energy
  • Lessons Learned (so far)
    Interdisciplinary cooperation is key
    Need to include science information, engineering specifications, planning processes, etc.
    Multi-disciplinary stakeholder communication is not easy
    Understand existing decision-making processes and frameworks
    Embrace the uncertainty
    Must be comfortable with range of climate projections
    Not all climate trends are clear
    Community priorities are an integral part of a climate vulnerability assessment
    Impacts and concerns will vary by region – no one-size-fits-all answers
  • Task 1: Identify Critical Transportation Systems
    For each mode, which assets are “critical” to Mobile area
    Determine subset of transportation network for vulnerability assessment and adaptive measures
    Develop a process applicable to multiple transportation modes
    Conduct a careful review of relevant transportation models
    Collect data on relevant attributes of each asset
    Develop GIS layers of critical transportation assets, for later study tasks
  • Task 2: Projected Climate Data
    USGS providing statistically downscaled projections for T and P
    4 to 7 Climate models (PCM, Hadley, …)
    3 emission scenarios (A1fi, A2, B1); 3 time horizons out to 2100
    Secondary variables calculated from daily T and P, e.g., 24-hr precip with 5%/yr prob
    Sea level rise analysis
    Range of recent global SLR scenarios used
    Accounts for local subsidence
    Storm Surge Modeling – ADCIRC
    Range of storm intensities
    Output includes surge distribution and dynamics
    Wave Modeling – STWAVE
    Inputs from ADCIRC output and boundary conditions
    Outputs include key aspects of wave energy
    Exposure of transportation systems will be assessed using a GIS analysis
  • Participants will be assigned to small groups to address the following Task/Questions:
     Develop approach for consideration of climate change in your transportation planning process. 
     Please address the following questions as part of your approach:
    What is your overall strategy or approach for addressing climate change?
    What new (or expanded) activities would you undertake related to climate change? 
    How would you communicate or engage with your stakeholders on this issue?
    How would climate change efforts be documented?
    What new partners would you look to involve in your efforts?
    What barriers do you anticipate?
  • Wrap-Up and Adjourn
    • Identify next steps in taking this information back to your agency and incorporating it into future transportation planning efforts.
    • What are your top 3 take aways from today?