In addition to researchers’ lengthy and fruitful discussions, professional associations such as ACTFL and TESOL in collaboration with NCATE have proposed documents that provide guidelines as to what should constitute the knowledge base of world language teacher education. Interestingly enough, neither ACTFL/NCATE or TESOL/NCATE Professional Standards for Teacher Preparation have a stand alone standard that makes the case for meaningful integration of technology in the field. For the purpose of this presentation, I will provide an overview of CK and PCK as they pertain to WL before looking into the TPACK framework as conceptualized by Mishra & Koheler and sharing some examples with you.
What does it entail knowing a language? What are the contents that we need to achieve in order to be able to communicate in another language? Knowing and being able to communicate in another language entails more than being able to label objects or concepts. When we think about communicating with people who speak another language and belong to a culture different than ours, we need to take into consideration verbal and non-verbal communication, language use in context, etc.
The blending of pedagogy and content knowledge is articulated in WL to empower students to communicate across cultures. According to Richards, WL need to know theories of teaching, possess specific teaching skills, and develop their own pedagogical reasoning framed in their content area. In all, WL teachers need to be well-versed in theories of SLA, general theories of learning, age-appropriate teaching methods and their theoretical underpinnings, in order to empower their students to communicate across linguistic and cultural borders.
Computer Assisted Language Learning has taken an important place in the field of world language education. However, bringing technology into the world language classroom is not enough. As Mishra and Koheler (2006) put it, thoughtful pedagogical uses of technology require development of a complex situated form of knowledge. In the case of WL, we look at how teachers connect in pedagogically sound ways what they know about the target language and its culture to technology. A principled approach to teaching with technology requires understanding of SLA and developmental theories, emerging technologies and how they can advance present knowledge, and linguistic and cultural concepts .
One way to help teachers integrate technology effectively is to focus upon instructional planning. Research indicates that teachers plan instruction primarily according to students’ curriculum content-based learning needs. Plans for lessons, projects, and units are organized and structured with content-based learning activities . Our approach to helping teachers better integrate educational technologies into curriculum-based instruction is based upon the results of this research. Quite simply, we suggest matching technology integration strategies to existing lesson planning methods, rather than asking teachers to plan instruction that exploits the opportunities offered by particular educational technologies.
The new (conceptual) tool that can assist with technology integration is a comprehensive set of learning activity types for each curriculum area, with specific educational technologies that can best support the types of learning done within each activity. We have organized the many learning activity types into subcategories, so that each content-based collection of learning activity types forms an informal taxonomy. Once teachers have determined the learning goals for a particular lesson, project, or unit, they review the activity types for that content area, selecting and combining the learning activities that will best help students achieve the selected learning goals. Teachers may choose from the many educational technologies listed for each learning activity type to support the lesson plan in sensible, practical, and usable ways. We consider this as “grounded” technology integration, since it is based in content, pedagogy, and how teachers plan instruction. I wonder if, in each of the content articles, we should note the focus of the particular articles but also make reference to the other content articles as well?
The process of learning to communicate in a foreign language involves three modes of communication: (a) interpersonal, (b) interpretive, and (c) presentational. Since these communication modes require students to develop multiple skills that span these three modes of communication, we have organized the world languages activity types into five genres that address different skills : (a) listening, (b) speaking, (c) reading, (d) writing, and (e) viewing. Currently, we have identified 56 different activity types for world languages teaching and learning. Due to space constrains, we can’t share all of them in this article; however, readers can find the complete taxonomies on the Activity Types Wiki (http://activitytypes.wmwikis.net). The tables below provide examples of activity types in each of the five genres with a brief description and illustrations of the technologies that can be used to support each one. I don't know if these changes are any better. I was just trying to more clearly tie the 3 modes with the 5 genres.
Although each of these activity types could be used independently in a lesson plan, when combined, they offer a myriad of resources to help world language teachers make language learning more efficient and engaging. By combining activity types in a lesson plan, teachers can address the five organizing principles (Communication, Cultures, Connections, Comparisons, and Communities) of the ACTFL National Standards while attending to the three communicative modes (interpersonal, interpretive, and presentational) . The number of activity type combinations will depend on the complexity of the lesson plan/thematic unit and the language proficiency level of the learners. Below is an example of a combination that can be used for all languages in foreign language programs in elementary schools (FLES).
Marcela tpack at_actfl2009-san_diego
The Activity Types Approach: Ensuring Pedagogically Sound WL Integration <ul><li>ACTFL 2009 San Diego, CA </li></ul><ul><li>November 22, 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Marcela van Olphen, Ph. D. </li></ul>COLLEGE OF EDUCATION
What’s in The Knowledge Base of World Language Teacher Education? <ul><li>Knowledge base, standards, & professional organizations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) </li></ul></ul>
Types of Knowledge <ul><li>Content Knowledge (CK) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ knowledge, understanding, skill, and disposition that are to be learned by school children” (Shulman 1987, p.9) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) </li></ul><ul><li>“ represents the blending of content and pedagogy into an understanding of how particular topics, problems, or issues are organized, represented, and adapted to the diverse interests and abilities of learners, and represented for instruction” </li></ul><ul><li>Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) </li></ul><ul><li>“ thoughtful, pedagogical uses of technology require the development of a complex, situated form of knowledge we call Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge” (Mishra & Koeheler, 2006, p. 1017) </li></ul>
Content Knowledge: What’s in Knowing a Language? <ul><li>Subject matter and language proficiency (Richards, 1998 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Language analysis, proficiency, and culture (Lafayette 1993) </li></ul><ul><li>“ ...Includes all the necessary elements that help language learners to communicate both verbally and non-verbally across linguistic and cultural borders.” (van Olphen, 2008) </li></ul>
Pedagogical Content Knowledge: Empowering Students to Communicate across Cultures <ul><li>Theories of teaching, teaching skills, pedagogical reasoning, and contextual knowledge (Richards, 1998) </li></ul><ul><li>What teachers know about teaching the language to empower students to communicate across linguistic and cultural borders (van Olphen, 2008) </li></ul>
Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge: A CALL to Educators <ul><li>Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) </li></ul><ul><li>Thoughtful pedagogical uses of technology require development of a complex situated form of knowledge (Mishra & Koehler, 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>A principled approach to teaching WL with technology requires understanding of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Second language and developmental theories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emerging technologies and how they can advance present knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linguistics and cultural concepts (van Olphen, 2008) </li></ul></ul>
TPACK in World Languages TPCK P SLA, Teaching Methods T Computer Assisted Language Learning C L2 Syntax, Semantics, Pragmatics, Phonology, Culture,
TPACK in Action: Some Examples <ul><li>http://www.slaitresearch.com/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.colby.edu/~bknelson/exercises/ojala/cancion.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.cortland.edu/flteach/usafa/taller.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.cortland.edu/flteach/civ/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.cortland.edu/flteach/usafa/taller.html </li></ul>
Operationalizing TPACK: The Activity Types Approach to Technology Integration <ul><li>Teachers’ instructional planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Curriculum-based </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content-based </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activity-based </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learner-centered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Situated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tends to be systematic or to follow certain routines </li></ul></ul>
Activity Types Taxonomies <ul><li>Comprehensive set of learning activity types for each curriculum area </li></ul><ul><li>Activity types are organized into genres </li></ul><ul><li>Each content-based collection of learning activity types forms an informal taxonomy </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers *first* determine learning goals , *then* choose from the many educational technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Activity Types Wiki ( http://activitytypes.wmwikis.net </li></ul>
World Languages Taxonomy <ul><li>Organized based on necessary skills to communicate in the three modes of communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Listening (7) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speaking (13) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reading (10) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Writing (21) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Viewing (5) </li></ul></ul>
World Languages Activity Types: Listening Activity Type Brief Description Possible Technologies Listen to a story Students listen to a story written and read aloud in L2. CD; Web; YouTube Listen to a broadcast Students listen to a broadcast in L2 (e.g., radio, television, news, performance). Web radio; YouTube
World Languages Activity Types: Speaking Activity Type Brief Description Possible Technologies Create a audio/video recording Students create a recording (e.g., a commercial for an invented or real product; “how to do it” demonstrations; a song or rap). Audio recording/ video recording; podcast Have an informal debate Students debate an issue in L2. Audioconference/ videoconference; audio recording
World Languages Activity Types: Reading Activity Type Brief Description Possible Technologies Read a diary/journal Students read entries from peers’ diaries/journals posted online. Web; blog; wikis Read a comic (e.g. for children; political cartoon) Students read a comic and relate it to the cultural and/or political reality/realities represented (e.g., “Mafalda,” “Maitena,” “Asterix,” “Ramón”). Web
World Languages Activity Types: Writing Activity Type Brief Description Possible Technologies Create a comic Students create a comic strip to apply functions, culture, grammar, and/or vocabulary related to a given topic. Word processor; drawing program; comic creation software; Photoshop Create a newspaper/newsletter/news magazine/brochure Students synthesize information from textbooks, encyclopedias, and/or websites and develop a print-based or electronic periodical. Word processor; desktop publishing software; Web authoring software; wiki
World Languages Activity Types: Viewing Activity Type Brief Description Possible Technologies Watch a performance Students attend a live performance or watch a recorded event (e.g., DVD of Ballet Folklórico de México, concert, play). Web; DVD; YouTube; streaming video View an exhibit Students take physical or virtual field trips (e.g., to an art museum, cultural artifacts, other students’ works, school exhibition). Web; Web-based virtual fieldtrip; videoconference
Combining Activity Types “Our Home and Class Dictionary” Activity Type Possible Technologies Label objects Word processor; drawing program; concept mapping software Define terms Word processor; concept mapping software, wiki Create an Illustration accompanied by text Drawing software; concept mapping software; presentation software Create a book Word processor; drawing software; presentation software; Web authoring software
Conclusion <ul><li>TPACK provides a framework that </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is meaningful and pedagogically sound </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offers a blueprint for teacher education programs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Activity Types offer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A grounded approach to technology integration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A non-technocentric, content-based, activity-centered, and student-centered approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A pedagogy-driven means to integration of technology </li></ul></ul>